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Annals of Shawnee Methodist Mission and Indian Manual Labor School

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March 3, "Congress passed an act to authorize the President of
the United States to cause a road to he Barked out froa the western
frontier of Missouri to the confines of New Mexico, and authorized the
President to appoint three Commissioners to carry out said act."

B, W. Wilder, The Annals of Kansas, p. 25*
this road was known as the Santa ?e Trail.

Sow, 7, Treaty with the Shawnee Indians residing within the State
of Missouri.

"Art. 1. The Shawnee tribe do, hereby, cede and relinquish to the
United States, all their claim, interest, and title, to lands on which
they settled, near Cape Geredeau, under an authority of the Spanish
government as aforesaid, situate, lying, and being, between the river
St. Come and Cape Geredeau, and bounded on the east by the Mississippi,
and westwardly by White Water.

"Art. 2. It Is further agreed by the contracting parties, that,
in consideration of the cession aforesaid, the United States do, hereby,
agree to give to the Shawnee tribe of Indians, within the state of
Missouri, for themselves, and for those of the same nation, now residing
in Ohio, who say hereafter emigrate to the west of the Mississippi, a
tract of land equal to fifty (50) miles square, situated west of the
state of Missouri, and within the purchase lately eade froa the Osages,
by treaty bearing date of second day of June, 1825, and within the
following boundaries: Commencing at a point (S) two miles northwest of
the southwest corner of the state of Missouri; froa thence, north, (25)


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twenty-five miles; thence, west, (100) on® hundred miles; thence, south,
(ES) twenty-five miles; thence, east, (100) one hundred miles, to the
place of beginning.*

Article 3. It is further stipulated that a deputation of the said
parties of the second part «ay he sent to explore the lands assighned to
tbea in the preceding article; and if the ssae he not acceptable to them,
upon an examination of the same, which shall be had and sad© known to the
superintendent of Indian affairs at St* Louis on or before April next,
who shall, in lieu thereof, assigba to them an equal quantity of land to
be selected on the Kansas River...

Revision of .Indian Treaties. 786, 787.
fhe treaty of 18S4 gives the following boundaries of the Shawnee lands:
'♦Beginning at a point in the western boundary of the state of Missouri,
three miles south of where said boundary crosses the south of Kansas River;
thence continuing south and coinciding with said boundary for twenty-five
wiles; thence due west one hundred and twenty miles; thence due north,
until said line shall intersect the southern boundary of the Kansas
reservation; thence due east, coinciding with the southern boundary of
said reservation, to the termination thereof; thence due north, coinciding
with the eastern boundary of said reservation, to the southern shore of
the Kansas River; thence along said southern shore of said river, to
where a line froa the place of beginning drawn due west shall intersect
the sane—estimated to contain sixteen hundred thousand acres, more or

Ibid. 793.
. Francis and Cyprian Choteau build a trading post on the south
side of the Kansas river, ''about opposite the present site of Muncie."
Andreas, History of Kansas, p. 49.


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April, 1886. "Mississippi k Missouri, both of them above their
Junction higher at this tise, thaa they have been since the recollection
of the Oldest Inhabitants, at Prairie <du Chien the people have beea
obliged to desert the Tows, at Ft Crawford the Troops have bees obliged
to evacuate the Cantonment and go into Tents earn distance baek of the
Fort.— The Missouri has washed away entirely the Trading Establishment
of a Mr« Choteau at the south of the Kansas {or a little below,) The
1st Regiment os the Missouri b&ve bees also obliged to leave their

William Clark, Diary; and Meteorological Record, p. 25.


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May 8. *Cantonment Leavenworth (later Fort Leavenworth) located by
Col. Henry Leavenworth.*

"Kansas Chronology*  Kansas Historical Collection, v. 12, p. 413.

July. Colonel Leavenworth  begins erecting barracks for the canton-

Wilder, op. oit.

Sept. 19. "Daniel Boone of Kentucky, (who tied at St. Charles, Mo.,)
is appointed Farmer for the Kansas Indians, and locates oa the Kaw, ©a
the south liae of the present Jefferson county,"



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m    The Fish band of the Shawnee Indiana move to the ae* reservation.
from Missouri.

"With the fish band is 1828, ease Frederick Choteau, who set up a
trading-house on the south side of the Kansas River immediately north of
the present and above mentioned town of Turner. The mission was given
its location because of the .proximity of the trading-house.*

William S. Connelley, Kansas and Kansans, v. 1, pp. 240, 241.

April 25. "Steam Boat Missouri Departed for Cantonment Leavenworth
with the Troops of the third regiment.*
William Clark, op. elt.

*William Johnson and Jerome C. Berryman were admitted on trial by
the Missouri Conference this year."

W. S. Woodward, Annals of Methodism in, Missouri, p. 64.
ixeerpt stmt by James Anderson, Hay 12, 1938.

Thomas Johnson was minister at Fishing liver, Mo«
Ibid, p. 62.

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July. George Vashon. Agent for tie Shawnees writes to Rev. Greene:

Indian Agency, sear Kansas, July, 1830.

Reverend Sir:— I have tie pleasure bow to make the communication
which I promised, shea I had the happiness of conversing with you at ay
offis©, aa the subject of establishing a mission for the instruetioa of
the children of the hapless portios of the humea family entrusted to my
care ia this part of ay agency, 1 have bees Informed by the Rev, Dodge,
who 1 had the pleasure to meet with a fee days ago, at Harmony Mission,
that the American Board of Foreign Missions will set have it ia their power
to comply with the application, which 1 aads through him, for a missionary
establishment at, or sear, this place, ia lass tiae probably thaa two or
three years, as they have a .great many sore applications thaa they eaa
possible comply with, aad he therefore requested me to solicit your
earnest atteatioa to the subject without delay, Aad I aow have the
pleasure to inform you that I have this day beea requested by Fish, a
Shawnee chief alias Wm. Jackson, a white maa, raised with the Shawnees,
to make applicatioa for the establishment of a missioa among them, for
the edusatioa of their children, aad X most earaestly solicit your at-
teatioa to the subject.

Fish, the Shawnee chief, has a soa by the same of Paskal, who mis
put to school when he was a boyj he eaa speak English very well. Be is
a sober, steady, moral, good maa* He has aa ladiaa family, aad is
ladustriously employed ia fans lag, aad I think he would wake the most
effecieat male Interpreter that could be procured. Captain Shane, the
Shawnee interpreter, has a step-daughter by the name of Nancy, who Is a
widow, with one child; she speaks English -very well, aad is a woman of


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most excellent character, sad I think snob, disposed to be pious. She
has been brought up la the habits of civilised life entirely, froa her
infancy, and I think better qualified for all the various duties of a
fesale interpreter thaa any other that I know of, and if I m sot greatly

mistaken, will devoutly rejoice to ba^s an opportunity of living ©nee
ssore under the influence of the gospel. Captain Shane also has a son,
who has been six months at the Choctaw Academy, ia Kentucky, where 1
aspect he will be again seat.

The vicinity of the smithshop I think would be the most judicious
location that could be selected for the establishment of the missionaries.
Mr. Harmon Davis, the smith for the Indians, is a aaa of most excellent moral
character; ha is t masher of the church, and has a largo and asiable family.
His children are mostly daughters, and nearly all grown. I feci eoaviaesd
that m other situation ia the country possesses as »any advantages. 1
therefore reeoaaetsd it, in the strongest possible- light, as the most
Judicious location that can b© selected.

Major Richard W. Cummings Is appointed to succeed m  in this agency,
and it give* me pleasure to learn that he is a saa of aost excellent
character, and a gentleman of high respectability. I hope he will «•
dhmvev to promote the success of your labors. I as only awaiting his
arrival to proceed via St. Louis to ay new destination, the Cherokee
Agency, west of Arkansas Territory.

Having freely aad fully eomwnnieated what appeared to ay mind at
this ti»» as necessary upon this very interesting subject, perslt ma the
priviXe^ of offering up my fervent prayers to Almighty Cod, for the
influence sad teaching of his Holy Spirit, to guide and direct the labors
of all those who way b© sent to enlighten this hapless portion of the

human family. With seatisseats of the highest respect and esteem, I


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remain, dear air,

Your ssost httabl© Servant,
Geo. Vashon.
Mary Greene, Life of Reverend Jesse Greene, pp. 45, 46.

August 23. "Major John Campbell, the Sab., out now, acting ageat
for the Shawanoes &■ Delawares, &e. Ms requested me, since my arrival,
to eadeavour to establish a School asong the Shawanoes. Shane the
Interpreter, who ia half Indian, malted la the request.  The Methodist
have beea talking of forming aa establishment among them, bat their
project seems not likely to succeed. They have 4oae aothiag yet.

"Today sore than twenty Shawanoes assembled la obedience to a call
of Major Campbell, to whoa I made a pretty lengthy address oa the subject
of a mission belag established among the®. My remarks were seconded by
remarks from Maj. Campbell, and some from Shane. The celebrated Shawanoe
prophet, who was so oft©a heard of la the last war, and was a brother of
Tecumseh, replied briefly to me, rather approbating my doctrlas.

"An aaswer ia form from the tribe is deferred, mat 11 I return from
my tour ia the wilderness.*

Isaac McCoy, Journal, K. S. H. S. vault.

Sept. 7. Thomas Johnson and Miss Sarah T. Davis of Clarksville, Mo.
are united ia marriage.

Joab Spencer, *& Short History of the Shawnee* Methodist Mission,"
Missouri Valley Historical Society, *, 1, p. 447.

Sept. 16. "The fifteenth sessloa of the Missouri Conference was held
ia the City of St. Louis, oomaeneiag on the 16th day of September, 1830.
Bishop Roberts presiding.'*

D. R. M’Anally, Methodism la Missouri, p. 358.


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**f"he conference heeded the call, organized a missionary society,
projected nine missions,'" five white &ad four Indian, two of the latter
being the Shawnee end Kansas.

"When we reflect that in all Missouri there wear* but 2? trawling
preachers, that they received less than S-4C.V0 a year as salary and that
ike organization of this missionary society —Mat a contribution from
sack preacher to carry it law effect, se see & proof of their faith,
love, steal, ana hero lain with few if any parallels."

*ft*v« Thomas Johnson was appointed to the Shawnee mission and Rev.
Wm, Johnson, hie brother, to the Kansas Indian Mission**
Joab Spencer, op. sit, p. 447.

[Preamble of Constitution]

"The members of the Missouri Conference, considering the fpreat
necessity for missionary exertions, and feeling a willingness to aid in
this great work of aeadiafc the gospel among all people, form themselves
into a Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and, adopt
the following constitution;

article 1, This Association shall he called the Missouri Conference
Missionary Society, auxiliary to the Missionary Society of the Methodist
Episcopal Church.

Art. £. The object of this Society is to assist the several Annual
Conferences sure effectually to extend their Missionary labors throughout
the United States and elsewhere.

Art. 3. The business of this Society shall be conducted by s President,
Vice President, Secretary, Treasurer, and seven managers, who shall be

♦Woodward, Annals of 'Methodism, says eight.


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elected at the annual Meeting of the society, except the President, (the
presiding Bishop for tie tiae being President.)

Art. 4. Five members, at all meetings of the Board of Haaagers, and
thirteen at all meetings of the society, shall be a quorum.

Art* 5. The Board shall hare authority to isake by-laws, to regulate
its own proceedings, fill vacancies that saay occur durlag the year, and
shall report its transactions and the state of the funds t© the society
at its annual meetings, a copy of which shall he forwarded to the corses-
poadiag secretary of the Parent Institution as soon as possible.

Art. 6. Each subscriber* paying oae dollar* or upwards, annually,
shall be a member, aad the payment of five dollars* or upwards, at oae
tiae shall constitute a member for life.

Art. 7. fhe funds of this Society, after deductlac accessary
expenses, shall be subject to the order of the Treasurer of the Parent
Institution, for the purposes expressed in the second article of this
constitution** LThe rest of the articles deals with the duties of the
officers, etc.3

Mary Greene* op. eit. pp. 50, 51.

Nov. 20. Messrs. McCallister & Johnson, Methodist preachers,
arrived last night. They propose establishing a school &c. among the
Kanzas. They, had or, sosse others of that society had been here previously
I knew nothing of their intentions until since I spoke to Clark yesterday.
They have, also, a few days since, made proposals to the Shawanoes to
furnish'them with a school, lac. I told them that our Society had Bade
foraal proposals to the Sec. War, a year and a half ago, to establish
a mission asong the Kansas. Also, that 1 had spoken to the Shawanoes on
ay way up, &, expected to receive their answer oa ay way down. But, X


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wished aot to throw any obstacle in their way. They united in supposing
there would be no disagreeing between then? and us—manifested no solicitude
about our propositions, and spake with e good deal of confidence relative
to carrying forward their propositions. I think tfeey will not likely do
much for the Kansas. Their eireussstanees are such as to repairs the
exercise of faith & patient perseverance, in labourious, and often
discouraging operations, rather beyond what we caa expect from that

McCoy, Journal.

Nov. 22. "on the 22d  of November I returned to this place, when

Captain Cornstalk and Captain William Perry chiefs, net s», to deliver
the decision of the nation, which was favorable to the establishment of
the school proposed, these chief a, however, and s»st of the Shawanoes,
consented to my propositions rateer through courtesy, than on account
of a desire really to enjoy the adveutaigee of Education. Like wsst
Indians, aot a»eh advanced la civiilautioa, the/ felt little desire for
schools, and still leas to hear preaching, filth fish sad his party it
warn otherwise; they appreciated in & goad uegree the former, sad were
favorably iaelinad to the latter, and through them i had hope that access
could bs successfully obtained to the «aia body of the as.felon. Bat
unfortunately for ay plan, while I had bean absent in the wilderness,
Reverend Mr. McAllister a^ tne Reverend Thomas Johnson, of the
Methedist denomination viaitod the Shawanoes, ^ad wads similar propositions.
'?he mala body of the Shawanoes objected because, 'thoy said, 'they
Intended to accept the proposals I had mads then.* The result, however,
was an agreement that the Methodist should establish a school with Fish's
party. In this matter I felt a disappointment which I could aot remedy.*
McCoy, History of Baptist Missions, p. 405.


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Nov. 27.   Cash paid Rev. McAllister, for Shawnee Mission, $200.

Fred L. Parrish, The Rise of Methodism la Kansas. p. 15.

December. *Tbe Shawnee wotfc sad begun December 1, 1830."
lb1ft. p. 15.

Thomas Johnson locates the mission on the wooded bluffs of the Kansas
River la the southern part of what 1» sow Wyandotte county about three-
quarters of a nile southeast of tit© present town of Turner.1 fba slta
waa chosen because of Its proxialty to Choteau's trading post.

According to Rev. Jacob Spencer, Thomas Johnson *lsaaadlately began
the erection of a double, two-story lor building, TM« house consisted
of two rooms, distant from each other about fifteen feet, the space
between the rooms bains: used as a ball* the westt room was used for a
school rooa anft chapel., the east oaa aa a general recaption and family
llTln? room. The ascend story was divided into living and sleeping
rooss for employees ana gnasts* Twain when this house was ready for
occupancy, we cannot ascerti?m,  but probably not later than tfee spring
of 1831.*

Joab Spencer,  WA Short History of the Shawnee Methodist Mission*'
Missouri Valiay .Historical Society, v. 1, p. 44?.

Edith Connelley Ross wrote: *It is certain that la 1851 Rev. Thomas
Johnson was in  sharp* of the work there.

"Hera ha breast his bride, aba riding their horse, and tee walking
beside her. They had at first a one-room log cabin, la which they lived--•
cooked and ate and slept. later an adjoining cabin waa built at- a little
distance, following the old southern style of architecture, the roof

1 Rev» John Endacott, "Addresses at the Dedication of the Monustent at
Turner,* K. H. C, v. 14, p. 189.

2 %s. Connelley, Kansas and Kansans, v. 1, p. 240, 241.


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extended over both the eabias sad the areaway between them.*

Edith G. Ross, *The 0ld Shawnee Mission", K. H. C. p. 421..

Dec. 1. William Johnson begins work among the Kansas Indians. Re
writes; "I was able to commence the discharge of my duties oa the 1st.
of December, 1830 and oa the 19th., 1 opeaed a school la a room which
the agent invited me to occupy; bat for three ■oaths the weather was so
extremely cold that I did bat little, there being but few children la
a situation to attend school.*

William Johnson to the Corresponding Secretary of the Missionary
Society of the Methodist Church, June 26th. 1831. found in Aug. 5, page 198,
of *&e Christian Advocate and Journal and Zion‘s Herald. Aug. 5, 1831.
Copy ia vault, K. S. H. S.

Dee. 19. William Johnson opeaed a school for the Kansas Indians.
"Bat for three months'*, he wrote, **the weather was so extremely cold
that I did bat little, there being bat few children ia a situation to
attend school."

Dee. 23. (Cash paid for Shawnee Mission] $200.
Parrish, op. clt. p. 15.

Joab Spencer writes i

"A council ens called to consider the attitude the aatioa should
maintain, whether friendly or ia opposition. After careful deliberation
it was decided to send a committee to hear Brother Johnson preach to
report back to the council, this was done. Brother Johnson selected for
his subject the Creation. The committee listened attentively and reported
to the council that the preacher knew Just what they did, only better ...


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fhe result of this report was that the leading men became friends of
the mission, but no converts it seems were made the first year, as no
members are reported."

Joab Spencer, op. cit. pp. 448, 449.

William G. Scarritt writes:

"The Shawnees doubted the wisdom of it and called a council to
investigate the subject, and as a result of that investigation the
council approved the project and their leaders were staunch and loyal
friends of Thomas Johnson and his work from that time forward.*

"The Story of our Shawnee Mission," The Northeast Johnson
County Herald, July 28, 1932.


[Page 15]




January 13. Richard Cummins writes to Wm. Clark, Supt, of Indian

Delaware and Shawnee Agency
13th January, 1831,
”Genl. William Clark

Supt. of Ind. Affairs—

I have the satisfaetioa to state to you tiiat
agreeable to your wishes expressed ia a letter dated, Sth Sot. 1830, beaded
*» by the Bev. Mr, McAllister &- Taos, Johnson who were appointed to
establish a school among the Shawnee Indians, that we have been able to
get the consent of the Chiefs to establish a school aaoag what is called
the Fish's or Jackson's band— The managers of the institution intend
instructing the Indian Children the arts of mechanism as well as that of
literature* Mr. Johnson is at this time asking arrangeasnts, and I think
shortly after winter breaks will have a school la operation, 1 hare
great hope, that after this school is got into operation, the Indians
within ay Agency will act be so aneh opposed to complying with the
wishes of the Government, in the arts of Civilization.

Your Servt.
Richard f. Cummins
Ind. Agent."
United States Superintendency of Indian Affairs, St. Louis,
v. 6, p. 96. K. S. H. S.

January. Moses Crinter builds a rope ferry across the Kansas river
near Choteau's Trading Station, Charges are fifty cents for passengers
and two dollars for wagons.

Grant W. Harrington, Historic Spots, p. 49.


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Feb. 5. Isaac McCoy writes to Dr. Bolles:

"After X passed the Shawanoes, two methodist ministers authorized by
their Conference sailed the Indians together and repeated their wish to
establish a mission among them. Their Agent, Mr. Cummins, urged them
to accept, and argued that the Method1st were at that moment ready with
money in hand to proceed, and oar labours for them swat he remote, and
were uncertain* The Sub Agent, Mr. Campbell was favorable to us. The
Shawanoes repeated what they had said before, that they were acquainted
with McCoy &o. and they should look to him until he informed them that
he had declined the undertaking**

McCoy Correspondence, v. 19, Mss. Dept., S* S. E,  S.

Feb. 10. "The Methodist missionary, Johnson, has prevailed on Fish,
one of the Shawanoes, to allow him to form an establishment for his party.
Campbell states that this will not affect our affairs In forming en
establishment for Perry's and Cornstalk** band. I fear however that as
that tribe Is small that two missions commencing on the same ground will
not likely prove the best course— We and the Methodist doubtless wish
success to each other's efforts, But I think our means could be more
advantageously applied were we to work where each could have more latitude.
Here among the Shawanoes we could hardly hope to make one good school,
or to obtain one good congregation."

McCoy's Journal, p. 133. Mss. Dept., K. S. H. S.

March 25. [Cash paid by Missionary society for Shawnee mission] $200.
Parrish, op. cit* p. 15.

April 30. McCoy to Johnston Lykins:

"As I went out last year, by a request of Maj. Campbell and Shane,


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I bad a talk with the Shawanoes, in which I offered ilea a mission.

The same day la private, old Fish informed is© that ha desired a
School &c. for his party* aad I told him ha should have It.

"Before I returned, McCallister & Johnson, Methodist, reaewsd
application of the Methodist for permission to establish a mission.
Cummings ssooadad their efforts, Campbell spoke in favor of us. The
Indians said they intended to accept my proposals, as they were pleased
with them, mid had bora knowledge of me in Ohio.

"As I returned I saw Perry aad Cornstalk is behalf of the tribe. They
previously to my first interview, had manifested rather a disinclination
for a sehool. They now stated that they aeeepted ay proposals, and
wished me to understand that the matter on their part was settled.

*Sooa after I returned MeCallister & Johnson, with Cummings to help
them, tried to persuade the Shawanoes to let them la there instead of us.
But the Indians would not consent.

"Afterwards Johnson prevailed on Fish to allow him to establish a
Sehool, &c« for his party, which was net to effect out measures,

•The Board having instructed you to locate, for the present, at the
Shawano* settlements. Ton had better go on to Campbell, who is our friend,
also see Summing who is principal .Agent, and the friend of the Methodist,
they will introduce you to the Indians.

"The Methodists have bean talking of doing something for the Kansas,
but I think la that they will utterly fall."

McCoy Correspondence, MSS. Dept., K. S. H. S.


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July 7. Johnston Lykins arrives at the Agency far the purpose of
establishing & Baptist mission «mm  the Shawnees.

Lykins to McCoy, July 14. 1831, McCoy Letters, K. S. H. S.

July 14. J. Lykins writes to McCoy;

*The Methodist had & school In operatlaa "before the smallpox hrolce
oat, hut bad to suspead it. They exhibit some sensibility oa the subject
of oar cosing, hat hop® It will settle dowa iato good feeling. IftftJ.
Oaaaaias has offered to render any assistance in his power  Bat we Bsust
eosBsenee sooa or as shall lose ground. The Methodist were required to
build furthar off than they wished la order to leave room for as» & the
lads will feel dissatisfied if we do aot eosmeaee.w

July 18. J. Lykins writes to Jotham Meeker:
•The Methodist frleads have opeaad schools for the Shawaees, fe
Kansas & will occupy other places I presume  if we do sot. Something
ought to be done. Something fflast ha done or we shall fail la the back

Johnston Lykins to Jotham Meeker, Meeker Correspondence with
American Baptist Board of Foreign Missions. I. S. 8. S« vault.

July &S. Delilah Lykins writes to her mother:

mMr Johnston (brother to Johnstons of Fayette) has a school about
six miles from as I thiak that we shall try to sead asargaret If they will
take her as Mr. Lykins will aot have a school la operation sooa and la
oar present situation X should prefer having her at school . . .

... Hany of the Indians will aot send to Johnston because they say
we had rather have McCoys school.*

McCoy Correspondence, K. S. H. S. Vault.


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Aug, 8. Treaty with the Shawnee Indians. pjeade as* concluded at
Wapaghkonnetta, Allen County, Ohio,* between Commissioners of the United
States Government and Cbiefs of the Shawnee Indians* *residing at
Wapaghkonnetta aad Hog Creek* in Ohio. The Indians cede their land*
to the United States and resove to leads containing 100,000 acres within
the tract of land granted to the Shawnees of Missouri,

Indian Affairs. Laws and Treaties, v. 2. pp. 331-334,

Aug, 23. "The Small Pox is asoag the Shawonoes fi»-*§*ee$8i two
deaths have occurred. Mr. Lykins and the subagent vaccinated ease hundred*
of thest, and hope to arrest the disease.*
McCoy, Journal.

Aug* 26. Lykins writes to McCoy;

Majr. C--— la still very kind, k favours oar side.  Cummins no doubt
feels friendly to the Methodist hat 1 could not ask him to he acre friendly,
or favourable than be is to us.*

McCoy Correspondence.
Oct. 21. Thomas Johnson returns fro® Conference. Re writes: *After
a fatiguing Journey of nearly 500 nilee, we reached oar field of labor on
the 21st of October. !!e were very discouraged; everything appeared to be
la a state of confusion; the small pox was raging asong different tribes,
aad the Indians flying ia different directions: our school among the
Shawnees, which had been in a flourishing condition the most of the tine
we were absent at conference, was suspended, with the exception of a few
children that boarded with as, aad it was but eeldoa that we could even
see an Indian to get instruction 'in learning the l&aguaga; therefore
there was no possible chase® to preach to then, consequently our spirits
had well sunk within us, for #e felt that we had a full aad heavy year's


[Page 20]



work assigned to as, and had ao tiae to lose. But we learned frost *
littie experience that patience, perseverance and fortitude are essential
qualifications for missionaries; we therefore determined to do the best
we could."

Fr. Thomas Johnson's report to the Corresponding Secretary of
the Missionary Society.
[See December 29, 1831,3

Bee. 25. Rev. Thomas Johnson preaches a Christmas Sermon. la bis
report to the See. of Missionary Society be writes: "i« eolleoted together
a tolerable good congregation of Shawnees last Sabbath, and as it was
Christens day, we endeavored to explain to the* the reason for oar keeping
this day in remembrance. They listened with great solswilty while we
told then of Jesus Christ sowing into the world to save all sura, red «en
as well as white. They informed as afterwards that they would think about
what we told them when they went how.*

[See December 22, 1831.]

Dec. 29* Thomas Johnson’s report to the Corresponding Secretary of
the Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church:

1st. and dear Brother:—fhe tise has rolled round when it becoaes ay
duty to sake known to yon the state and prospects of the aisalons on the
Kansas. If you have received the situates of the Missouri Conference,
(though I have seen no account of this,} you have learned that brother
Ik* Johnson and myself sere appointed to labor together aasong the different
tribes of Indians living on and near the Kansas river, via: the Shawnees,
Delawares, Kansas, Peons, Piankeshaws and Weas. Oar work thus laid off
was called *fhe Missions on the Kansas.* le were instructed to occupy


[Page 21]



a»y pert of tbia work that eight be deeaied mae\  advisable, as It testa thsa
safi is yet eaaeeah&i uncertain «het can fee done.

"After a fatigeiag joar&ey of nearly S00 miles, as reached our field
of labor ea the £lst of October. ¥e wars very K&ch discouraged; everything
appeared to be la t state of confusion; tie aws.ll pax was ragtag satong
different tribes, sad the Indians flyiag la differeat directioae: oar
school asonfe tbe shawnees, which bad beea la a flourishing condition tbe
stoat of tbe time we were abaeat at conference, was suspended, aith the ex-
ception of a few children thai boarded aith us, aad it was bat seldom that
«e could evea see aa ladisa to get instruction la learning tbe' language;
tberefore there was ao possible chance to preach to thee, consequently
oar spirits bad veil sunk withia as, for we felt that we bad a fall aad
heavy year's work assigned to us, aad bad ao tie* to lose* Bat we learned
from a little experience that patience, perseverance and fortitude are
essential qualifications lor missionaries; m  therefore determined to do
the beat we eouid.

Brother William has visited the Kansas tribe, aad stayed a short
season with tbam. He procured aa Indian to aid him ia learniag the
language, aad returned to tbe Shawnee mission, as tbe Kansas were generally
from home. He has aided some ia keeping up the Shawnee school, (as our
teacher has been absent nearly two months oa business,) aad had advanced
considerably ia the laaga&ge, aad expects to be able to preach to them
next summer.

He will set oat for their villages next week, aad a 111 probably spend
the principal part of tbe winter a&ong tbea. They are about seventy miles
from this piece. ft have beea striving to get oar houses prepared for
winter, aad oolleotiag provisions for tbe year.


[Page 22]



fas a&ail pox fcas subsided, and the Indians are bo* returning hose.
Our prospects sees to brighten s little. There are accessions to our
Shawnee school almost every day, and this children learn very veil* Is
have instructed la this school upwards of thirty Indian children, though
not all at the same time, fhore is but little doubt but we shall have
at this establishment as B&ny as we can essaage advantageously, aM we hops
before the year closes, to have schools ia operation saoog the 4iffereat
tribes in our charge.

But the instructing of children alone does not satisfy us; this*
tttoaga of groat importance, is only s secondly object. Our great anxiety
is to find assess to those who ere capable of understanding the natara
and enjoying the Influence of our holy religion; but fees* our vey is hedge*
up yet, for mat of suitable interpreters but we are endeavoring to
improve every moment we can get in learning thr language ourselves.
Brother William is learning the Kansas., and 1 am learning the Shawnee,
■as with knowledge of these two languages, we can converse and preach to
six or eight different tribes of these northwestern Indians.

We collected together a tolerably good congregation of Shawnees last
Sabbath, and as it was Christmas day, we endeavored to explain to than
the reason for our keeping this day in remembrance. fbey listened with
great solemnity «&12a we told thee of Jesus Christ coming into taa world
to save  all men, red Ben as well as white. They informed as afterwards
that they would thiols: about what ue told thea ssbea they went boas, 1
mist conclude, for I have already lengthened oat this communication beyond
what I intended*

it hope that the friends of missions la general will not fail to
pray that the great Head,  of fee Church way be vim ua in our infant efforts
to enter this vast missionary field among the numerous tribes of North-


[Page 23]



western Indians.    I rewaia yearn, in. the bonds of a peaceful Gospel*

Thos. Johnson.

December 29» 1831.

[From the New York "Christian Advocate and Journal and .Zion’s
Herald,'* volume VI, page 94, February 10, 1832.]
Copy in vault, K. S. H. S.

"The first report of the Missouri Conference Missionary Society in

1881 stated! that the work bad been goiaf on ose year and that there was
a seho«l started with seventeen papile.*

'Fred Louis Parrish, The Rise of Methodism In Kansas., pp. 14, 15.


[Page 24]




Jan. 17* '"One small band of Shawanoes have the Methodist school
among them. The residue and larger part still desire and expect us to
afford the® a school."

McCoy*a Journal.

Feb. 8. Cantonment Leavenworth renamed Fort Leavenworth.
"Kansas Chronology,** K« H. C, v. 12, p. 407.

Feb. 19. "Mr Wm. Johnson (Math Misry) has located a school near

Andersans town on Kansas River for the Dels, which they expect to put

Into operation,  & are about to resume their efforts at Kansas Agency,

in behalf of Kan. Ind."

Lykins to McCoy, McCoy Correspondence, K. S. H. S.

See also Lutz-'s article, Historical Collection, v. 9, p. 203.

May 14. Report of Committees on Boundaries at the General Conference:
"Missouri Conference shall include the state of Missouri, the Indian
Mission and Arkansas Territory."

General Conference Journals. 1798-1836, p. 389.

July 11. Col. Alexander S. Johnson, son of Thomas Johnson, is
born at Shawnee Mission in Wyandotte county.

J. J. Lutz, **The Methodist Missions among the Indian Tribes

in Kansas", K. E.  C. v, 9, p. 168.

July 20. About $200 expended on missions in Kansas through the

order of Bishop Roberts.

Parrish, op. cit. p. 15.

July 28.    "Under date of July 28, 1832, Thomas Johnson reported


[Page 25]



forty native children among the Shawnees, with nineteen conversions on
the previous Sunday. A Method let Society of forty members was foisted
under the leadership of their chief Fish."

f. L. Parrish, op. cit. p. 15, {Reference, N. Y. Christian

Advocate and Zion's Herald, Aug* 31, 1832.}

Sept. 17. The Missouri Conference meets at Pilot Grove, Mo. At
this conference "the Kansas Indian Missions were formed into a separate
district, called the Indian Mission district, and Thomas Johnson appointed
superintendent «*

*A% the conference of 1822 the first-fruits of the two missions were
reported by the Johnsons, nine white and thirty-one Indian members,
which was considered an encouraging beginning; so that the sum of $4800
was appropriated that year to the Indian Missions within the bounds of
the conference.* Edward T. Peery was appointed to the Shawnee Mission
and school.

J, J, Lutz, op. cit. p. 168, 225.

At this conference William Johnson was sent to the Delaware mission.
M'Anally, Methodism in Missouri, p. 630.

Oct £0. The Wapaghkonnetta band of Shawnee Indians leave Ohio for
their new home in Kaasas, arriving there about Christmas time.
Henry Harvey, History of the Shawnee Indians, p. 230.

     __________   Charles Bluejacket comes to Kansas.
J. J. Lutz, op. cit. p. 183.


[Page 26]




April 21. Maxmilian, Prince of Wied, and his party pass Choteau(e
trading post, and the next day arrive at Cantonment Leavenworth. He
writes, *fe were stopped at this place, and oar vessel searched for
brandy, the importation of which, into the Indian Territory, is prohihited;
they would scarcely permit us to take a small portion to preserve our
specialties of natural history."

Thwait's, Early Western Travels, v. 22, p. 254,

May 12. McCoy writes to Dr. Bolles: "The Prophet has between
two and three hundred followers who abstain fro* ardent spirits, pray
night and sioraiag, and have frequent public services for preaching, &o.
fheir disposition and Banner throughout are very encouraging to missionary
labors among thes. The Methodist are exerting every nerve to acquire
an ascendency over them. They net them on the road before they reached
their neighborhood and have stuck to thsa pretty stash, ever since and,
I understand, had at some ttes, given the prophet a written science to

McCoy’s Correspondence, K* S. H. S. MSS. .-Sept.

June 1* The Hog Creek band of Shawnees, under the leadership of
Joseph Parks, leaves Ohio for their new boss in Kansas. They reach the

Kansas liver September 15.

MSS. relating to Shawnees of Ohio, MSS. Dept* K. S. H. S.

August. Bishop Scale on his way to the Missouri conference visits
the Shawnee Mission, le is determined to establish two additional
stations, one asong the Peorias and one aaong the Kickapoos.

J. J. Lutz, "Methodist Missions among the Indians", K.H.C.,

v. 9, p. 168,


[Page 27]



Aug. 14.    The above Constitution of tiie Missionary Society of The
M. E. Church for the Indian Mission District, Auxiliary to the Missionary

Society of the Missouri Jaiaual Conference was adopted Aug. 14, 1885.
Tfce following persons were elected to office:
E T Peery President
Rohert Dunlap   Vice President

James Conner   Secretary
Wm Johnson   Treasurer

S. Board           ]
H. Clemmons  ]
Mrs. Dunlap    ]           Managers.
Mrs. Peery       ]
S T Johnston   ]

Recording Stewards Book for Shawnee

Mission, MSS. Dept., K. S. H. S,


[Page 28]



"Bishop Soule had furnished himself with a pair of beautiful
Canadian ponies and what he sailed a 'Jersey* wagon, in which he was
Baking this episcopal tour of the West.**

M'Anally, History of Methodism in Missouri, p. 433.

Sept. 4. The Conference convenes at Mountain-Spring camp-ground,
Arkansas. At this conference William Johnson was assigned to the Shawnee
Mission and Thomas Johnson was reappointed Superintendent of the Indian
Mission District.

Two new missions were established, one aaong the Peorias to which
Nathan Talbott was assigned, and the other asiong the Kickapoos with
Jerome Berryman in charge.

Ibid.; also J. J. Lutz, op. elt. p. 226.

Oct. 5* Reverend Jotham Meeker arrives at the Shawnee Baptist
Mission bringing with his frost Cincinnati a printing press* Be writes:
"5. Visit Mission Souse. Find Br'n Merrill, Evans, and French, and
Sister M. and E. Are heartily welcome by all the brethren and sisters.*'

Meeker, Journal.

Nov. 13. The great meteoric shower of 1833 fell.*

M'Anally, op. olt. p. 438.

Jotham Meeker writes in his Journal; "Rose at 5 oclock, and
witnessed a great phenomenon in the skies, a constant flying of in-
numerable meteors. I learn frost others that it commenced about midnight.
The Indians are much alarmed about it."

Dec. 18. “Tbe Chief has informed Mr. Blanchard that while the latter
was absent aiding Mr,  Merrill in his rassoval to the Platt, he was informed


[Page 29]



that Mr. Blanchard would not reside assoag the Delawares any sore. Also
he says tbat a few toys since. Mr. Johnson, Methodist missionary
proposed to establish a sehoal at his place, which is the place occupied
by Mr. Blanchard, and at which we desire to locate a school. He often
find missionaries of different denominations establishing missions In
the seas tribe, but I have not before heard of one endeavouring to
supplant another in the wry place."

McCoy, Journal, typed copy, p. 329, 330. K. S. H. S.


[Page 30]




Feb. 6. *fhe Methodist are still endeavoring to persuade Nah Komen,

Chief of Delaware* at oar preaching place (withia half a aile) to allow

thea to opea a sebool there. This we deem exceedingly Improper Is tbea

bat, we have Bade ao open complaint. It la iatimated that they tett

favour  la
offered to plow the field of the Chief, & to stake him sea* other aatter

if he will consent to their opeaiag a school for then. .

McCoy Journal, p. S3'?. & S. E. S.

Feb. 17. Thomas Johnson writes to Reverend Greene:
Sear Bro. Greene; - 1© have great exeiteaeat is the Indian country;
soaa of the leadlag isea of the Shawnee Nation have lately surrendered
their prejudices; twelve or fourteen have lately joined oar society.
The Peori Nation has submitted to the yoke of Christ; forty of them
Joiaed last Sabbath week. Write to us aad let us fcaow wbea you will
eoae to see as. I will try to be at home.
Yours ia haste,

Thomas Johnson.
Mary Greene, op. oit. p. 47.

March 2l, Jotham Meeker writes; w0oatplete the first Indian book
la the Territory, containing 24 pages besides cover.*
Meeker Mary.

June 15. Conference of Indians. See June 18, 1834.

June 16. "Rev. Thomas Johnson visits us. He proposes asking Shawnee
books iamedlately according to oar aew orthography, aad wishes as to
priat them.*



[Page 30a]


30 a


April 29« Jason lee visited the Shawnee mission. t'hile there he wrote:
Dear ftrother:—Since 1 reached St. Louis, 1 have been constantly eaployed
la aaklng preparation for our departure fro® the land of civilization. 1M
««ra anther lata in arriviag at Independence, fceaee X have been so much engaged
that X nave not baan able to write one latter since ay arrival. Altnough we
exerted ourselves to the ataost after reaching St. Louis, It was not until
we were on the eve of departure from Independence that we were successful in
getting a mm to go with as. X conversed with aany traders and friends, and
it was the unaniaoaa opinion that we could not succeed in getting oar goods
ap the Columbia without excessive difficulty with less than five aen, and mm
cannot be obtained there without paying an exhorbltant price; we have therefore
engaged two, so that our company now consists of five. One [Edwards] goes
at the aaae price as a missionary. He is a genteel, sell Informed young Ban,
and is a valuable acquisition to our coaapny. The other [Walker] is not a
professor of religion, hut nap a desire to do good, and is just such a aaa as
we need to assist as, being acquainted with Indian life, and the aode of
travailing we have to pursue. We are all well equipped; »ad though the captain
was very aueh afraid we should not get prepared, yet we have, hisself being
Judge, a better selection of aniaals than any other warn in the company, and
have paid little acre for then, There are seas tmry agreeable sea in the
company, but aoat are horribly profane. The company are about eighteen Mies
ahead of ae and Brother Edwards, but we start early in the morning for the

We are all in good health and spirits, for ay own part, X rejoice very
aach that the tiae has eoae for oar departure. I do not dread the Journey at
all. Blessed be «lod, I aa borne above every fma. I have tla© for no sore
at present, aire ay love to all who enquire. Fray for us.

Your® io.,
Shawnee mission, Apr. 29, 1834                                     Jason Lee.


[Page 31]



June 18. "The Methodist Missionaries have been until <iaite recently

opposed to our mots of teachlag aad printlag, aad used their influence

against it. About a year ago they formed a syllabic alefeabe* similar

o                                                                                                    so that

to Guess* Cher kee Alphabet, which they have taught the Shawnees, «a*4i

perhaps 50, or upwards besides children, read it. It has now been only

2 l/S months since the first Shawnee book was printed—the Inds. seem so

well pleased with it that on last Sabbath, the 15th last., all tks-Sm

who have learnt to read according to the syllable plan, together with all

the Methodist lads, met at the Methodist mission house, and In public

council decided to drop their mode of writing, and to adopt ours. On

Monday, the jgr4a«4pa4 Superintendent Rev. Thomas Johnson called on us to

inquire whether or not we eaa print a hook for them about five weeks

hence, on what terms ate. I have consulted with the brethren on they

subject, and our conclusion is to prist for them at least their first

hook, and charge the usual price for printing. Se'shall be pleased to

hear from the Beard on this subject."

J. Meeker to Lucius Bolles, Cor. Sec. of the Bap. Bi* of for.

Mis. Meeker Correspondence with the Am. Bap, Board of foreign

Missions, K. s. H. S.

July 21. Thomas Johnson gives the following report of the .Shawnee
Mission to Isaac McCoy;

The Rev. Wm. Johnson has charge of the Shawnee Mission and school as
preacher and teacher, he is an ordained elder, he is married and his wife
assists him in the school aad my wife also assists in the instruction of
the girls In domestic business.

Members in Society— Seventy-four native members aad three whites—
forty of the native members have passed the regular examination of the


[Page 32]



church, give evidence of a change of heart and have received the ordinance
of Baptism* The others have not yet passed the regular examination hat

are regular ia their attendance «i the means of grace*

Number of native scholars— Them are twenty-seven native children
in regular attendance in the Shawnee school at present, all pledged for
prompt attendance for one year* There are others who attend occasionally
hut we have declined acknowledging any as scholars who do not come under
a pledge to attend at least one year regularly.*

McCoy (Correspondence. K. S. H. S. vault.

July 25, S6. General conference of the Missionaries of the  denom-
inations held at the Baptist Shawnee Mission. Missionaries present were,

Mr. Berryman, Peery, Johnson, Methodist; Messrs. McCoy, Lykins, Meeker,
Simmerwell and Blanchard, Baptist; Messrs. Pixley, Kerr and Dunbar,

K. H. C. 14, p. 577.

B& number of resolutions passed harmoniously, hut at the close some
disagreeable contentions arose* Hext meeting is to he held at the

Methodist Shawnee Mission House on the 8d Friday of next lay.*
Meeker Journal.
Aug.« 16. Meeker mentions that h© has printed for Thomas Johnson

800 copies of alphabet and monosyllables*
Meeker*® Diary.

Summer of 1834. The Friends establish a misslorn esosg the Shawnees*
Andreas, v. 1, p. 66.

Ceo. 5. This morning Mr. and  Mrs. Berryman start for Kentucky.
Simmerwell Diary, 1833-1837, K. S. H. S. vault.


[Page 33]



Dec. 6. "This awning Rev. Thomas Johnson arrived from the Shawnee
Methodist Mission station intending to preaea at the Garrison next day."
Simmerwell Diary.


[Page 34]



Jan. 1. Report ia Annual Register.
*The Shawanoes reside ia the northeastern corner of their aouatry,

the lino of Missouri, aad near the Kanzaa river.

"Generally, their dweillags are aeat hewed log cabins, erected with
their owra heads; and within them ia a small amount of furniture. Their
fields are enclosed with rail fences, and are sufficiently large to yield

corn aad culinary vegetables plentifully, they keep cattle aad

>, work oxen, and use horses for draught; aad owa sows plows, waggons,
aad carts.

Principal Chiefs.-•-John Perry aad William Perry.

Other Ohiefs.—Capt. Black Feather. Little Fox, Henry Clay, Letho.

■Sub-Agent.-—M. G. Clark.

Interpreter.—Charles Shane.

Blacksmith.—L. Jones, compensation, $480 pr. an.*

Striker.'------------                         *    $240 *

Methodist Mission,
Under the direction of the Missouri Conference.

Missionaries.*—.Rev. Thomas Johnson, Mrs. Johnson, Rev. William
Johnson, Mrs. Johnson*

School.—Number of scholars, 27; supported in part by the Mission,
aad ia part by their parents.

The Church worships ia the school house•

Hopeful aative converts ia the Church, 40, )

Other natives        *      *     34*)   78

White persona        "      *           4, )

Isaac McCoy, The Annual Register of Indian Affairs, 1835,
pp. 23, 24.


[Page 35]



Jan* 9*    "Agree to prist book for Mr. Johnson**
Meeker Journal.

Jan, 15* “Compose and make reedy for the Press the cover for An.
Register* Rev. Thos. Johnson brings the first form of Ms 1st Shawnee



Jan. 20* "Set types on Rev. Thos* Johnson's Shawnee book**

Jan. 23. "fork off first for® of Johnson's Shawnee book.**

Jan. 28. **Bssid© our labors sjwt&g the Indians, w» preach statedly
at Fort Leavenworth, at tbe special request of the officers la eojmand
of that post, Col. Dodge. I think the prospects for doing good here Is

Jerome» C. Berryman letter to N.Y. Christian Advocate, March 13,
1835. copy of letter in K. S* H. S* vault.
[Berryman Is at Kickapoo Mission at this time.]

Feb* 3* **»ork off cover, and finish the Methodist Shawnee 1st
book. 32 pages. 500 copies."

Meeker Diary.
Fob. 24. "Prist the first So. of the Shawnee Sun.*

Meeker op. clt.

McCoy writes of this on Marsh 22: The first number of a Semi
monthly News paper* only a qmrter sheet, in the Shawanoe language,
written upon the new System, entitled the 'Shawanoe Sun»» Edited by


[Page 36]



.Mr. Lykins, Issued froa the press of Mr. Meeker un the 1st day of this
month (March)

"This is the first newspaper la Indian, from tin Indian Territory.
It is eat ire ly for the reading of the Indians. «lnd ja the first ever
printed solely for tae use of Indians* ffh© Cherokee Phoenix', is
part Indian, and part 'English.

"The paper lias been received with great avidity among the Shawanoes.
Between one hundred & two hundred of them, aostly adults, are capable
of reading it.w

McCoy, Journal.

June 16, Thomas Johnson writes t  MThe Shawnee Mission is in a
prosperous condition, and is likely to accomplish aueh good in this nation.
The school and society are both large and regular in attendance  The
Mechanic shop is opened at this place, and the Indians appear to he
pleased with the idea of their hoys becoming mechanics. A considerable
nusber of the* are engaged as regular apprentices.**

N.Y. Christian Advocate, July 31, 1835. copy of letter in

vault, K, S,  H. S.

July 4. Rev, John Dunbar, The Presbyterian Missionary visits

Shawnee Mission. He writes: "They have gathered.a church and have- a
flourishing school. This mission is is an interesting state. One of the
principal chiefs I was informed has recently become a convert. He is
very ssuch opposed by the other chiefs. They have threatened to kill him,
hut he still continues steadfast in the faith,*

Fr©» the Journal of John Dunbar, K» H« C«, v. 14, p* 587.

Aug, 6. "At the Shawnee Mission the aspect is still more flattering,


[Page 37]



the school belag large, and soae of the puplie are studying grammar. The

. well
children look neat and converse im oar language.

M’Anally, Methodism in Missouri, p. 461«

Sept. 10. the annual conference seat* at Arrow Rock, Mo, At this

session George C. Light, Andrew Monroe, Thomas Johnson, aM Jesse Greene
were chosen delegates to the General conference to be held la Cincinnati
in May 1836.

M. Anally, Life and Time of William Patton. 1858, p. 178.

Rev. Wm. Ketron was appointed missionary to the Shawnees, and
William Johnson was sent to the Kanzas mission.
J. J. Lutz, op. oit. p. 226.

Oct. 6* Purchase oar winter shoes at Meth. Mission.
Meeker, Journal.

Dec, 17.   Thomas Johnson sends an argent call for four teachers.
F. L. Parrish, op. ait, p,  16.


[Page 38]




Jan. 1* Report of the Methodist Shawnee Mission.

''Dads? the patronage of the Miss. Soc. of the M. E. Ch.

Originated in 1830.

Missionaries—Rev. William Ketron, Mrs..  Ketron, Mrs. Miller, Rev.
David-G. Gregory* Mrs. Gregory.

School—34 scholars. Instructed ia 'English gratuitously. 19 are
supported fey the alasion, and live ia the mission family. The residue
receive one «e*l a day at the mission house, and otherwise are supported
hy their parents. Five of thest are learning the Cabinet business, and
two are learning the business of shoemaking.

The missionaries have instructed soma of the Shawanoes to read ia
their satire language; aad soae of these have beeoaa teachers of others.
Instruction in Indian is systematically Biased under the immediate notice
of native Class leaders of the Church.

k saall hook ia the Shawano* language, on religious subjects,
embracing some hpeaa, has been published by the missionaries, and intro-
duced aaioag the people of their charge sith good effect.

Church—Native Church Members, 105)

} In all, 110.
White   “     *     5)

J^aoag %'mm native Church members are ao»e who take active part ia

the perfoisw&oa of public religion* exercises, pray in their families, &o.

Isaac McCoy, Annual Register of Indian Affairs. V. 2, pp. 24, 25.

May. "In aoaardaaee with the memorial sent to the General Conference,
the Missouri Conference was divided, by the setting off of Arkansas into
a separate Conference, leaving the boundaries of the Missouri Conference
as follows; 'The Missouri Conference shall include the State of Missouri


[Page 39]



and tfeat part of the Missouri Territory wbien lies north of the
Cherokee line.**

M’Anally, Methodism in Missouri p. 488. also General
Conference Journal, 1796-1836, p. 470.

July 15.   *Ride among the Shawnees,«t    Visit the Methodist Mission.

Distribute upwards of fifty book* among the Indians, besides newspapers.*
Meeker, Diary, typed copy* p. 82.

Nov.    Prophet Tensqp (atmsa), brother of Tecumseh-, dies.
J. J. Latz, op. oil, p. 164, foot note.

Deo. 1.   Report of Methodist Schools*

Teachers                      Pupils

Shawnees           9                                 44

Delawares         2                                  19

Peories             2                                   16

Kickapoos         2                                   6

Wyandots          2                                 40

Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs. 1858-1839, p. 404,


[Page 40]




Apr. 11.    "I was sorry to find a letter to tm fro* Rev. Thos. Johnson
Superintendent of Methodist Indian missions, and another from Rev. J.C.
Berryman, missionary to the Kickapoos, in which they indulge In low,
vulgar, and ungenerous abuse,   ify offense &s& fetes an article or tw is
the Annual Register of Indian Affairs, in which they thought I had not
done the Methodist sufficient* Credit— See the whole correspondence on

McCoy’s Journal.

May 13.   Thomas Johnson writes; wAtet the school committee at the
Shawnee Mission to organize our school for auottoir year.    All appear to
act in harmony, and sustain the school.   It is, certainly, a great help
la an Indian, school when «e can get a judicious committee of natives to
take the responsibility of sinking the rules for the government of the
Indian children, and then to see that the children attend the school.*
J". J. Lutz, op. oit« p. 199 , quoting from journal of Thomas

May 14•   *Mr. J. G- Pratt and Mrs. Pratt from Massachusetts, uadar

appointment of the board, arrived.   Mr. Pratt wae a printer, and esse
to take ofearge of the printing office, in plae& of Mr. Meeker, who was
preparisig to settle as&ng the Ottawas.*

McCoy, History of Baptist Missions, p. 517.

May.   Report of Shawnee Methodist Mission.

*In conformity with treaty stipulations, Government has erected for
than a saw and grist sill; the cost of -which, Ms been about $8000.

Principal Chief, John Perry, Other Chiefs, Black Feather, Sa-mau-kau,


[Image 41]



Little Fox, Letho, and Black Hoof.

Agent, Richard W. Cummins entitled Agent for the northern Indian
Agency. Compensation $1500 per annum.  Agency house near the line of
the state of Missouri* seven miles south of the Missouri river*

1st* Blacksmith,                                  Comp. $480 per an.

Asst.   do.                                            *    240 "

2d. Blacksmith, William Donelson, ■                     480   *     *

Asst.       do.                                                “          240   *              “

Methodist Mission.

Under *he patronage of the Mis. Soc. of the M.E. Church.

Originated ia 1830.
Missionaries.—Rev. Thomas Johnson, Mrs. Johnson, Rev. N. T* Shaler,
Rev. D» G. Gregory, Mr. Holland.

School.— 35 scholars.    Instructed in English gratuitously.    19
are supported hy the mission, and live In the mission family.   Tim residue
receive one nasi a day at the mission house, and otherwise ere supported
fey their parents.    Six of the© are learning the cabinet asking business;
sad two are learning the business of shoe making*

Tits Missionaries have last roc ted suae of the Shawanoes to read la
their native language; aad some of these have become teachers of others*
Instruction ia Indian is systematically placed under the Immediate notice
of native class leaders of the Church.

A. snail hook la the Shawanoe language, oa religious subjects,
embracing sose hymns, has been published by the missionaries, sad intro-
duced among the people of their oh«x*je with good effect.

Church.— Native Church members,     80)

     )      86

White      *                 "        6)

Annual Register, No. 3, 1837, pp. 27, 28..


[Page 42]



October 11. "On the eleventh day of October, 1837» 1 reached oar

mission station in the Shawnee Nation, to engage In t&« new worSr of
teaching the Indian yoath and instructing the older Indians ia the
doctrines of Christianity.*

Lorenzo Waugh, Autobiography. p. 117,

•Prior to this tins, one of the miM tromhlss ia the discipline of

the children ia school grew out of the oft-repeated suspicion warn clamor
on the part of individual Indians sad families, that their children were

aot treated as well es ©osa others, or that they did not leers so well,
etc., and so these would snaoy the teachers. To roaedy this, we got
the Chiefs all together, and laid the setter properly hefore thea*
Showing tfcta that soks would not le&ra ee well as others, and that some
were more disposed to te wrong than otfcer?, sad ®o had to he treated
accordingly, even If they were the Chief's children. Aral kneviag the
Chief* e authority was absolute with the Indians, we proposed to sake
the Chiefs t Heart of Supervisors, to whom all complainants should go;
the masses of the Indians to here nothing to do ehoat the school, only
to send their children promptly, the Chiefs to have the sole right to
settle asattars with the teachers. This elan worfced litee a charm, and w»
newer had any sow difflenity in that ditaction while I remained with

Ibid. 118.

Dec. 1. Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs*

Shawnee Methodist Mission has 44 pupils and three teachers.

Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1835-1839, p. 601 ia 1837.

• "One of the wast convincing proofs of the location of the log mission
in Wyandotte county is the statement of Rev. John G. Pratt, who with his


[Page 43]



wife came to the Shawnee mission from Boston in 1837. Mot finding any
conveniences for keeping his papers, except laying them on shelves about
the room, he went to Westport to buy a suitable desk. But he found no
furniture store nor any lumber to sake a desk, so he was advised to go
the Johnson's Mission and Manual Labor School, near Choteau’s Trading
Post, and get a desk made.

On reaching the mission Johnson told him they had no lumber, but if
he could take a bargain with the Indian boys of the school, they had a
shipsaw, with which the lumber could be sawed fro® one of the trees
standing near by, the lumber kiln-dried and made into a desk. Pratt
was asked which he preferred—oak, walnut or cherry. A cherry tree
was selected, and these Indian boys, with Graham Rogers as foreman,
made the first office desk ewer made in Kansas, and when Rev. J* G. Pratt
died a few years ago the Kansas State Historical Society came and got
the desk and placed it in their archives at the state capitol at Topeka—
a mute but substantial witness of the skill of the Indian boys In the
first manual labor school***

Address of Mr. E. F» Heisler, "How This Mission Site Was Lost,
and How Recovered**, K. H. c. ■ v. 14 p« 194 •


[Page 44]



1838 •

April 13, **Xt was mentioned that Brother Johnson, Presiding Elder
and Superintendent of the Shawnee Mission, with en Indian of that nation,
vq&14 attend oar anniversary. 4 committee was ordered to be appointed
to take charge of the Missionary Lyceum; Nathan Bangs, David M. Reese
and George Color, constitute tbe Committee.'

Records of tbe board of managers of tbe missionary soeiety of
tbe 1, 1. Church. Typed copy in tbe vault of K. S. H. S.

May 16. "Certain documents from the Shawnee Mission having been
read, they were oa motion referred to a Committee of five, vis., Rev.

Dr. Bangs, Rev. Br. Lackey, Joseph Smith, Stephen Dando, aad B. Disbrow."

May 30. wDr. Bangs, from the committee appointed at the last meeting,
made the following report, which was adopted:

*fhe committee appointed to take into consideration certain documents
presented to the board of Managers respecting the necessity and expediency
of establishing a large central school for the benefit of Indian children
and youth north of the Cherokee line, southwest of the Missouri River
and east of the Rocky Mountains, have had the same under consideration,
and beg leave to present the following as the result of their deliberations.

*For several years past our Missionaries have had schools upon a
small seals among the Shawnees and other tribes of Indians in that region
of country who have become in part christianized, and though these schools
have exerted a salutary influence upon those who have attended them, yet,
being small, and divided among so many distant tribes, they are necessarily
limited in their influence, expensive in their support, as well as
difficult of management.


[Page 45]



♦It appears, moreover, that this being a part of the country ceded
by the United States to the Indians for the perpetual possession, other
tribes are moving into the neighborhood, to whom it is desirable to
impart the benefits of religions, moral, and intellectual, as well as
mechanical and agricultural instruction, that they may in due time he
exalted to the benefits and immunities of a Christian and civilized
community, and this is the most likely to be accomplished by the employ-
ment of suitable and efficient means for the education of their children
and youth.

•from the humane policy of the general government of the United
States, in the efforts they made to rescue the savages of our wilderness
from their state of barbarism, by means of schools, we have reason to
believe, if it be determined to establish a school of a character con-
templated in the documents above referred to, that pecuniary means may
be obtained from the government to carry the plan into effect, and also
an annuity for Its support from year to year.

•Under these views and impressions, the committee submit the following
resolutions for the concurrence of the board.

♦Resolved, 1, That it be and hereby Is recommended to the Missouri
Annual Conference to adopt such measures as they may consider suitable for
the establishment of a central manual labor school for the special benefit
of Indian children and youth, in such place and under such regulations as
they may judge most fit and proper.

♦Resolved, 2, That whenever the said conference shall so resolve,
this board pledge themselves to cooperate with them In carrying the
plan into effect, provided that a sum not exceeding ten thousand dollars
shall be drawn from the Treasury of the Missionary society of the Methodist
Episcopal Church for any one year, for the support of the school so


[Image 46]




»Besolved» 3, That with a view to secure the aid of the government
of the United States la furnishing the pecuniary means necessary Iter the
establishment aad support of such a school as is contemplated, our Corres-
ponding Secretary .or Dr, Samuel Luckey, be aad hereby is requested to
accompany oar brother, the Her. T. Johnson, to the city of Washington,
aad lay before the proper officer, or officers, having the superintendence
of Indian affairs, or, if m9i. be, submit to Congress the plan of the
contemplated school, and solicit aid la such nay and manner as may be
judged most suitable for the establishment and support of said school

All which Is respectfully submitted.

N. Bangs, Chm.**

"•the presiding Bishop (Soule) in alluding to the call for the
present meeting, gave his views fully in favor of the establishment of
a central school in the Indian country. The Bishop had himself been la
this country, and was intimately acquainted with the tribes over whom
Brother Johnson has the superintendence.

♦Bishop Andrew concurred in the remarks of the presiding officer, so
far as his knowledge went.

♦Bro. Johnson also gave his opinion as to the wants of the tribes in
the S. West, their present condition and prospects.

•Letters were read from Major Cumming, the Indian Agent, fully
according with the representations made in the documents which have been
read to this board.

♦Br. Bangs offered the following resolution, which was unanimously

♦Resolved that our Treasurer be authorized to pay to Brother Johnson
the amount of his travelling expenses to and from this place, and that


[Image 47]



Brother Johnson be requested, on his return, to stop at as nan? of the
principal places as his other engagements will allow, hold missionary
aeetlngs ana take up collections for the Missionary Society, and account
with the Treasurer for the amount of said collection.**

June 20» * fDr. Luckey stated that he had just returned from his
mission to Washington City in behalf of the southwestern Indians, and that,
success had attended his mission. A full report would be hereafter


June 20.

0* I* A*

June 20, 1838
Johnson, T. Revd.,


I have the honor, by direction of the Secretary of War, to communicate
to you the views of the Department respecting the propositions, submitted
by the Held. Mr. Luckey and yourself, oa the 8th and 12th last, for the
establishment of a Manual Labor School for the benefit of the Indians,
by the Methodist Episcopal Church*

I take pleasure la availing myself of this occasion, to espress the
gratification with which the Department has read the proceedings of the
Missionaries and the Board of Managers of the church you represent,
Manifesting, as they do, seal for the Improvement of the red race, and a
disposition to contribute most liberally of its pecuniary means to effect it.

The 1st Resolution of the Board of Managers recommends the establish-


[Page 48]



ment or the School by the Missouri Annual Conference, upon the plan,
it is presumed, indicated in the proceedings of the nesting of the
Missionaries sad Ministers within its hounds, the 2nd Resolution, adopted
at which, contemplates that it shall he "within the white settlements
and contiguous to the Indian country." To this there are many and almost
insuperable objections. The infection to be dreaded from association
with many border settlers; the necessity of State legislation to give
organization and efficiency to the institution, and many other circumstances,
that have been freely discussed with you, render a position within the
State of Missouri, in the opinion of this Department, undesirable. It
Is not doubted that the assent of the Shawnees, or some other tribe, may
be obtained to the location of the establishment on their lands, and the
Superintendent at St. Louis will he directed to instruct the Agent, Major
Cummins to cooperate with and assist you in making an arrangement with
one of them for this purpose. The 2nd Resolution of the Board of Managers
is understood as an engagement on the part of the Missionary Society of
the Methodist Episcopal Church to apply annually a sum, not exceeding
#10,000 to the support of the proposed institution, in ©very year that it
is in existence and operation. The estimate presented by you, shows the
number and description of buildings and improvements your society contem-
plates erecting. And the system of instruction is to combine the acquisi-
tion of a knowledge of letters with an acquaintance with agricultural
pursuits and various mechanic arts and housewifery. The Department is
willing to promise, that upon the completion of the buildings in a
satisfactory manner at a point agreeable and convenient of access to the
Indians, it will pay to your Society five thousand dollars, provided they
cost twice that sum, or one half of the cost, should It be less. It will
further pay $2,500 a year, or one half the expense of any number not


[Page 49]



exceeding fifty pupils, estimates at one hundred dollars for each. And
so far as it stay be proper, it will induce the tribes, living in the
vicinity, to apply tbe fans secured to them by treaty for education, to
the support aad tuition of their children at your institution. It will
expect, however, that the site of the building shall not be definitively
ssleetsd, without its concurrence and sanction; that la the formation of
a plan of them it shall have a voice thru* its agents, and that if not
satisfied upon evidence adduced, that they cost the sub charged by the
society, it may cause them to be appraised, in such manner as may sees
proper, upon which appraisement the payment of one half the coat, accord*
lag to the above stipulation, shall be made; that it stay, at all tinea,
exercise a .general supervision of the establishment, especially of the
expenditure of Its funds; and that it may withhold the allowance of
$2,500 whenever there is cause for distrust or dissatisfaction. It will
be also a condition of the arrangement, an indispensable one indeed, that
the society shall bind itself, la a satisfactory manner, to reimburse the
sua of $5,000 herein promised to be paid, if the society shall fall to
carry out all its engagements, respecting this matter, in good faith, and
to a reasonable extent, '@ad to maintain the institution In constant
operation. It is understood however that if at any tine it shall be, la
the Judgment of the Department and the Society, Inexpedient to continue
the establishment, that the extent to which the last preceding engagement
shall be fulfilled, shall be a subject for amicable adjustment, upon princi-
ples of equity.

C» A.» H•
(C. A. Harris)
Commissioner of Indian Affairs)

     See Jan. 25, 1844.

Photostat copy of letter in MSS. Dept., K. S. H. S.


[Page 50]



June 20.

0* I* A*
June 20, 1838.
Clark, William Gen.

St. Louis* Mo.

I enclose copies of letters and other papers, submitted to this
Department, by the Agents of the Missionary Society of the Methodist
Episcopal Church, and a copy of my letter to the Revd. Mr. Johnson,
«bieh expresses the views of the Department.

You «111 perceive that It la deemed ell important, that the proposed

Manual Labor School shonld be located within the Indian country, and the

Society will use Its efforts to ©bt&ia sites for th© aeeessary buildings

aM iapreveaeats fro« sons of the tribes, probably within Major Cummins’

agency. Too will instruct hia, therefore, to give bis cordial cooperation

to their exert loss, as tbe Department feels- great confidence la tbe utility

of tbe plaa, aad great solicitude for Its eventual success* Altho Each

time must elapse before tbe Society will be ready to receive pupils, it

aay be well for tbe Agent to talk tbe matter over freely with tbe Indians,

to stake the® understand what Is to be done, sad by tbas giving the*

favorable iapreesioas, prepare them to expend their treaty funds for

education at this school, I-lease direct hia to snake full and frequent


reports of the doings of the Society and its agents  of the Indians

C. A* H.

(C, A.  Harris)

(Commissioner of Indian Affairs.)

Copy of letter frea Revd. T. Johnson dated 19 June, *38. see I 241


[Page 51]



Copy of communication from Messrs. Luckey and Johnson, June 8, f38, and
enclosures, see L 495

Copy of paper left by ease* 12th June '38, see L 502
Copy of letter from this office to Revd. Mr. Johnson of 20th June

C. A. H.

Copy in MSS. Dept.* K. S. H. S.

Summer. Thomas Johnson goes east **to confer with the hoard of
managers of the Missionary Society of the M* E. Church in regard to his
plans concerning the proposed Manual Labor School.*

Josh Spencer, "A Short History of Shawnee Methodist Mission*,

Missouri Valley Hist. Soc..« v. 1, p. 449.

July 13. Bsv. Thomas Johnson reaches home. He writ as in his
report: *le got home on the 13th ultimo, and were much gratified to find
our families well, though one of ay children had been near the gates of
death during ay absence; but God in mercy raised him up**

Fr.  Report of Johnson to Corresponding Secretary of the

Missionary Soc.  See p. 57.

July 18. ♦'Dr. Luckey presented the report of his doing at Washingtons
at Washington [sic] as promised at the last meeting. See Documents,
*Report of Delegation on Indian Affairs, 'and accompanying documents 1, 2.’”

Record of the Board of Managers of the Missionary society of the
M. E• Church.

Typed copy in MSS. Division, K. S. H* S»

August 17. Report of Thomas Johnson to the Corresponding Secretary

of the Missionary Soc. of the M« E* Church:


[Page 52]



Dear Brother.— While I was in New York and Philadelphia, sad
witnessed tiie deep interest that was felt for Indian Missions in tbe meat,
I frequently thought that if I ever lived to gat bona, T would write oftenor
than I bad done; bat I have, em usual, suffered other things to occupy
my time, to tbe neglect of tfeis important duty.

We got home oc ttea 13th ultimo, and were much gratified to fijad our
families well, though one of my children teed bees near tbe gates of death
daring my absence; but <3od is mercy ralaed him up.

See July 13, 1838.

The missionary who was appointed to tbe Pottawattamy mission baa
failed to go to that work, am account of affliction in bia family. Since
.1 returned borne I have employed brother Boucheman, wee waa with me in the
eaat last spring, to labor with the Pottawattamies until conference;
be will also fee seaisted occasionally fey brother Talbott, of the Peori
mission • * .

After X wrote the treasurer from Washington City, I held a missionary

meeting at Wheeling, and collected $55.06. I also received $10 from Mr.

Budd, of St. Louis. Please bare the same credited in tbe Advocate. Wf

eeooant with the treasurer will etsnd tfeuej—

Whole amount received from every source .......... $501.50

Ihole amount of expenses for Bonehamaa and myself .....  326.18

This will leave me indebted to tbe treaaurer ........ 175.32

I will erra&ge tbi® at conference wfeaa oar drafts are made oat for next year.

Yours affectionately,

Thos. Johnson
Shawnee Mission, Aug. 17

Central Advocate and Journal. Sept. 21, 1838. [Files at Baker
University. ]


[Page 53]



Sept. 1. *The small monthly Indian newspaper called the Shawnee Sun
has not been issued for alsost a year. It was suspended on account of
Deshane the interpreter belag sailed into the Florida Campaign wits other
Shswanoes and oa account of ill health of Mr* Lykins the Editor.*
McCoy’s Journal.

Sept. 26. The twenty-third annual session, of the Missouri conference
waets in the town of Boonville.

"The following report of the Mission-committee say he regarded as
the foundation of the Shawnee Manual Labor School:

*lhereas, the Board of Managers of the Missionary Society of the
Methodist Episcopal Church have reeojwanded to the Missouri Annual Con-
ference to adopt such measures as they consider suitable, for the establish-
ment of a central manual-labor school, for the benefit of Indian children
and youth, in such place and; under such regulations as they may Judge s&ost
fit and proper; and,

"Where* s, The government of the United States Ms stipulated to aid
liberally ia the erection &t suitable buildings for said school, and also
to aid annually in its support; and,

*Whers«s» The Shawnee Nation of Indians, in General Council assembled,
and in eoitplianoe with the wishes of the Government, Mr® consented to the
establishment of such school on their lands, near the boundary of the
Stats of Missouri, which is deeded a jnost eligible situation; therefore,

Resolved, 1. That we, fully concurring with the Board of Managers
of the missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church, do hereby
agree to establish a annual-labor school, for the benefit of Indian
children and youth, oa the Shawnee lands near the boundary-line of the
State of Missouri, to be called - - - -•

"Resolved, 2. f|aat a committee of three be appointed, whose duty It


[Page 54]



shall be to erect suitable buildings for the accommodation of the proposed
school; secondly, to employ competent teachers, mechanics, a farmer, and such
other persons as aay be necessary, thirdly, to exercise a general super-
vision over the institution, and report to this Conference annually.

*Resolved, 3. That the above-named committee be ana are hereby in-
structed to erect, far the accommodation of said school, two buildings to
serve for schoolhouses and teachers* residences, each to be one hundred
feet long, thirty side, and two stories high; secondly, a farmer's residence,
thirty-six feet by twenty, two stories high, with an L running back fifty
feet by twenty, and two stories high; thirdly, buildings for four mechanics,
with shops; fourthly, such farm-buildings as they nay judge necessary:
provided, however, that if, in the judgment of the committee, the expenses
of the above-named buildings are likely to be greater than sueh a sua as
say be estimated by the Missionary Committee of this Conference, they may
make such changes as they stay think proper.11*

M’Anally, Hist* of Methodism in Mo. p. 540.

Thomas Johnson, J. C* Berryman and Jesse Greene constituted the
Committee *

Mo. Valley Hist. Soc. v. 1, p. 450.

J» Spencer writes to George Martin:

Sept. *I ran across am Interesting lies not long since. In March
1838 Jason Lee Missionary to the Indians la Oregon left for the last on
Church business. He accompanied traders on their way to St. Louis. la
June a messenger brought a message from the Mission to ft Vancouver that
Wte.  Lee i her first born were both dead* A messenger was dispatched
to overtake Lee. The third one la relay, finally overtook his in Sept.


[Page 55]



at the old Shawnee mission. I think this dims of the astost wonderful events.B
Spencer to Martin, July 9, 1907. K. S. H. S. Shawnee Indians

Also from D. Lee*s Ten Years in Oregon

•Is the month of June oar joy »as suddenly turned to heaviness by
the occurence, on the 26th, of that mournful event, the death of Mrs.
Jason Lee, wltfeln a year from her marriage, and less than three months
sine© her husband left her to go to the United States: An express, with
the melancholy end heart-rending intelligence, was sent over the mountains
to the bereaved husband, which overtook hi*, in a little rare than sixty
days, at the Shawnee Mission. fhe bearer of the unwelcome message reached
the plaee about midnight. . . She me the first white woman to tie in Oregon."
D. Lee sad J. E. Frost, Ten Tears In Oregon, pp. 153, 154.

Oct. 18

Agency of Fort Leavenworth

October 18, 1838


In obedience to instructions received from Gen. W. Clark Sap* of

Ind. Affairs of July the 10, 1838, sa the subject of establishing a

Manual labour school by the Missionary Society of the Methodist episcopal

church ima&g the Indians, T have ia conjunction with the Rev. Thomas

Johnson Agent for the Society designated a site on the Shawano* land

about six tiles, nearly due south of the mouth of the Kansas liver and

about half a stile from the western boundary of the state of Missouri,

the site is on a beautiful elevated ritch prairie near & adjoining a

beautiful grove of timber on the south and a small creek known by the

Ease of brush creek which is near the site and always affording water


[Page 56]



'in abundance for the stock, there ere also three springs which are in a

line in the edge of the timber, parallel with and close to the ©age of

the prairie which we belief© will afford, water sufficient for all purposes
of the establishment, the country 1» the immediate neighborhood although
very ritch has a healthy appearance, no lakes, pond, or stagnated water

I am Respectfully

Yr Ob Serv*

Rich W Cummins

Ind Agent

Hon. C. A. Harris

Comm" of Ind. Affairs
Washington City
I certify, on honor, that the whole subject contained ia the above letter,
respecting the establishing of a Manual labour school by the Missionary
society of the Methodist E. Church at the site designated as above
described and every thing connected or to be connected with the school
as far as understood by aae was fairly and fully by me explained to the
chiefs and councillers of the Shawanoe Nation & by them to the Tribe
in *y presence and that they the (Shawanoe Nation) gave their full &
entire consent that the Society of Methodist might establish the school
at the place designated with the privilege of using as such land and
timber as would be necessary for carrying on the establishment, the Rev,
Thomas Johnson agent agreeing an his part to discontinue the Mission
ahich they have already established among the Shawanoes.

Rich W. Cummins
Indian Agent


[Page 57]



If the Department aprove of the situation made for the establishment of
the jaaiiual labour school among the Indiana, The Bar. T. Johnson
Respectfully Requests early information as he wishes to commence opperations
as soon as possible


R W Cummins

U. S. I. Agent
; Photostat eopy In MSS. Dept. K« S. H. S.

The location of the school was on the southwest quarter of section 3,
township 12, range 25 E.

K. H. Collection, v. 9, p. 169.

**A better selection could scarcely have been found. The prairie

lands lie well; timber is contiguous,  the farm reaches to the great
California thoroughfare; altogether it is one of the finest situations
I have seen west of the Mississippi."

W. H. Goode, Outposts of Zion. p. 98*

The discontinuance of his [Choteau’s] trading-post near the Shawnee
caused the Method 1st Mission to be moved to what is now Johnson County,

Bmm  three miles from the old t*wa of Westport. Mo.

W. E. Connelley. Kansas and Kansans» 1918 ed. v. 1, p. 241.

Nov. 5.

Superintend* of Ind. Affairs,

St Louis, Nov. 5, 1838.


1 transmit a Report from Major Cummins, dated the 18th October, oa

the subject of the establishment of a Manual Labor School by the Missionary


[Page 58]



Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church, sade la compliance with
instructions contained la. e letter to this off toe, from the QhhF of
Indian Affairs, of the .BO*11 June, of «M«h letter and tfeft papers which
accompanied It, Major Cummins was furnished with copies.

Your ob. Svt
    Geo. Maguire

T. Hartley Crawford. Esq»
Coaffir. Indian Affairs,

Photostat Copy la ifss. Dept. K. S. H. S.

Nov. 25. Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1838.

"Manual-labor schools are what the Indian condition calls for.
The Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church has laid before
the Department a plan, based upon the idea suggested, for establishing
a large central school for the education of the western Indians, Into
their scheme enter a fans, and shops for teaching the different Mechanic
arts. Experience, they say, has shown then .... that separate schools
for the respective tribes . . . are not so useful as one eowson school
for the benefit of all would be. They assert truly that a knowledge of
the English language is necessary, and they think that it can be best
acquired in an establishment of the latter description.*

Reports of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1835-1838, p. 421.

Nov. 25. Report of School.

"Missionaries - Rev. Thomas Johnson, Mrs. Johnson, Mr. Lorenzo Waugh.

School - Thirty-two scholars . . . Eleven of them viz; eight girls
and three boys, Hire in the mission family, and are supported by the


[Page 59]



mission.    The residue of the scholars are furnished one meal a day at
the mission house, and ar# otherwise sup-ported by their parents.   Some
of the girls have learned to weave; all sew, knit etc.   Three male youths
have left the last! tut ion, who had learned the cabinet-sacking business,
and becoming capable of making pretty good furniture,   fhe institution has
famished them with tools, to enable the* to set up work-shops for them-
selves.    Other hoys are making pleasing improvement in a knowledge of
sosse of the wore useful   mechanical arts taught at the Mission House.

   Natives in Society -  80

   Whites            •     -    6

* Total                      66

“This statement is made from the report of 1837; none later having
been received by the Editor."

McCoy,  The Annual Register of Indian Affairs, No. 4, p. 62.

Mary Todd appointed fey the New York Conference as a missionary to
the Shawnee Indians,   She arrived at the mission late la December.

[Notes from the memorandum book of Jesse Greene.   K.S.H.S. Vault]

Nov. 25.    "The Methodist Episcopal Church have a mission among them,
a'ud have kept up a school for several years.   This year they have had
fpasmlly about 32; 11 of vbaa (8 girls and 3 boys) live in titt mission
family.    Four of tita girls read and write and have commenced the study of
arithmetic; the other 4 can spell, sot 2 of thes* u&a read.   fta 3 boys
livlu& in the missionary family are ■W>11< and are beginning; to spell*
Ten girls attend the school, vdio oc»e fren their >mwt 1 of thea ean
rw%&i f spell, end £ are at the alphabet*    Bigfct boys attend the school
who cose from their homes; 5 of then read and write, and have commenced


[Page 60]



arithmetic; the other 3 nan spell.    Eleven of the girls fcave learned to
sew, and 2 can weave."

"There are 3 other boys, *«rho hev© net attended ffee school this year,
that have just got through their apprenticeship at the cabinet-making business in a mechanical shop connected ritfc the mission.   These 3 boys
make some very respectable-looking furniture."

"Tfe« Baptist board ef foreign missions rave a missionary establishment among this tribe* bet o© school for the last three years.

*Tl» Quakers fcsve aleo established a missionarao»g ihea, and co»-

leeneed p. school, wfcieh was kept «p only a fair aortas, d«ri»<? the latter

part of ike year.*

Reports of Commissionerr of Indian Affairs, 1833-1839# p. 496»


[Page 61]



wThc new house"—the two-story brick that stands cm the south aisle of

the road, and faces north, at the Mission station south of Westport—was
erected while ©other was teaching; and the move was made front "the old piece
some distance away—to the present site either in the fall of WS9 or the
spring of *40. Of this I am certain—for this reason? Kother was ill with
the fever while the Mission was yet at "the old place"» and I fine a receipt
from "Dr. J. Dummer for professional service—-two visits .... $25.00,w
and this paper is dated **Oct. 1S3Sjb and moreover ay brother and sister
born Sep. 1840 in *the new house" the building south of Westport.

     Belle Greene.

Such Extracts from letters as have reference to the Shawnee Mission.

(By way of explanation of the St. Louis episode alluded to in the letter

I will state that I do not remember having heard ay mother say what the amount

of her traveling expenses from Philadelphia to Shawnee Mission or whether the

Hew York Conference Board of Missions made provision therefor; but 1 have

frequently heard her say that before starting on her journey she borrowed of

and gave her note to Mrs. Shurlock for $75.00 for traveling expenses; and by

being water-bound in "fheeliag for five weeks an unexpected draft was mads

apoa her funds so that when she reached St. Louis she found herself a stranger

alone in a strange land aad without aeaas to proceed on her wey.)   Belle Greene.

Jan. 14.

My very dear Miss Todd:'
Mrs. Catharine Shurlock writes;-- ^ Philadelphia, Jan. 14, 1839.— fe have

bsen looking with longing eyes for a letter fro* yon. I received one from you

at Wheeling and one from St. Louis. . . I had no idea of your remaining five

weeks in Wheel lag or I should have written. . . But when your letter cane from

St. Louis we all praised God aad wept for Joy and were struck with admiration

at the goodness of Sod, and his wonderful care over you. 0, our dear sister,

(or rather all our hearts) swelled with love and sympathy. . .


[Page 62]



when we read that your money failed you and that you had to trudge alone through
the said. . . Is imagination I have gone over that ground scores of tines and
have stood with you at the door of the stranger preacher and have heard yaa
tell him that you were a missionary on your way to Mr. Johnson's station at
Shawnee Mission hut could not go forward for want of means. . • At thought
of it now—of all your encountered—the tears blind my eyes. . . And who eould
fea* adore ®»d wonder at the kindness of our dear Redeemer when we see how soon
*ka mountain became a plain-—to see how Bro. Johnson had anticipated all your
wants and made provision for them, . . Surely God sent you. . . just where
help was assured. . . lo one ever went on a mission more in the order of Sod
than you I There was no self-accommodation, no changing of climate for health
... it was the leaving all things in obedience to the call of God. . .

The day you left w© stood and looked and prayed as long as we eould see
your handkerchief waving then with slow pace we moved toward the carriages,
came hose and had a solemn day of it. M shall never forget the day while
memory holds her seat.9 ...

The friends who composed the little company, who had® her w0od speed"
were Mr. and Mrs. Shurlock, Miss Mary Weaver, Rev. David Terry and wife and
Rev. E. S. Janes, afterward Bishop and Rev.—Mathias.—Belle.)

Jan 15. , . . the above was written last evening. . . Mr, Young gave me
a letter while 1 was at dinner. . . 1 read the post-mark, "Westport," ...
no more dinner for me. I read it aloud. le all rejoiced again . • . le love
you my sister . «, . because you are our friend . . . because you love our Lord
and Saviour and because you have forsaken all—your home and your friends—to
aid in spreading light and troth among those noble-minded men and women of the
forest. Surely these are of the tribes of Abraham . . .we are glad you corrobor-
ate Bro. Lee's statements relative to sister Johnson. He spoke in the highest
terms of Brother and Sister Johnson and of the Mission generally; and wept
when speaking of your experience in St. Louis; and said yours was "the true


[Page 63]



missionary spirit—resolute, persevering and trustful". . . A load is renewed
fro* our hearts now that we know that you are arrival safe, ware cordially
received at the Mission station and that you are so pleased with your situation

and with all concerned ... God bless you and sake you useful and give you
favor among that people ... 1 assure you that we are not a little pleased
that you are at Brother Johnson's station . . . Brother Janes says he is the
best missionary he ever saw . . . and is willing to  answer any questions
relative to his mission. Brother Lee is very unwilling to answer questions
about the Mission aad has published an article in the Christian Advocate on
the subject of being questioned so much. Brother Lee said when he was there
a Presbyterian lady was teaching In the Indian Manual Labor School. I hope
you have the school Brother Johnson designed you should have. He is a wise
man and will to do what is right . . . God prosper you and give you grace to go in
&ad out aaeong that people . . . and I feel that he will—X feel Sister Todd
that your walls: and conversation will be what becometh the gospel.

Copy of extracts of letters sent by Belle Greene, MSS. Dept. K. H.S.


[Page 64]




Shawnee Mission, Jan. 22, 1839

Jan. 22.

Dear Brother,— 1 have neglected to write to you a little beyond the
usual time; and I caa only say, by way of apology, that I have been so much
crowded with business for a few weeks past, it has been exceedingly diffi-
cult to find time to write to any person. And, secondly, the community
have beam so thoroughly furnished with information recently, from our
beloved brothers, Seys and Lee, who represent two of our seat important
missionary fields, that it did not seam necessary for us to write such
at present; and X thought It would be best for us to work as hard as we
could, and say but little until Brother Lee got through with all he has
to say about Oregon country, and collects his company of missionaries,
and hoists his sails for Willamette; and by that time perhaps we may
have something good to tell about the Shawnees, Delawares, Peories,
Kickapoos, Pottawotamies, Kansas &c.

le have already commenced preparing buildings for our Indian manual
labor school. We have employed Brother David lock, of Carrollton, 111.,
to do our brick work, and he has come on with a company of hands and Is
now making preparations. We have employed the Shawnee Indians to make
rails for the farm; they are now at work, and I expect they will furnish
some twenty-five or thirty thousand by planting time.

Our plan Is to fence and plough up some four or five hundred acres
of prairie, sow some in grass for meadow and pasture, plant some in corn,
sow wheat, oats, &c, so we will be able to raise nearly the whole support
for the school ourselves, after the Improvements are made* We expect
to have our buildings ready to open school immediately after our next
conference which will be held In October.

The Indians friendly to civilization are much pleased with our plan


[Page 65]



of a manual labor school, because their children will be taught how to
work and make a comfortable support for themselves, as well as to read
and write; and some who have hitherto opposed schools, say they will
send their children to this school, that they may learn to work, for they
know that the Indians cannot live any longer by hunting as they formerly
lived. I am more than ever convinced that when we get our school ready
we shall be able to educate more children, and do it cheaper than we ever
could on our old plans.

Yours affectionately,
Thomas Johnson
Christian Advocate and Journal. March 8, 1839, Files in Baker
U. Library.

Jan. 28. "The Shawnees have agreed it is said, to sell a strip 5
miles wide, off the east side of the Land bordering on the state line,
either to the Gov't or to the Wyandots, for the settlement of that tribe.
You will observe that this 3 miles will include our Shawnee Mission
Station, and that it will be necessary to take some steps to secure the
occupancy of the station as well as the proper privilege of using firewood
etc. I saw Cummins yesterday, who promised to keep me appraised of the
progress of this matter so as to enable me to secure our station. The
Indians then had reported to him the result of their decisions but were
in Council in the yard. . .

I somewhat suspect, that advantage will be taken, if our station
shall fall into the hands of the Wyandots, they being mostly Methodist. . .

There is much excitement among the Shawnees in regard to the new
Meth. establishment, and this matter of selling, may in some way or other


[Page 66]



be the result of It. I hare heard that Cornstalk says he will sell a
portion of lead to the whites so as to exclude this sew station from
their country."

Lykins to McCoy, McCoy Correspondence.

February. "In February, 1839» 400 acres of land were f eased, 12
acres of which were planted ia apple trees. This was the first apple
orchard set oat ia Kansas. 76 acres were planted ia corn, over 40,000
rails were made by the Indians in a short time, about 40 hands were
employed. The brick was burned on a farm a short distance south of the
school, k  saw and grist sill were also erected. The grist mill turning
out about 300 bushels per day. This sill was run by steam* The school
was well supplied with plenty of country cured meat, about SOD hogs
averaging 300 pounds each were often killed in one season. There are
some iron hooks in the joist in the basement of the second house named
and I have been told it was here these cured hams and shoulders were
hung for future use."

Mrs. Frank Hardesty in The Suburban News, Merriam, Mar. 5, 1936.

May 23. "On the subject of the intended Manual labor School, located
within this agency by the Methodist Episcopal Church.

Rev. Thomas Johnson, agent, made a beginning about the first of Feby.
At this time he has four hundred acres of land enclosed under a good new
fence; IB acres of which is set in apple cions, selected fruit, also
planted in Irish potatoes and other garden vegetables, one hundred and
seventy six acres planted in com, 85 acres in oats. Five ploughs are
breaking the balance of the ground enclosed, which is intended for timothy
and blue grass. 100 acres in addition to the 400 enclosed is expected
to be ploughed by 13th July and enclosed in September, which will make


[Page 67]



SO© acres ready for next year, The rails, upwards of 40,000, were all
n»de is a short time by the Shawnee Indians, with the exception of about

The buildings are under way, mechanics preparing brick, 30,000
feat of lumbar at the place-, 15,000 of it dressed ready for laying
floors, 2,500 lights of sash made, stone quarried for the first building,
nails, glass, hinges, locks &e., ready on the premises.

They expect to have a part of the buildings ready to commence the
school in October. X think however this is doubtful. Although they
have gone on very rapidly, there is yet a great deal to do. The agent
is very attentive and persevering. At this time about 40 bands are

R. Cummins, Ind. Agent, to Joshua Pilsner, Supt. of Indian


U. S. Superintendency of Indian Affairs, v. 8, pp. 4, 5. MSS.

Dept., K. S. H. S.

June 1.                                                         Fort Leavenworth. Agency

June 3f 1839

Sir: David Kinnear, school teacher to the Kickapoos Indians, under

treaty stipulation ka. wishing to pay a visit to his friends in the State

of Ohio, and offering to furnish a Miss Lee as substitute to teach the

school in his place until he returned. I consented to the arrangement on

the following conditions, vis. for Miss Lee to teach the school for

until he returned, if not approved of by the commissioners, his pay to

stop from the tine he left until he returned. Se started the last of

lay 4t expects to be gone about three months. Mr. Kinnear is a member of

the Methodist Church.. In consequence of his qualifications being well

adapted to teach and manage Indian children, the agent of the Manual Labor


[Page 68]



School wishes to procure his services as teacher as soon as the school
goes into operation, end as he has beea closely engaged ia the Indian
Country for a loag time, and intended to visit his friends next year.
It was thought soet advisable for hi® to go at this time. I am informed
that Miss Lee has taught school is the State of N. York near twenty years.
She was brought oat here by the Society for a teacher of female children
ia the Manual Labor School. 1 have ao doubt hut she is well qualified
to discharge the duties.

Be pleased to request a reply from the Combs., as I wish to pay Mr.
Kinnear, la accordance with his decision.

I am very Respectfully
Your Ob. Svt.

Richd W. Cummins

Indian Agent

Major J. Pilcher

S. I. affs.
St. Louis
U. 5. Superintendency of Indian Affairs, v. 8, pp. 5, 6.

June 21. Rev. Jesse Greene aad Mary Todd are married at Shawnee
Manual Labor school.

Belle Greene to Geo. 1. Martin, Nov. 13, 1906. MSS. Dept.,

K. S. H. S.

Mary Greene wrote, **We were united ia marriage ia June, 1840.**

Mary Greene, Biography of Rev. Jesse Greene, p. 41.


[Page 69]



Rev. David Terry writes: —

Aug. 14, 183?.— Miss Mary Todd: Esteemed Sister. . . .

Bs sure we are will pleased to learn from your letter that yon are fully

determined to "stand in your lot* ia the confidence that your Redeemer has

Inspired your heart with . . . .So light is equal with oar light; let it

then he your endeavor to be acquiring more light and love. ... Endeavor

to continue to improve in knowledge end parity, for who ean tell to what

work the Lord say yet call yom to perform. ... Grow is grace and ia the

knowledge of the love of God. Increase ia these respects is ahsolately

necessary to personal holiness and happiness. Why should* you stop short

of perfection’s height, . . . Allow m» to say, continue to read the Bible

first and last; laeke it the maa of yoar counsel, lead other devotional

hooks as yon haws opportunity, loss no ttee in Idle chit-chat. ... a

fault you are not^all addicted to. let your reading? he such as tends to

the salvation of the soul. . . . There is mo rest here; hut that is ssall

Moment if you he only journeying to that rest that regains to the people of God.*

later he wrote regarding her starting on her Journey to the Shawnee
Mission: — "1 will return (from Newburgh} to New York shortly. ... Mrs

Terry will leave on the evening of the 24th Aug. ... You can make arrange-
seats perhaps accordingly and go with her when she goes.*
MSS. Dept., K. S. H. S.


[Page 70]



August ?

Extract from the report uf the Rev. Thomas Johnson to Major Cummins.

Experience and observation during the past year strengthen us ia
the belief that our plan for a central manual labor school is the best .
that can he adopted to meet the wants of the Indiana In this part of the
country. They are scattered over a large portion of the country, a
few hundred only in a tribe in many oases, and each tribe speaking its
osm dialect; and if a teacher should go and settle down among them, 'he
will only succeed in collecting a small number around him a few hours
in the day; the principal part of their time would h« spent among their
own people, and of course they will speak end understand the language of
the people with when they associate, and no other* It is true, they way
he greatly improved in agriculture, religion, etc., by having suitable
persons to live aaong them, who are willing to labor for the good of
the Indians; hut they never can he advanced in education so as to become
English scholars. Bow we think that a central manual labor school will
go very far to remove the difficulties alluded to. Here the children
frost the different tribes will he taken to one place, and put under
the care of competent teachers, with a suitable number of white children
mixed In with them, and all required to speak the English language; which
they will he inclined to do, for as they come from different tribes, they
cannot understand one another in any other way; consequently, when they
have learned to read our books, they will understand what they read,
and profit thereby; and as we will have them under our care all the time,
we can give them a physical education as well as mental, by having suit-
able men connected with the institutation to learn them the more useful
branches of mechanism, agriculture, etc. But we do not intend to convey
the idea that we think a school of a higher order is necessary for the
Indians, or that they need a classical education at present.   We only


[Page 71]



mean to concentrate our efforts at one .point, that we say sake thes more
efficient, so that we my toe able to give the Indians an education suited
to their wants la the cheapest way, sM not spend our time, sad money
too, toy following the old plan which avails so little, ait while we
wake our central school our chief dependence for education, w® do sot
expect to slaken our efforts to instruct the lad lane in their different
tribes; for we expect to continue oar regular missionaries la the dif-
ferent tribes, who. In addition to the religious instruction of the
Indians, will toe expected to instruct the* in agriculture, t© select
children and send them to the central school, to exercise a kind of
guardianship over the children who say be educated at the central school
when they return home, toy aiding them in settling themselves and com-
mencing business, and, when it ia necessary, they can teach a school;
though I presunse this will only toe done as preparatory to the central

fe expect to toe stole to commence oar central school ia atooat two
months. Se have teachers engaged; tout as- the spring ana summer were very
wet, and the clay not of good quality, our brick work has toeen protracted
beyond our former calculations, so that we shall only have buildings to
accommodate 60 or 70 children this fall; tout our present plan of buildings
when completed will be sufficient for 150 children or more, with the
necessary teachers, we have the principal part of the materials for the
whole of the buildings collected at the place, end hope to have then
completed in the course of the next summer.

We have laid off a fans of 500 acres, and have the whole of it
ploughed up, and 400 acres fenced. We have raised this year 1,500 or
1,800 bushels of oats, and have 175 acres in corn, which we think is good


[Page 72]



for 5,000 bushels. M have sowed 100 acres ia wheat, aad 100 acres la
timothy, aa4 plented aa orchard of 10 acres."

Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1835-1839, pp. 433, 434.

Oct. 2. The Missouri conference meets at

Fayette, Mo. The appoint-
«eats are: "Indian Mission District, Thomas Johnson, Presiding Elder.
Shawnee Mission, Thomas Johnson. Indian Manual labor school, Wesley
Browning aad David Kinnear.*

"The school appears this year for the first time as a separate aad
distinct appointment aad so It remained ever after.1*

Joab Spencer, "Extracts from Wesley Browning's Journal,**
Missouri Valley Historical Society. v. lf p. 459.

"At the session of the Missouri Conference held at Fayette, Mo.t la
1839, W. Browning aad D. Kinnear were placed ia charge of the Manual
Labor School, aad were assisted hy Mrs. Jesse Greene, Mrs. Browning, and
Miss Elisabeth Lee. Mrs. Greene, who ease from Bristol, England, is
said to have been a lady of more than ordinary culture aad much strength
of character.*

Rev. E. J. Stanley, Life of L. B. Stateler, p. 98


Oct. 1. Extract from Report of Rev* Thos. Johnson,

1. Shawnee School.— During the past year, w© have had twenty regular
scholars living la the mission family, fourteen girls and six hoys,
eight cam read, write, cipher a little, recite the tables ia arithmetic,
and the first lessons la geography; eight others can spell and read a
little, and recite the table® ia arithmetic fee.; four are rew beginners,
aad have made but little progress. A few others have attended school
occasionally, but as it is common with those who attend from their homes,

they have learned so little that we shall not number them. The girls in


[Page 73]



this school are quite ready with the needle, and some of the larger ones
can weave.

Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1835-1839, p. 523.

Oct. 14. Wesley Browning wrote in his journal:

"Monday, the 14th {of October), reached the place of the school and
in the afternoon went to T. Johnson** and stayed a day or two and then

ease down and went to work."

Joab Spencer, "Extracts from Wesley Browning's Journal," op. cit.

"Missouri Conference Missions'''
October 15.
Rev. and Dear Brother*—It is sy duty to transmit to you a copy of

the last animal report of the Missouri Conference Missionary Society;
end this I take the earliest opportunity of £©ing after reaching hose.

Your affectionate Brother
Thos. Johnson

Shawnee Mission House, Oct. 15, 1839
The board of managers of the Missouri Conference Missionary Society
feel devout gratitude to the great Bead of the Church in being again
permitted to meet their brethren and friends, and to congratulate then
on the success that has attended this best of causes the past year within
our bounds. It has obtained a deeper hold on the affections of our
people, and called forth a larger Measure of their prayers, and also
pecuniary aid. And although there is so large a portion of Missionary
ground within the limits of this conference, we hope the day is not
distant when our now scattered population and distant settlement* will
he equally able and willing to sustain the gospel and its institutions,


[Page 74]



and when these rich valleys and plaies rill send forth streams to
fertilize other parts of Immanuel's land. ■ The board herewith presents
the following information touching the Indian missions within the bounds

of this Conference;-~

1. At the Shawnee mission there are 22 white, 3 colored, end 93
Indian members in society, and 20 very promising children in the school;

Kith a fair prospect of extending the Influence of the gospel to many
others in that nation who nave stood opposed to civilization and religion,

hut are now ready to receive ana profit by instruction.

The measures heretofore .adopted for preparing a manual labor sehool
in connection with these missions have bees pursued according to the
means at command: hut owing to various difficulties attending the erection
of the necessary buildings is a new and thinly settled part of the
country, the work Is not as far advanced as me had hoped It would have
been by the present. A frame building sufficient for two families is
nearly finished* i brick building, desired for a boarding house, cook
room, family residence &e., is In progress, which It is hoped will be
up this season; and it is Intended to commence the school as sarly after
conference as practicable. Goad progress has been made on the farm
attached, and produce raised sufficient for wintering the stock thereon
at present. Tour board regards this intended institution with great
interest, and cherish to© hope that it will prove an efficient auxiliary
in spreading the gospel and Its institutions, with civilization and the
arts of life, extensively among the tribes in the west

J. Green, Vice-President
T. Johnson Sec'y.

Christian Advocate and Journal, Nov. 22, 1839. Baker U. files.


[Page 75]



Oct. 22. From W. Browning's Journal:

"Tuesday (October 22nd)» Brother Johnson moved his family down to
the school sb4 ob the 23rd moved the fchildren. ***

Jacob Spencer, op, eit.

Oct. 25. #tAad oa Friday, the 25th af October «e celebrated the
centenary of Methodism and had the company of several of the missionaries
ana took a centenary subscription of $1248, chiefly subscribed by the
missionaries.** The Missionaries who made the subscription were:
"Thomas Johnson, Lesley Browning, David Kinnear, L. B. Stateler, J. C.
Berryman, N. Talbot, E. T. Peery, and William Johnson. Everyone poor
and the salary they received uses $100, if unmarried, end f£O0 if married. •*

Oct. 25. From Johnson’s report:

"Ife have built some houaes of brick and some of wood, aad commenced
our labors at this institutation, by holding a centenary meeting oa the
2Stfe of Oet. Several of the Missionaries from other stations were present,
being oa their way from conference, aad notwithstanding the day was
unfavorable, the rain falling in torrents, aad hindering assay who wished
to attend, we had aa excellent tine. The Rev. W. Browning, the principal
of the institution, gave us a very interesting discourse embracing the
rise, progress, and peculiarities of Methodism. The subscription amounted
to something over $1,200, which I suppose would be about $50 for each
adult persoa who subscribed, though the subscriptions ranged from |5 up
to |300, and some Indian children gave 50 cts. each, aad one Indian man
gave $50. I believe that every adult white persoa gave something with
one solitary exception. We do not expect to be able to compete with you
rich folks who live in fine cities, but we thought it would do pretty


[Page 76]



well for us who live In tho far, far west.*
From Johnson's report of Feb. 20, 1840.

Oct. 27.  "Sabbath, October 27th, began our sabbath school in the
cabin; the next sabbatb in Sister Greene's rocs, and the following in
mine, in the frame house* fe have no way of identifying *the cabin*.
Sister Greene, nee Mary Todd was a teacher and one of the grandest women
of her time. Her room was in the superintendent's house. The 'frame
House* was located, east of the other buildings, and was used as a school
house by the Indian boys until the large brick house was completed but
how long we do not know. At the ease time Mrs. Greene taught the girls
in her room. The frame house here spoken of was occupied as a residence
by the farmer in charge of the mission farm, after it ceased to be used
as a school house.

Jacob Spencer, op. oit.

Oct. 29. *0a the Tuesday following the centenary w© opened our
school, which has been continued ever since."

Johnson's report. See Feb. 20, 1840.

Winter, Jerome Berryman write*; "H was in the winter of 1839 that

I was commissioned by Rev. Thomas Johnson to go to Pittsburg, Pa., to
purchase materials for the Shawnee Manual Labor School. This trip to
Pittsburg was made as far as Louisville, Ky., on horseback. Taking my
Kickapoo interpreter, Eneas, with me, we passed down through Missouri,
Illinois, and a portion of Kentucky, giving Missionary talks by the way.
This put $500 or $600 in hand for the benefit of our mission- . .

•It was while on this errand I met sad made the acquaintance of
Rev. Wesley Browning and his excellent wife, being by them most hospitably


[Page 77]



entertained during ay detention of a full month in Pittsburg.*   Brother

Browning was a valuable assistant to He ia the purchase and shipment of
■what w© needed, rtiicn in bulk and value amounted to a steamboat load.
For the transportation ©f this freight I chartered a new boat just
built by Captain Kizer for the Missouri river.    The cargo was safely
delivered by the Shawnee, for that «as her name, at Kansas Landing,
now Kansas City, and Brother Johnson was mtch pleased with the manner
is which the trust had been discharged.*

Berryman MSS. in K. S. H. S. vault.


Wesley Browning arrived at Shawnee Manual Labor School Oct. 14, 1839,

according to an extract from his journal.


[Page 78]




Jan. 27. The Delaware Chiefs la Council a few days since retreated
me to inform the Government that they had visited the Manual labor
School established within this Agency for tbe purpose of educating Indian
children, a&d bad ma investigation with ths agent of the- institution
relative t© the plan proposed for the management and education ©f Indian
youth, ami that they wished the Interest arising; fro* their School fund*
to be applied la the following manner, To wits- $1000, One thousand
dollars annually for tbe purchase of agricultural implements for the use
of tbe Hat ion, and tbe remainder of tbe interest per Annum to educating
their Children at tbe above mentioned School."
R. Cummins to J. Pilcher.
H» S. Superintendency of Indian Affairs, St. Louis, v. 8, p. 28.

Feb. 20. "Indian Missions In tbe Missouri Conference"

Dear Brother,— I have been trying for several days to forecast so
as to get time to write to you consenting our prospects assorts tbe Indians
west of Missouri.

1, Indian Manual Labor School.— We labored bard last year, but
did not get as rainy buildings ready for occupancy as we anticipated.
The failure was in consequence of tbe brick mason we bed employed not
being able to fulfil his contract; be was disappointed in the clay, is
have built sobs houses of brick and eo»e of wood, and commenced our
labors at this institution, by holding a centenary meeting on tbe 25th
of Oct. Several of tbe Missionaries frost other stations were present,
being on they [sic] way fro* conference, and notwithstanding the day was
unfavorable, the rain failing in torrents, and hindering many who wished
to attend, we bad an excellent time. The Rev. W. Browning, the principal
of the institution, gave us a very Interesting discourse embracing the


[Page 79]



rise, progress, &ad pecularities of Methodism,   Has subscription amounted
to something over $l,200, wfcieh I suppose would be about $50 for eweh
adult person who subscribed, though the subscriptions ranged from $5 up
to $300, and some Indian childrea gave 50 cts. each, sad one Indian maa
gave $50.    I believe thai every adult white person gav« something with
oae solitary exception.    We do not expect to be able to compete with you
rich folks who live in fine cities, but we thought it would do pretty well
for us who live ia the far, far west.

0a the Tuesday following the centenary we opened oar school, which
has bean continued ever since.""   it am bava 60 Indian children, sad to
oar great mortification we have been compelled to stop the Indians, and
not allow tbs» to bring aay sars until se can put up sore buildings,
ichlah we are preparing to commence early ia the spring.    Upward of 20
children are now held back, in reserve, until we get more room, and if
oar buildings were ready, the number could be increased to over a hundred
without any effort ©a our part,    m think that our most sanguine expecta-
tions of the success of this school will be fully realized.    It ia true,
our expenses will fee leery until our buildings are finished., bat after
that tlay will b© comparatively light, for we have already prepared a
farm of 500 acres, and will be able to raise the principal part of oar
provisions s-t the institution.

2 Shawnee Mission.—We have two other regular preaching places in
the Shawnee nation besides the school above named. At both of which we
have societies, and have lately received 19 on probation.   The prospects

are quite encouraging in this nation at present.

%See Oct. 25, 1839.
%See Oct. 29, 1839.


[Page 80]



Yours affectionately
Thos. Johnson.

Christian Advocate and Journal, Mar, 20, 1840.    [files at Baker U.]

March 28*

Fort Leavenworth Agency

March 28, 1840


I enclose herewith a report of tlie expenses and condition of the

Indian manual labour school, made to ae by the superintending committee

of the institution—, the report in regard to the far®, Buildings end

school 1 know to be correct, I have not myself a correct knowledge of

the amount of money expended, but have not the remotest doubt but what

the report is substantially correct, the institution is only one fourth

of a mile from my Agency site. I very frequently see it.

X am Respectfully

Yr. obt servant

Rich W. Cummins

Ind. Agent

Mr. T. Hartley Crawford

Com Ind. Affairs

Washington City

March 28.

I. M« L. School

march 28. 1840
Major R. W. Cummins
Dear Sir

la compliance with your request we have the honour to submit


[Page 81]



for your inspection the following brief statement of the expenses and

condition of the Indian Manual Labor School up to   the present time

There has been paid out

For   Clothing for Indian children,                            399.06

Salaries of Teachers, school Books, &e.             679.16

Beds & Beding                                                                 894.60

Household & Kitchen furniture                                 595.66

Provisions, & boarding hands,                                1431.69

Live stock, waggons, ft faming utensils            2200.00

Making sad cultivating farm, gathering crop,  5566.20

Buildings, including 12,200.00 north of

materials on hand                                             10.637.60


has been received

from Missionary Society                                                           15.922.57

Amount of debt owing at the present date                                           $ 6,441.40

N. B. Am we hired bands by the time, and sometimes employed the same
h nds about the buildings, and sometimes on the farm, we could not keep
up a very accurate distinction between the expenditures of the two de-
partments, though the statement above is believed to be sufficiently
correct to answer all necessary purposes.
Stock on hand
3 work horses

95 cattle, including 13 work oxen.
75 hogs.  2 Waggons.  13 ploughs.  2 harrows.
1 small mill "Smith Patent**.

divided as follows, Via. 100 acres sowed in wheat. 100 in timothy,
88 in blue grass for pasture. 12 in orchard. 100 for oats; end


[Page 82]



100 for corn. And la addition we have about 40 acres of raw prairie
fenced for pasture, making In all 540 acres under good fence, nearly
all of it staked and ridered.

All the rails, excepting some 3 or 4 thousand, were made, sad a large
portion of them hauled also, by Indians.

Buildings erected.

1   A brick house 44 by 20 feet, 3 stories high, including basement.

2   A brick house 20 feet square, 5 stories high, including basement. The
foundation is laid, and the materials ready for uniting these two
buildings by two walls, which will sake a room 70 feet long intended
for a dining room.

3   A frame building 50 by 32 feet, one story high, for two mechanic*s
families, each having 3 rooms.

4   The frame work of another raised, ready for roofing, same size with
the above.

5   logs ready, and partly raised, for stables» cribs, and barn 64 feet
by 47.

The School
was commenced October 29th 1839:
Indian children in attendance during the winter

'35 Boys

32 Girls                          Total 67

How in school

Boys 27

Oirls 29                          Total 56

The children in attendance during the winter are from the following


[Page 83]






Shawnee                    27


Delawares                  16


Pottawatomies              7


Peories                    5


Kickapoos                  6


Kansas                     3


Gros Ventures              1


Piankashaws                1


Muncey                    1   



Total                      67

We have Kids very little effort to procure children for the school;
the Indians have brought them la of their own accord, and have offered
assay that we have been compelled to reject for weat of room, a band of
Chippewas have recently applied to as to know If we would take their
children into this school provided they should emigrate to this country:
We promised to take them ia order to encourage them to remove here where
they can he permanently settled, fe anticipate a© difficulty ia obtaining
as many children as we e»a manage; hut we do apprehend serious difficulties
in helag able to sake arrangements for em many as wish to attend: Con-
sequently we have determined to make our buildings larger them we at first

Our present plan of buildings, whea completed will accomodate nearly
two hundred scholars. But ss we have commenced school sad thereby hare
incurred heavy expenses before the expenses of our building* ere disposed
of; end as the appropriation of the Missionary Society of the Methodist 1.
Church is limited to tea thousand dollars per annum, you will perceive,
from the amount of debts now due, that we are greatly embarrassed ia
operations by not having funds to go on with.


[Page 84]



If the officers having charge of the Indian department could feel
safe ia advancing the funds promised for the erection of buildings, aad
for defraying tee current expenses of the school as the Missionary Society
does, It would greatly relieve the institution and enable us to complete
our buildings Bach sooner than we otherwise can do.

All of which Is respectfully submitted by the undersigned superin-
tending Committee.

Thos. Johnson

J. Greene

J. C. Berryman

Photostat copy in MSS. Dept., K. S. H. S.

April 24. t requisition was issued in favor of Rev. T. Johnson
and J. Green, present, for $6,250, "being the amount of a donation to
aid in the erection of school buildings in the Indian country, and
for education expenses for 1840, as promised by the ©apt. in a letter
to T. Johnson of 20th Jane, 1S38.*

Copy in MSS.  Dept, K. S. H. S.
Abstract of ease of the Manual Labor School ia the Shawnee
Country, sent by Paul Flickinger Dec. 11, 1937.

May 4* "Since your last session a plan has been devised, with the
approbation of the officers and Board of Managers of the Parent Missionary
Society, to establish a central Indian, Manual Labor School, with the
design of collecting and teaching the active children of the several
adjacent tribes. The plan has been submitted to the executive department
of the national government having the superintendence of Indian affairs
and has met with a favorable and encouraging consideration; and we ere


[Page 85]



much  indebted to the officers and agents-jof the civil government ia,
sad adjacent to, the Indian country, for the extensive aid they have given
ia the establishment of the institution, both by employing their influence
ia recommending it to the Indians, and advising ia its structure sad
organization. This school is already, to a considerable extent, ia success-
ful operation, native children fros five different tribes are collected,
and sea fro® these tribes have visited the institution, and have very
generally been satisfied with its government and objects, we cannot bat
regard this establishment as full of promise of lasting benefits to the
Indian race. But as a detailed report of its organization, designs, and
prospects, will cows before you, we trill only add our earnest recommendation
of the plan to your deliberate consideration, with regard to the present
condition and wants of the Indians, and its adaptation to the great objects
it is designed to accomplish—the conversion of the Indians to the Christian
faith, sad their improvement ia all the arts and habits of civilized life.
And we would further recommend an Inquiry into the expediency of establish-
ing one or aore institutions at suitable locations in the Indian country,
on the same plan, and for the aase purposes."

R. R. Roberts                                              James A. Andrews

Joshua Soule                                            B Waugh

E. Hedding                                                Thomas A. Morris.

fra» the Address of the Bishops, General Conference Journals
aad Debates. 1840-1844, p. 140, 150.

[Baker U]

May 2S. Report of the Committee on Boundaries at the General
Conference. The Missouri Conference shall Include the state of Missouri
and that part of Missouri Territory which lies north of the Cherokee line.1*
General Conference Journals, 1840-1844, p. 79. Baker U.


[Page 86]



June 1.    Report of the Comittee on Missions.

"Resolved, by the delegates of the Annual Conferences of the

Methodist Episcopal Church in General Conference assembled:

1. That we have learned with waoh satisfaction, that tha Indian
manual labour school which has haaa commenced under the superintendence
asa direction of the Missouri Conference, ii is « state of forwardness,
mat promises all that usefulness whiea Its projectors' anticipated; that
M herehy acknowledge oar obligations to the executive officers and local
agents of the general government for the favourable light ia which they
ha*» aesa pleased to view the undertaking, and their generous co-operation
In carrying it late effect; and we earnestly recommend, that it he
promptly sustained, sat that so aooa as circumstances saall render it
expedient, otters, on. the warn plan, end for the* sea» purposes, he
established at task places ia til® Indian country as shall he deemed ®®a%

General Conference Joamals «ad Pahatea, 1840-1844, p. 101.

[Baker U, Library]


[Page 87]



June 15.

Under date of "June 151 1840* Mrs* Shurlock writes la reference to the
note for $75.00 she loaned Miss Todd:—

*Rev. Mr. Greene:- Dear Brother} .... Mr. Canterberry called oa ae
the 22nd of May sad paid me $75.°° for shieb I gave hia a receipt. . . . Be
said toe was directed to pay as this with ths added interest. X told hia to
telX you that X expected ay interest from another source. X had no idea of
ever charging ay dear sister Todd any interest for say good X aay have doae
her la aay way. Tell her for se that X do aot think that I ever put aoaey
upoa so good aa Iaterest aa that X lent bar; sad 1 aa sore tast X never felt
so ssuch real satisfaction la the use of aay aoaey that 1 ever had as la that:
And if it has been a blesslag to her then it has doae good la a three-fold
sense for it has also been a blessing to as and X think it is a blessing through
her to the Indians. ... X had aade arrangements to go to Baltimore to Meet


[Page 88]



you and Brother Johnson at the Conference; as a letter from sister Greene said
you would both be there and tbat both of you expected to cobs to Philadelphia
I did mot go to Baltimore. Ilea Mr. Canterberry earns and said you would not
come to Phila. ay disappointment ems very great. ... It was too late then
to again ssake arrangements to visit the Conference. . . .*

Inclosed in the above letter was one to: —

*By Dear Sister Greene:—(After speaking of matters relating to acquaintances
and friends and subjects of local interest Mrs. Shurlock writes:}. ... I must
tell you hois raneh we were all pleased at our namesakes among your little folk.
"Se were going to send thea all some alee present if Brother Greene had com© to
fhlla. . . . When Mr. Canterberry said Brother Greene is not coming I eould
not refrain from tears right before him. . . . le want to send a box of things,
write me and tell eg how to send— San it be done through any of your merchants?
-aal also tell arhat things would be moat suitable—wbst you want and you
shall have it. . . . Give our love to those dear children that are named for
us. Mr. Shurlock is very much pleased that you thus remembered him and is
greatly obliged to you for the honor you have bestowed in giving him. a name
among that people who are destined at no distant day to make a great Christian
nation, and thus perpetuating our name long after we are dead. . . . Sister
Weaver and Sister King are also both well pleased and said the same thing
about the survival of their masses. Allow me to suggest that ... if there
la another pair that yoe aaae them William and Rachel Blanding. » . . They
would be greatly pleased ....*'

Copy of extracts from letters sent by Belle Greene, MSS. Dept. K. H. S.


[Page 89]



From Thomas Johnson's Journal*

June 27th.— "Reached home from General Conference, end found ay
deer companion pressed down with many sorrows; two of our children having
been taken from us by the cold hand of death during ay absence. One, an
interesting little boy, nine and a half months old, the other an af-
fectionate daughter, nearly six years. The providence of God is indeed
a great deep which we cannot fathom. 0 for grace to be resigned. It
was a great relief to me when I learned that the mind of ay wife had been
astonishingly sustained by the grace of Sod in the midst of the almost
unparalled affliction through which she had been called to pass while


[Page 90]



I was from home. She was surrounded by the best of Christian friends,
1*0 gladly afforded her all the relief that best or Christian sympathy
could devise. It would have afforded me amah pleasure to have seen my
four little children again whom 1 had left when I started from hosts; hut
God has taken two of them to himself, where, I have no doubt, they are
better off than they would be in this world of trouble. So I submit,
sad will sot sorrow as those who have no hope; for I believe they sleep
ia 3mwmt  and that he will bring them with him when he shall some to
collect his Jewels together.4*

Christian Advocate and Journal, Nov. 25, 1840, Baker U.

June 28th.~ "Attended worship with my family at the I. M. L. School;

but my spirits were so broken down that I could neither preach nor mast
the class, but found WW eh relief .in attending the house of God, and
meditating on his promises."

Johnson's journal, In Christian Advocate and Journal, Nov. 25, 1840

June 29th.— "Went to the river with some wagons to haul out soma
goods purchased for our school and mission.*


•30th, and July 1st & 2d, I spent in examining into the state of

things at the school. !e are in the midst of wheat harvest here, and have
a crowd of business on head. Brother Browning Ms as such as he ©an
possibly do ia procuring materials, superintending the building department,
purchasing supplies for the institution, &e.; while brother 0.iae, the
farmer, has ninety acres of wheat to cut, and take ears of one hundred
acres of timothy and one hundred and twenty-five acres of oats. Our
wheat and oats are first rate; and if we can save them will very much


[Page 91]



lessen the current expenses of the institution."

July X, "I have re«£ your kind letter by the Ottawa Chief— kM
in reply would say that we think it will be best not to receive any sore
scholars until we have more house room i until the commencement of the
next sessions whieh will be some time in the month of Oct— We arm willing
to promise to take some of the Ottawa children at that time bat cannot
now say how many as we wish to give all the Tribes a fair chance to send
a few & we shall not be able to take more than about 80 this year, but
when we ascertain how many we can take of the Ottawas we will send the*
word & they can bring thea in— I thank you for the interest you take
in the I. M. L. School— 1 pray that the Lord way bless you abundantly
in your labor of love among the Poor Indians.

Yours affectionately
T« Johnson
T. Johnson to Rev. J. Meeker, Meeker Papers, v. 5.

[July] 3d.— "Seat to the Delaware Mission to commence a four days*
meeting, which X had promised the Delawares previous to ay setting out
for the east, upon the condition they would build a meeting house. The
missionary and the Christian Indians had gone to work some two or three
weeks previous, and with their own hands hewed logs* split the boards,
coupled the rafters* and had a house raised, and under roof, 22 by 27
feet in size; and this was the first effort they had ever aade of the
kind; and many of those at it had only been a few months converted from
heathenism. 1 think they have done well, and have set an example worthy
to be followed by many of our frontier neighbors among the whites, who
have no houses in whieh to worship God, unless it is soms smoky cabin,


[Page 92]



not large enough to bold aore than half the people who attend. On Sabbath
we took up a collection to aid the Delaware society ia finishing the
house. I preached the dedication sermon of Friday, the 3d, and was
followed by the second chief of the nation. He is a christian, and made
a very feeling and appropriate address to his people. A considerable
number of Christian Shawnees attended this meeting, as well as Delawares.
»• continued the meeting until Monday the 6th, and, notwithstanding it
rained frequently during the nesting, I think, upon the whole, we had
a profitable tine. Eighteen Delawares and one Shawnee joined the society
on probation.*1

from the Journal of Thomas Johnson, Christina Advocate and

Journal. November 25, 1840. [Baker U. files]

[July] 6tb.— *I returned home; and as brother Kline had as such
*m be could manage fa bawling and stacking tb© wheat, 1  thought it would
be best for ne to collect a company of bands, and try to save the hay;
consequently I spent the remaining part of this week superintending the
cutting and putting up the timothy."

[July] 12th.-~ Sunday, Preached in the forenoon to a congregation of
Shawnees sbout ten miles from home. I found them very much engaged not
only for their own salvation but also for the pagan part of the nation.
As it was the first time I bad visited the society since my return boas,
they had three very important questions which they bad mutually agreed
to refer to me for sty opinion, all of which were proposed in due foot
by the class leader.  1st. There were three young men la the society
who bad recently felt a deep impression in tbelr minds that they ought
to exhort their friends, and try to persuade them to become Christians;



[Page 93]



was it right for the* to do so? I answered that it would be well tor
them to assist ia holding prayer meetings and to speak to the people
whea aa opportunity would serve. £4. They bat succeeded ia persuading
all ia their neighborhood to take the Christian way excepting one maa,
aad they had tried him frequently, hat he would sot listen; what had they
better do next? I told thea to hold on to all they had gained, aad
extend their prayer meetings into the adjoining neighborhoods, wherever
thay would open the doors, aad never stop until the whole nation was
brought under the influence of the Christian religion. This they resolved
to do, by the help of God. 3d. They had recently very strange feelings
while engaged ia worshiping; sometimes while standing up to sing their
hearts were so salted down, and they became so weak, that they were com-
palled to sit down to keep from falling, and could do nothing but cry
all the time. They said they had felt a little this way before, but
nothing to compare with what they had recently felt at their prayer
and class meetings. Mow they wanted to know if 1 thought It was the
power of the great Spirit made thea feel that way? I told them that
these feelings were certainly the work of the good Spirit; for they were
happy feelings, which they had never had while they followed their old
ways, before they commenced worshiping God in the way the Bible teaches*
This answer appeared quite satisfactory to thea. We had a good meeting
this day; three joined on probation. Ia the afternoon we went to Mr.
Joseph Barnet's, where I tried to preach again. Mr. Barnet lives about
half way between the two societies, ia the Shawnee nation. Se had
recently opened his door for preaching; aad we commenced with & very
good congregation to-day; aad I axpest to keep it up regularly every
sabbath afternoon throughout the summer."


[Page 94]



[July] 13th.— "Resumed the business of hay-making."


14th.— "Moved to the boarding-house, so that ay wife could afford
suae assistance, wbaa necessary, ia conducting the domestic part of tbe


15th.~ "Spent the day in writing aad arranging my accounts with
the school. It be lag tba first opportunity since ay return home."

16th.— Closed my accounts, and went to purchase soiae article*
preparatory to m leaving boas to fie it the Peori and Pottawatomie


17th.~ ^Rode forty miles through the prairies baring ao timber to
shield as frea tba sun, which was vary oppressive, ^d tbe files un-
usually bad."


18th.~ "Spent tba day at tba Peori mission, with brother Talbott aad
his wife.w

19th.— Went to Pottawatomie mission, and preached to a small con-
gregation of Pottawatomies. fbay listened with very strict attention,
aad appeared anxious to understand the truth. After I had preached,
brother Boucheman gave an exortation with hia usual warmth and zeal;
aad I hope tbe seed sows was east oa good ground aad that It will bring

forth much fruit to tbe glory of God.*


[Page 95]



20th.~- *Spent Mm forenoon ia reading Finley’s •History of the
Wyandott Mission.* This la, upon the whole, an interesting work, con-
taining much useful information; though a few things which I aotieed
concerning the customs of Pagan Indians la general ere doubtful la
character, and especially that pert whieh represents the wild Indians
a* cutting notches oa tree* to show haw many miles distant their camps
are. Uncivilized Indiana know nothing about miles. They generally
measure by day's travel, &e. Ia the afternoon I visited Guaquater,
one of the "Pottawatomie chiefs, hat found ate shaking with the ague,
consequently said hat little to him, though promised to return to-morrow


21st«— Went to Guaquater’s camp, according to promise. Found him

clear of the ague, and ready for conversation. I gave hi® aa explanation
of oar views la preparing the I. M. L. School, and our plana for educating
the Indians generally, as nil as out missionary operations, and ©specially
of the reasons that had Influenced the management of the mission among
his people, change of sea, &«. He professed to he »ch gratified that
we explained these things to him, and he promised to co-operate with a»
i» oar operations and efforts to improve the condition of the Indians,
sad wished to know ho® many Pottawatomie children we would he able to
tstce care off nest fall. I told his we would amis ten. Be said *$• have
aoa© ready to go, when you asm talcs* them*"

I. M. L. School, Sept. 7, 1840.

Sept. 5. Twins are born to Rev. Jesse Greene aad Mary Todd Greene
at Shawnee Manual Labor School. They are named Thomas Johnson Greene


[Page 96]



and Mary Elizabeth Green.   They are said to he the first white twins
born in Kansas.

Belle Greene to George W. Martin, Nov. 13, 1906, K.S.H.S.,

MSS. Department.

Sept. 7.   "Dear Brother,— Since I returned from Baltimore I have
been much crowded with business and have been part of the time sick,
and have not found it convenient to write to you until the present hour;
and now I can only transcribe a sheet from my daily journals.

Yours most affectionately
T. Johnson"
Christian Advocate and Journal, Nov. 25, 1840. [Baker U. files]
[Journal on preceding pages]

September [29].   The Missouri Conference meets in St. Louis.  "Mr.
Stateler was changed from the Delaware to the Shawnee Mission, and Edward
T. Peery took his place among, the Delaware.    D. Kinnear was in charge of

the Manual Labor School,

"The Shawnee Mission was adjacent to the Manual Labor School, where
Mr. Stateler lived, and his wife was employed as matron of the girls'
department of the school."

Stanley, Life of L. B. Stateler, p. 104.

Sea September 30, 1840.

September 18.   Report of the Indian-Labor School.
Dear Sir:

la compliance with the request of the Government, we have the honor
to submit the following brief report of the Indian manual-labor school,
as the first year has just closed.


[Page 97]


Forty-nine children ia. the school at the close—twenty-four boys

and twenty-five girls.   They have progressed as follows:

In the male school.
1st class.—       8 read very intelligibly in English, are wan ac-
quainted with first rules ia arithmetic, the geography of the United
States, &M answer questions readily on the globe.

2nd class.— 6 spell aai read easy lessons, and have a tolerabl
knowledge of tht* first tables in arithmetic.

3d class.— 9 spell la two syllables, read easy lessons, and have

learned ■ number of useful tables,

4th class.—» 1 Chippewa just commenced, but can read a little.

In the female school.

1st class.— 5 read well in English, are familiar with the tables
and first rules of arithmetic, and also with the geography of the United

2d class.— 6 read easy lessons, and can draw maps of the States
in a rough way.

3d class.-- 11 spell tolerably well, read easy lessens, have learned
many useful tables, and can answer some simple questions in natural

4th class.— 3 just begin to read,

There have been ia the school during the year 72 children; the most
of them are permanent scholars, though some have only staid a short time;
hat we have cota&ted BttgM unless th»y staid a month or »or#.

They are from the following tribes.*    Shawnees 27, Delawares 16,
Chippewas 2, Grosventre 1, Peorias 8, Pottawatomies 7, Kanzas 6,
Kickapoos 3, Munsee 1, Osage 1.



[Page 98]




We now have house-room for about SO, and hare told tbe Indians that
we will take that number in next month. They have frequently inquired
of us, lately, to know when we could take store children; we anticipate
no difficulty in procuring any number that we een find roes for*

The children are employed six hours a day at work, and six hours
at school. The boys worked on the farm until this time, though we now
have two mechanic shops in operation, and shall put a part of the boys
in them at the beginning of the next session* The girls have been
employed during the past year, when not in school, at sundry things—
attending to the domestic part of the institution, &e. We have not
yet had house-roost sufficient to sake arrangements for them to be
employed in spinning and weaving, but expect to do so.

The children learn to work readily. The girls, under the direction
of their teachers, do all the cooking and work for the whole school,
for about twenty mechanics and other hands employed at the institution,
make their own clothes, the clothes for the boys, and also frequently
make clothes for the mechanics and others.

We have four teachers employed—two to teach the children when in
school, and two to teach them when at work; a farmer, who takes charge
of the farm and stock; and his wife superintends the cooking; and, also,
a principal of the Institution, but, as he is a practical mechanic, his
time has been chiefly employed in conducting the buildings during the
past year.

The crop on the farm has been very good during the past year. We
suppose that we have raised about 2,000 bushels of wheat, 4,000 bushels
of oats, 3,500 bushels of com, 500 bushels of potatoes, with a reason-
able portion of other vegetables, we have about 130 cattle, 100 hogs,


[Page 99]



and 5 horses. We think that when the expense of our buildings is over,
we shall be able to conduct the institution on a very cheap seals, we
still have confidence in the ultimate success of the school, end believe
it is much better adapted to the wants of the Indians in this part of
the country than any other plan yet tried.

All of which is respectfully submitted by the undersigned, superin-
tending committee.

Thomas Johnson,

J. C. Berryman,

J. Greene*
Major R. W. Cummins,.

Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1840, 147.

Sept. 30. "The Missouri Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal
Church convened in this city on yesterday corning, at 9 o'clock, at the
spacious Methodist church on 4th street, Rev. Bishop laugh presiding.

There are about seventy clergymen now in attendance, and others
are expected. They are a fine looking body of ccclestiastics, and com-
pare advantageously with their truly efficient brethern in the great
valley. Their session will continue, probably, from S to 10 days."
Missouri Daily Argus. St* Louis, Oct. 1, 1840.

Oct. 11. Stations of the preachers of the Missouri Annual Conference.
Indian Mission District, Thomas Johnson, Superintendent.
Shawnee, Learner B. Statler
Indian Manual Labor School, David Kinnear

Delaware, Edward F. Peery

Kickapoo, Jerome C. Berryman

Peoria and Pottawatomie, Nathaniel M. Talbott, one to be supplied.


[Page 100]



Kansas, William Johnson.

The Missouri Daily Argus. St. Louis, Oct. 11, 1840.

Oct. 28. "The Indian manual labor school has been In successful
operation for one year, and notwithstanding the buildings are yet
incomplete, we haye been able to keep at school an average of about 60
Indian children frost six different tribes. They have made encouraging
progress in acquiring a knowledge of books, and also of the different
branches of manual labor in which they have been employed. We still
look to this school for the preparation of interpreters and native
assistants, by whose aid we hope to be able to carry the Gospel to the
whole Indian community on our western border.''

"Missions within the Bounds of the Missouri Conference,* by Jesse
Greene, Chairman Christian Advocate and Journal, Oct. 28, 1840. [Files
at Baker U.]

October. Report ae.de to the government, 36 boys and 32 girls,
total 67.

. from E. R. Ames's report May 23, 1843.

Nov. 11. Report of John B. Luce to the Commissioner of Indian

"Si compliance with your request, I have the honor to submit the
following statement concerning the manual-labor school, recently established,
under the superintendence of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in the fort
Leavenworth agency.

"As my visits to this institution were without any particular design
of procuring information for the department, the observations were not
as careful, nor the results noted as accurately, as could have been


[Page 101]



desired; therefore, only a general idea, of the institution can be given.

"There were in August last, I think, over fifty scholars, boys
and girls in nearly equal proportion. These are taught the branches
usually comprised In a "common English education." I called at the
boys* school one morning, when such a visit could not possibly hate been
anticipated, and remained some ttae, while the teacher, Mrs. Kinnear,
went on with the ordinary routine of instruction. The scholars ranged
from six to eighteen years of age, and gave very gratifying - in fact
surprising - evidence of improvement. Nearly all could read: many com-
posed and wrote sentences; and the number that could readily give answers
to questions in the "rule of three," without referring to book or slate,
was astonishing. It is due to both teacher and scholars to say that
nothing appeared to be learned by rote. It was evident that pains had
been taken to sake the boys understand what was taught them. For instance:
many of them readily told what were the characters indicating addition,
subtraction, etc., at the same time illustrating their use on the black-
board. It may not be amiss to add, that one of the two or three white
boys that attend this school (an intelligent youth) told eb that, in
his opinion, Indians were generally apter scholars than whites—an
opinion in which many of the teachers concur.

*0ut of the school-room, the boys are taught to split rails, plough,
mow, etc. When the workshop now in progress is completed, it is intended
to teach them the carpenter's, blacksmith's, and other mechanical trades;
but I did not understand that they receive such instruction at present.

"As I happened to call on the day set apart for washing, the girls*
school was not in operation. They are taught the same branches, but
in separate room. Besides ordinary household duties, they learn spinning,
weaving, etc.; and it is expected that they will, ultimately make most


[Page 102]



of the clothing used ia the establishment.

"Two three-story brick buildings (one for the farmer, the other
for the hoys* school end lodging} hare been erected, and are nearly
finished* A third, for the girls, is under way. There is, also, a frame
building occupied by the principal, Mr. Browning; another for the black-
smith's residence; a blacksmith shop, barn, stables, etc., etc.

"Between fire and six hundred acres are fenced and under cultivation.
The crops gathered this year were abundant and it was thought that grain
to the amount of $1,500 would be sold in the fall.

"When the Improvements now going on are completed, the superintendent
says he will be enabled to receive 200 scholars, at an expense not exceed-
ing $70 par head. It is sot considered desirable that the students* labor
should be sufficient to cover their expenses, because it might lead the
Indians, naturally suspicions in such matters, to think their children
were imposed upon, and thus defeat the benevolent design of the institu-
tion, which, as at present conducted, Is exceedingly popular; so much
so, that applications for admission are constantly refused, the accom-
modations being Insufficient for those already there. This popularity
is not to be wondered at, as every attention is paid to the comfort as
well as the instruction of the children. 0a severs! occasions I dined
at the same table with them: they always had an abundance of wholesome
food; were well clad; and I understood, from one of the scholars, that
very few, and those chiefly new comers, were dissatisfied.

»I cannot close thi3 report, without adverting to the great progress
in civilization made by the Indians in the Fort Leavenworth agency, Many
of the Shawnees and Delawares live m comfortably in houses of their own
building, on as fine farms, broken and fenced by themselves, as an equal
number of frontier settlers any where selected. It is not uncommon to


[Page 103]



see them employed by the whites as blacksmiths, carpenters, &c« During
,the last summer the Delawares sold the Government contractor the greater
pert of the beef furnished the recently emigrated Stockbridge band. The
Shawnees have a semi-monthly newspaper, edited, and, if I mistake not,
printed by a Shawnee, extensively circulated through the nation* Warriors,
violently prejudiced against the whites and their customs, have been
known suddenly to abandon their savage habits and join the 'Christian
party—some of them even voluntarily giving up the use of spirits, and
exerting their influence to induce others to do likewise.

"Without intending to derogate frost the merits of other denominations,
or of the Government agent, much of this Improvement must be ascribed to
the efforts of the Methodist Society. Their agents, by combining agri-
cultural and mechanical with religious instruction, have practically met
the standing objection to missionary operations—that civilization
should precede Christianity. And their efforts among the tribes alluded
to having been so eminently successful, there is strong ground for hoping
the manual-labor school will give the world additional proof that Indians
can be civilized.*

very respectfully, your mast obedient servant,


Hon. T. Hartley Crawford.

Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1840, p. 163*

Winter. Rev. Statler begins the building of a large central church.
"A meeting of the leaders of the church was called for consultation
(a wise move) and the erection of a hewed-log building, twenty-five by
fifty feet—double lengths of logs—was agreed upon.**

"The building was located in a grove about four miles west of ths
manual Labor School and about six miles southwest of Kansas City.


[Page 104]



The house was gut up in good condition, the rafters made of poles
and covered with short boards, which ware riven by hand and sailed oa;
joists were put across, and the building was sailed overhead, The cracks
were "chinked* with pieces of wood and daubed with lime mortar ...

The building had one large door &ad nine windows. Although the work
was commenced in the winter, vet all that labor was performed and the
house was ready for use by early summer."

Stanley, life of Statler, pp. 104, 105,

Rev. J. J. Lutz says:

*A parsonage was connected with the church, fhis historic old
meeting-house stood till the latter part of the war, when it was torn
down and used for fuel. A part of the time it was loopholed and used by
the Kansas militia as a fort, nothing is left but the little reservation
of five acres used for burying-ground."

Rev. J. J. Lutz, "Methodist Missions among the Indians in
Kansas", K.  H. C., v. 9, p. 170.

The committee in the Indian M. L. School has agreed to employ
Mr. Currell shoe-maker at 350 dollars per year and bear bis traveling

expense* to me Institution; Bat If Kr. Currell becomes dissatisfied and
should leave the Institution before the ©ad of two years he cust refund
the money that he received for his expenses. The committee will take his
tools, lasts, etc. at their valuation and will also take his stock of
leather that he say have on hand.

Mr. Currell is requested to stake hie arrangements to reach the
Mission by the last of May**


[Page 105]



"Mr. Edward Currell will go to the Mission for 350 dollars per year
end Is to be there by the last of lay— The amount of stock which he will
have oa brail— 24 calf skins at $39 per dozen-—which is what they cost;
9 sides horse leather at $32 1/2 per dozen; 18 skin-linings $9.75 per doz.;
1/2 lb. bristles $2.60; thread, web, springs not known how much. There
will be a little sole and heavy leather, though but little.

Mr. Carrell think* Baltimore is the best market for leather. Ee
also thinks the Institution ought to furnish hist with vegetables for the
first year a® he will aot be oa la tisse to make a garden. If he is aot
wasted by the last of May he wishes to be- inforswd by letter immediately.
There will be as aaay benches for shoe-making es there will be boys put
to the trade and oae for the boss.

A set of tools required for a shoe-maker:— I boot and shoe key; 2
giges, a light and s. heavy oae; 3 shoulder iroas of different slaes;

1  raw breaker; 1 pair pincers large size; 1 pair of nippers; 12 awl
handles, 12 pegging awls; 1 gross Altitan’s assorted blades; 1 corset set;

2  knives; 1 hammer; 1 key for ladies* shoes; 1 whet stone; 1 gross steel
tacks; 1 shoe rasp."

[From the memoranda book of Rev. Jesse Greene. It is undated* Miss
Belle Greene who copied it states that it was written ia blue Ink, the
exact shade of two items ia his expense account to the General Conference
at Baltimore which was held ia 1S40. These were the oaly two places ia
his record where he used the blue ink. She thlaks it could be sefely
placed la 1840.

Also frnat the report of John Luce ia 1840, the school had not yet
began its annual labor progress, but la 1841 Thomas Johnson reports four
pupils learning the shoe-makers trade. So I think this pretty well
establishes the year.]


[Page 106]




Feb. 15. "The Quaker school here of 33 scholars is as much a
manual labor institution as the Methodist, & is sustained I presume at
less than one tenth of the cost. Building fine houses k raising fine
crops is not the business of missionaries."

Lykins to McCoy, McCoy Correspondence, MSS. Dept., K. S. H. S.

February. "The Kansas Tribe of Indians, in council in Feby. last,
requested me to inform the Sort, that thay wished to apply the interest
arising from their school funds to the education of as many of their
children as they may think proper to send to the Indian Manual Labor
School established among the Shawnees."

Extract of a letter of Maj. Cummins to the Dept. dated May 22,


•See letter of E. R. Ames to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs,

Jan. 25, 1844.

March 15. "Dear Brother:

Our school at this place is la a prosperous
condition. We have 76 Indian children in the institution, 42 males and
34 females. They have attended school six hours per day during the
winter, and worked four hours, except lag the boys who work ia the mechanic
shop; they work the whole time during one week, and then attend school
one week. We hare ten boys learning trades; that is, 2 learning the
blacksmith's trade, 4 learning the house joiner's trade, and 4 learning
to make shoes and boots.

The boys are generally well pleased to learn some useful trade.
We have quite a number on the reserve list waiting for room in the shops.
We intend commencing a wagon-making shop in the course of this year, and
hope by next fall to take into the shops as many as 20 boys.


[Page 107]



We have be *n compelled to reject a large number of scholars recently,
as we are greatly crowded with those we sow have in school; hat we expect
to have building enough by fall to accommodate 150 children. le feel
greatly encouraged with the prospects of the institution, and believe
that the expectations of Its friends will be fully realized. The children
hare already made roach greater profieiency in learning then many of us


T. Johnson."
March 15, 1841.

Christian Advocate and Journal. Say 5, 1841. [Baker fl. files]

March 31, J. Meeker writes: "Arrive at Br. Lykin’s. Ride to
Johnson's still, where I engage ay flour and seal.*
Meeker Journal, p. 246.

May 10. "We started, then, froa Westport, on the 10th of May, and
after having passed by the lands of the Shawnees and Delawares, where we
saw nothing remarkable but the college of the Methodist, built, it is easy to
divine for what, where the soil is richest; we arrived after five days*
march on the banks of the Kansas river."

P. J. De Smet, Indian Sketches. 1843, p. 64.

May 21. Joseph Williams visits the Shawnee Mission on his way to
Oregon in 1841.

Be writes: "I rode over, the next morning, to Westport, and finding
the company1 were all gone, and no possibility of overtaking then, with

This was the Bartleson party, one of the first emigrant companies to

Oregon, lather Be Scset was traveling with this party. Mr. Williams

ease up with thea a few days out froa Westport. He was 64 years old
when he started on this trip.


[Page 108]



much pain of mind I gave up going any farther, sad knew sot What to do.
I then rode across to the Shawnee mission, three miles from Westport,
across the Missouri line, and, there I met brother Greene, presiding
elder* who told ae the company, about four days previous, was eighty
miles ahead of ate, on the Caw River. I said within myself, surely the
Lord is opening ay way to go on. I began to get ready to go on, but
could not get half prepared. Sought so*© powder and lead, and son*
provision and a gun, but was disappointed in getting my gun. My feelings
were such harrowed up with the brethren trying to discourage so, and
keep sue frost going to the Mountains. One of the preachers told me it
was almost presumptuous for so old a man as I to attempt such a hazardous
Journey, and added, that he had awful feelings for me through the last
night; and he said, so had some of the rest. Mr. Greene said there was
a Possibility of my returning, but not a probability.

I started out on Saturday, with brother [William] Johnson, a mission-
ary, and two Indian chiefs, of the Caw tribe. He reached, that night,
Wakloosa Creek, and camped under the trees. Brother Johnson cooked the
supper, and we had cakes and coffee, fe laid down to sleep; the thunder
and lightning could be heard and seen, and the wind began to blow. I
was somewhat alarmed, for fear of the trees failing on us. The rain
soon began, and the wind ceased. Then I soon fell asleep, and rested
well and comfortably ...

Joseph Williams, Tour to Oregon. 1841-1842, p. 29.

May 27. Mr. Editor,-— We made our arrangements to leave the school
for this station [Kickapoo] on Thursday, May 20th; but were prevented
from starting by the arrival of brother William Johnson and two chiefs
of the Kansas oat ion, bringing with them, to the school, nine boys, from


[Page 109]



the age of perhaps nine to thirteen years. This was an Interesting sight
to us. They were all on horseback, and although they had blankets they
had laid the* aside as they rode along, &&a were naked when they arrived.
One especially was am oh jest of interest. He was a fine looking boy, ten
or twelve years old, well proportioned; and hia whole estate, real aad
persons!, was a red string of the thickness of his finger tied round his
waist. He was an orphan, and the missionary bought him from his friends.
The price was one blanket.

"The children were procured by the chief and brother Johnson under
such arrangements as to secure their stay at the school until they have
received a suitable education* Evan their parents cannot remove them
without an order signed by the Government agent, the superintendent of
the school, the missionary on the Kansas, and the principal chief of the
nation. In order that the whole night be fully understood, the agent
was immediately sent for, aad a council held.

"The boys were soon dressed, and appeared quite pleased with their
new home; but, poor fellows, when it cams to dressing themselves the
next morning, they were at their wits end; for, when discovered, they

were busily engaged in arranging their pantaloons, wrong aide out, and

the forepart behind. The next thing was to give them names. This done
we all repaired to the dining roast for breakfast, soon after which we
started for 'the Kickapoo.* '

Yours affectionately,

James M. Jameson.
Indian Country, May 27, 1841.

Jan. 28, 1842,
From Western Advocate, Vol* VIII, p..161.A Copy in MSS. Dept.,

K.  S. H. S.





May 29. *In compliance with the regulations, I attended on the
6th last, an examination of the children under tuition at the Manual
Labor School established among the Shawnees, by the Methodist E. Church,
the Superintendent of the Institution has this day handed me a report of
the number & sex from each tribe that were examined and the progress made
by each class in detail, all of which is substantially correct. The
report also truly shows the manner, in which the girls & boys are employed
when out of school— Since the examination the Kansas have sent in nine
boys more making in all thirteen they now have in the school, in this
report the Superintendent hare made an estimate of the expenses of the
improvements, stock, &e. and a statement of the funds received to meet
the same, and from what sources they were received— In addition to the
improvements heretofore reported by me, they are now carrying up a large
brick building HO feet long 34 feet wide, to be two stories high, to
contain 14 rooms for the accommodation of Teachers & children for school
& lodging rooms— At the request of the Revd fhomas Johnson I herewith
enclose the report which he respectfully requests that you will forward
to Ir. Crawford at your earliest convenience— I expect to make a report
in detail on the subject when I make my annual report in September."
R. Cummins to J. Pilcher,
U. S. Agency of Indian Affairs, v. 8, p. 39,

Aug. 28. "We have just closed one of the most interesting camp
meetings that I ever enjoyed in my life; and I find that almost every

person who attended appears to be of the same opinion. We commenced on
the 20th instant and closed on the 26th . • . The meeting of -«hleh we
speak was at the Shawnee meeting house."

Thomas Johnson.
Christian Advocate and Journal. Feb. 23, 1842. [Files in Baker U.]


[Page 110a]


110 - a


I shall never forget the pleasing sensations produced by my first visit
to the border-prairies. It wis in. the month of June, soon after my arrival at
Westport. The day wss clear end beautiful. A gentle shower the preceding
night had purified the atmosphere, and the laughing flowerets, nearly invigor-
ated from the nectarine draught, sessed to ft*               each, other in the exhala-
tion of their sweetest odors. The blushing strawberry, scarce yet divested
of its rich burden of fruit, kissed ssy every step. The buttercup, tulip,
pink, violet, and daisy, with a variety of other beauties, unknown to the
choicest collections of civilized life, on every side captivated the eye and
delighted the fancy.

The ground tfas covered with luxuriant herbage, the grass where left
uncropped by grazing herds of cattle and. horses, had attained a surprising
growth. The landscape brought within the scope of vision m most magnificent
prospect. The groves, clad in their gayest foliage and nodding to the wind,
ever and anon, crowned the gentle acclivities or reared their heads fro® the
valleys, as if planted by the band of art to point the wayfarer to Elysian
retreats. The gushing fountains, softly breathing their untaught melody,
before and on either land, at short intervals, greeted the ear and tempted
the taste. The lark, linnet, and martin, uniting with other feathered song-
sters, poured forth their sweetest strains is one grand concert, and made the
air vocal with their warblings; and the brown-plumed grouse, witless of the
approach of asm, till dangerously near, would here and there emerge well nigh
frost under foot, and »his through the air with almost lightning speed* leaving
me half frightened at her unlooked for presences and sudden exit. Hither and
yon, truest hands of horses and cattle, from the less inviting pastures of the
settlements, were seen in the distance, cropping the choice herbage before
them, or gamboling in all pride of native freedom.-


[Page 110b]


110 - b

Amid such scenes I delight to wander, and often, at this late day, will
my thoughts return, unbidden, to converse with them anew. There la a ©harm

in the loneliness—an enchantment la. the solitude~~ a witching variety la
the sameness, that must ever Impress the traveller, when, for the first ti»e,
he enters within the confines of the great western prairies.

One thing farther and I will have ioae with this digression. -Connected
with the foregoing, it say not he deemed amiss to say sons-thing in relation
to the Indian tribes inhabiting, the territory adjacent to this season camping-
place, the nearest native settlement la sows twelve miles distant, and belongs
to the Shawnees. this nation ambers in all fourteen or fifteen hundred sea,
women and children. Their immediate neighbors are the Delawares and Wyandotts,
—the former claiming a population of eleven hundred, and the latter, three or
four hundred. Many connected with these tribes outstrip the nearer whites,
in point of civilization and refinement,-"-excelling the® both in honesty and
morality, and all that elevates ana ennobles the human character, their wild
habits 'have become .in a great measure subdued by the restraining influence
of Christianity and they themselves transformed into industrious cultivators
of the soil,—occupying neat mansions with sailing fields around these*

lor are they altogether .neglectful of the sieans of education, the ads-
slon schools are generally well attended by ready pupils, in ao respect less
backward than the more favored ones of other lands. It 1© not rare even,
considering the smallness of their number, to nest among them with persons
of liberal education and accomplishments. Their mode of dress assimilates
that of the whites, though, as yet, fashion has made comparatively but small
inroads. The unsophisticated eye would find prolific source for amusement
in the uncouth appearance of their females on public occasions. Perchance a
gay Indian maiden comes flaunting past, with a huge fur-hat awkwardly placed
upon her head,--enbanded by broad strips of figured tin, instead of ribbons.


[Page 110c]


110 - c

—and ears distended with large flattened rings of silver, reaching to her
shoulders; sad here aaother, solely habited la a long woolen under-dress,

obtrudes to view, aad skips along ia all the pride aad pomposity of a regular

city belle! Such are sights by no means uncommon.

Rufue Sage, Wild Scenes in Kansas and Nebraska, The Rocky Mountains,
pp. 15, 16,


[Page 111]



Sept. 21,

Indian M. L. School

Sept. 21, 1841.



   We are suddenly caled on by the Agent Maj R W Cummins, immediately
after our examination to mmkm out our report, as he intends to leave for
St Louis la the morning and wishes to take oar report sith him, aad as
two of tln» Committee are absent aad I as confined to »y bed by a severe
fever we cannot sake as full a statement of oar Transaction aa we could
wish eat indeed this communication baa to be made by a friend whom I
have callad to sty assistance, aad as the Agent will present this ia
person we beg leave to refer you to bia for aay explanation you «ay
require aad herewith Present oar report for your consideration, which we
hope will be satisfactory to you

Class 1

4 Shawnee Boys

1 Piankeshaw do
1 Peoria

5 Delaware
1 Osage

1  Oteo
Girls 4 Shawnee

2  Delaware

1st    Class read well aad spell Finely
They have studied Arithmetic variously
from the commencement to Cube root.
They have made considerable progress in wrighting and Georgraphy


Class 2

2 Shawnee Boys
1 Delaware
1 Peoria
1 Grov ont
Girls 5 Shawnee

 1 Delaware

 1 Peoria


2nd Class Read Tolerable well aad spell
readily oat of the Book la three aad four
Silables. Have studied the simple rules

of Arithmetic, Also have made considerable
Progress ia Geography aad Wrighting



[Page 112]



Class 3rd.



3 Delaware Boys


 2 Kansas


2 Peorie




1 Shawnee Boy


3 Delawares do


2 Otawa   do


1 Kansas  do


1 Shawnee


3 Delawares


1 Peorie






2 Kansas Boys


1 Shawnee do


1 Delaware


1 Ottawa do


1 Peorie do



Class 6

2 Shawnee Boys


1 Chipiwa do


1 Chipiwa


1 Ottowa  do



Class 7.

3 Kansas Boys


1 Osage  do


1 Ottawa  do


1 Delewar girl



Class 8

5 Kansas Boys


1 Wyandott do


1 Delaware do


1 Peorie   do


1 Wea     do


1 Wiandot girl


3rd. Class. Read Tolerable well and spell
In two silables out of the Book.

4th Class Read Tolerable well in the new
Testament and spell out of the Book well in


5th Class  Read easy lessons Readily and
spell out of the Book in two silables.

6th Class spell in three silables on the
Book and two off the Books.

7th Class Spells well in two silables on
the Book.

8th Class spell well in two silables

one of them off the Book.

Thomas Johnson Chair.
Supt. Com.


[Page 113]



The United States

In aee* with the Indian M, L. School

For schooling & Boarding 16 Deleware children 1 year ending

1 Oct 1840 a $100.21 p year                                                                   1603.38

For schooling & Boarding 19 Delaware Children for 1 year

ending 22 Sept 1841 a $lOO.21 1/8 p year                                         1904.02

For schooling & Boarding 3 Dalewar Childrea for

4 months a $100.21 1/2 p  year                                                                  100.21

For schooling & Boarding 4 Kansas Children

For 1 year ending 1 Oct, 1840 a $100.21 l/8  $400.85
For schooling & Boarding 4 Kansas Children

for 1 year ending 22 S apt 1841                                 400.85

For schooling $ Boarding 9 Kansas Children

for 4 months ending 22 Sept 1841 a $100.21 1/2 300.65



There are a fm other children at school from
other tribes that have school funds bat as tbeir
Baling Chiefs have not decided to apply their
funds to this last1tation t  bare sale no charge &
Clothing Is Included in all eases

Thomas Johnson Chair-
Supt Comm

Account Current with the Indian Manual Labor School commencing trem
October 1838 to Sept. 22, 1841 Exhibiting accounts of all moneys received
and expended


[Page 114]



1838 to 1839

October To sundry expenditures from

October 1838 to Oct. 1839     $14423.92
From Oct 1839 to 0ct 1840                           15157.11

Oot 1840 to Oct 1841                           11665.50



1838    Oct   By Draft from Miss. So. M. E. C.                                            $8000.00

1839    Oot. By Proceeds from old Shawnee Mission                                    1626.00

*        *      By Draft from Miss. So. M. E. C.                                          10,000.00

1840  Apr. By Draft from Government U. S.    6250.00

*        *      Prem. on                    Do                           256.50                      6506.60

*      Oct. By Draft from Miss. M. E. C.                                                     8000.00
July 1841           By Draft from Government U. S.    3,750.00

Prem. on   Do                                              243.71                   3993.71

By Cash from female Miss. So Phd.                                           200.00



To Balance due Ind M. L. School                                                                            2920.32


                           Thomas Johnson Chelr-
                                     Supt Com
     Explanation why we have made oat the aee, from the beginning is#
that we found out errors to transcribing the reports sent os lest spring.
One reason why we were aot prepared with sufficient Datta was Rev. W.
Browning had taken tha books with hiss to St Louis and we were mistaken
to tha real amount expended for the second year *ad «• now have the whole
of the Books before as from the beginning and think it beat to sake oat
aa aaat. entire. We will observe here that amount of sale sate from farm
and Mechanic shops her© been deducted from the expendatures.


[Page 115]



Sept. 21.

Indian M. L. School

Sept 21, 1841

Honbl. & Dear


We bere with present you ia addition to Report Ho 2 an

abstract of tee whole number of scholars in attendance at this Institution

and from the different nations wita the number of Male and Female students

And ia addition to  number herein enumerated we bare six large

Shawnee girls employed in Sewing and making of Clothing for the Institu-
tion that have been heretofore attached to the school. And many others
that has been taught at this school during the last session and who had

left before the examination and not expected to return we consider more

th?n enough to make up for  deficiency at this time

                                Boys       Girls
Shawnees                        10            10

      Delawars                            14            8
Kansas                              13

Peories                                                                         5                         3

Piankashaws                          1

Weas                                                                              1

Osages                               2
Ottawas                              3            2

Otoe                                                                              1

Grovont                                                                        1

Chipewa                                                                        1            1

Wiandott                                                                      1            1           

                                           53                      25           78

Thos. Johnson Chair-
Supt Comm


[Page 116]



Sept. 2l.

A Report of the value of the Buildings Farm. Stock crop and all
appertances belonging to the Indian H. L. School

Building* ...............15000.00

Farm Orchard Pasture &e  .,  .  •  .  .          5000.00      20,000.00

Waggons Farming Utensils .  •  .  .  •            800.00

House Hold & Kitchen Furniture   .  .  .            750.00       1,550.00

Bed & Beding  ........    250.00

Dry Goods on Band  .......                       1000.00        1,250.00

Cattle  .........                            1500.00

Hogs  ..........                          300.00        1,800.00

Horses & Mules ........                          720.00

Crop on Hand  ........                  2500.00       3,220.00

Amount of stock in shoe shop                    370.00

Black smith •        do.                                         255.00

Carpenter*  *        do.                                         175.OO        800.00


Deduct the value of Property belonging to the Indian
M. L. School from the expenses of the last 3 years which

is as follows                                                                                                4l,246.53


Number of scholars for 1st year - 50 at $100.21 1/2 5010.52

do do       for 2*     76 at 100.21 1/8  7616.01

                             126                                                            12626.53

whole number for 1 year                                                               „..,  in,  .    .

                                                 Thomas Johnson Chair
                                                             Supt— 0os
.Photostat copy in MSS. Dept. K. S. H. S.


[Page 117]



October, The Missouri Conference meets at Palmyra, Mo.
Thomas Johnson on account of ill health was forced to give tip Ms work.
"He was superannuated wad left the Territory.**

J. C. Berryman was placed ia charge of the Manual Labor School.
William Johnson was wade Superintendent of the District, at the
same time retaining his work among the Kanzas.

L. B. Statler was returned as Missionary to the Shawnees.
Stanley, Life of Statler, 106.

Nov. 25. from report of T. Hartley Crawford, Commissioner of
Indian Affairs to the Secretary of War,

"I have observed with pleasure that there Is a slight increase of
pupils in several instances. The strongest, and at the seas tint for
that reason the aost gratifying, exemplification of this remark is
the manual labor school established by the Methodist Episcopal Church
In the Fort Leavenworth agency. This Institution is on a large scale.
The religious society has contributed freely of its means, and the
Department has been as liberal ia aiding to build it up as a Just regard
to the claims of kindred, establishments would allow, I think the assist-
ance exceedingly well bestowed. The plan adopted is the only one that
evar will succeed ... I cannot too much commend the efforts made by
the active seal of the founders of this school, whose success there is
good ground for hoping will be commensurate with their exertions,
A year ago the school contained some fifty scholars, now they report
78 j of whom 53 are boys and 25 girls."

Reports of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1841-1844. p. 240.


[Page 118]




Jan. 1. "Mxv Stateler notes la his journal the commencement of ft
♦two days* asseting* at the Shawnee aweting-house oa the first of January,
1842; that 'the friends ease and. brought provisions with them and
regained during the Besting,* and they 'had a gracious tins.*1*
Rev# E. J. Stanley, Life of L, B«, Statler, p. 106

Mar. 18, She first Quarterly Conference for the Indian Mission
District, Missouri conference is held at the Indian Manual Labor School.

On the fourteenth the following resolutions were passed;

"Besolvad, That la future no person shall be adsalted to tae Communion
of the Lord’s Supper awmg us without previous examination m& a fle&et.*

"Resolved, that we will have hut one general camp meeting within the
hounds of this Indian District during this oonf. year,

*aesolv©a» That we agree to build a suitable shed at Shawnee Camp
ground for Camp meeting occasions.

wBesolvei That tola conference adjourn to sect again at 3 o'clock
on the present Inst, and that the President he requested to prepare ft
document In regard, to the difficulties with the Baptist Missionaries
within the hounds of this District.

W3 o'clock 14 Inst Conference met pursuant to adjournment. When
the Document refered to day [by] previous resolution, was presented;
and after investigation, and amendment was finaly adopted, and ordered
to fee filed —mag the papers of this body. On motion the Conference

Recording Stewards Book for Shawnee Mission, MSS. Dept.,
K. S» H. S.


[Page 119]



March 12. Copy of Communication from Methodist Missionaries.

fhereas It Is desirable and proper that peace, ana Christian friend-
ship should exist between both the Ministers and members of all Religious
denominations who engage to teach the doctrines and duties of Religion
to the unenlightened Indians, inasmuch as the dignity and parity of the
of the Christian character, depend very such upon such evidences of
Inward peace and Charity, And

Whereas the Missionaries of the Methodist 'Episcopal Church have felt them-
selves treated with great lack of friendship and Religious courtesy as
wall as greatly perplexed in the administration of Discipline upon ir-
regular, and offending persons under their instruction, by the course
pursued by the Missionaries of the Baptist Church in receiving and
baptizing persons under censure of crime, such as drunkenness, lying,
theft, etc. As well as repeated attempts to alienate, and render dis-
satisfied members of our Church. Therefore.

Resolved 1st That the conduct of the Missionaries of the Baptist
church Is unfriendly and calculated to encourage sinful habits in
thoughtless persons; and thereby lower the standard of Christianity among
a people who should possess the most exalted views of it.

2d. Resolved. That we think it Imprudent to receive members of one
denomination Into another without a certificate of good standing in the
Church to which they belong: and that we as Missionaries of the M. S.
Church will not receive members of other Churches without such certificate.

3d. Hesolved That we do Respectfully request tfee Missionaries of
the Baptist Church to consider the subject agitated in this document, and
agree upon some course of action calculated to prevent the evils complained
of and promote harmony and Christian respect.


[Page 120]



Mar. 12. 4 Resolved, That the difficulties complained of are of
such magnitude that unless our Brethren of the Baptist Church will consider
the subject and give us some assurance of a leas hostile course, la future,
that we •hall feel it to he our duty to write out a full statement of
charges and specifications, and appeal to the proper authorities for

5 Hssolved That a copy of this preamble and resolutions he presented
to the Baptist Missionaries among the Western Indians, who are requested
to respond at as early a period as possible*

Signed in behalf of the Quarterly meeting conference of the M. 1.

Church for the Indian Mission District held at the Ind. M* L. School

March 12th 1842.

William Johnson, Supt
Luther Carter, Secty

Ind. Miss. Ind. District M. E. C.

Pratt Correspondence, 1842, MSS. Dept., K. S. H. S.

Mar. 21.

My Dear Husband

"David found in the office Saturday a letter directed to you, and
on opening it found it signed by la. Johnson Supt. of Indian Missions
and Luther Carter, Secry. of Quarterly Conference of Methodist Ministers,
in whieh they denounce the course of the Baptist, as calculate to en-
courage sinful habits, and lower the standard of Christianity among a
people who ought to have the most exalted views of it. They accuse of
receiving and baptising their members who are under censure of crime,
such as lying, theft, Drunkenness etc. They passed 5 resolutions; in
the 4th of which, they say that if the Baptist do not give them some


[Page 121]



assurance of less hostile course that they will write out a full statement
of charges sad specifications, and appeal to the proper authorities for


*»■•♦**..*♦»  *  »»..*.

Your Affectionate Wife
Deliliah M. Lykins.
Deliliah Lykins to her husband, McCoy Correspondence, 1842,
MSS. Dept., K. S. H. S.

April 8. Death of William Johnson.

Richard Cummins, Indian Agent, writes in his report of Sept. 12:
"I visited them [Kansas Indians] in March last, in company with Mr.
Johnson, who resided for several years among them . . . We stayed several
days among them ... Unfortunately, Mr. Johnson, on his way down to the
manual-labor school, with eleven Kanzas boys in company with me, at the
crossing of the Walkrusa, where we encamped for the night, was taken
sick, of which he never recovered. The death of this man, whoa I con-
sidered one of the best men X ever became acquainted with, was, I believe,
the greatest loss the Kansas Indians ever met with. Bis last services
expired when he returned the eleven Kansas boys to the manual-labor school,
part of which he rendered in great pain."

Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1842, p. 63.

April. "During the month of April, Bishop Roberts, senior bishop

of the Methodist Episcopal Church. at that time, visited the Indian

in visiting and
Mission and spent some time  preaching at the various charges. During

hie stay he preached the funeral of William Johnson.*
Stanley»  Life of Rev. L. B. Statler. p. 107.


[Page 122]



Apr. 15. "After traveling hard all day, without eves stopping to
eat a mouthful of food, we reached the Indian Manual Labor School about
dark . . •

"The Bishop had promised himself great satisfaction from hie visit
to these missions; hut was much east down by learning, on his arrival,
that the Rev. William Johnson, the superintendent, had died the week
before. He had been laboring among the Indians for tea years, and was
universally beloved and confided in by them* The arrival of the Bishop
was most opportune, as it was requisite for him to appoint another
superintendent, and make some other changes which the death of brother
Johnson had rendered necessary. After spending a day or two in examining
the condition of the school, the farm, stock, mechanic's shops, Its.,
and offering some suggestions as to the best mode of conducting the
establishment, and making some slight alterations, he proceeded to visit
the missions, and preached among the Shawnees, Delawares and Kickapoos.
He enjoyed himself very such; and was greatly pleased with the condition
of the missions; and also with what he saw on his visit to the Moravian
mission among the Delawares, and the Friends* school among the Shawnees.

"Having disposed of the carriage and ponies on the 4th of May, the
Bishop took passage, at Kansas landing, on the Missouri River, for
St. Louis.™

See May 4, 1842.

Charles Elliott, B. B., The Life of Rev. Robert R. Roberts, One
of the Bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 1844, pp. 347,

April 20. I, £t« Junes, who accompanied Bishop aoberts on his visit
to the Missions writes:


[Page 123]



"I find here a noble institution which promises to be a blessing to
thousands of the red men. There are now In attendance about one hundred
pupils from eleven different tribes. I hear many familiar names Bounding
in »y ears in the school-roost. Bare is Joshua Soule, Nathan Bangs t
William Ryland, Ricbard Tydings, Thomas Bottomly, William Herr, William H.
Raper, Samuel Gillette etc; and to see these fine, sprightly lads, with
their frank, opes countenances, cheerfully employed in the school-room,
the mechanic's shop, or on the farm, you would hare no fears of their
disgracing the names they bear* I as sure if those who have given their
money to aid tha cause of missions could witness the scenes that are
passing here, and in other parts of the Indian country, so far from
regretting their former donations, they would hereafter double both their
prayers and gifts to aid this blessed work.*

E. R, Ames, to Rev, C. Elliott, Western Christian .Advocate, v. 9,
p. 14, May 13, 1842. Copy in MSS. Dept., K. S. H. S.


Apr. 22.

Shawanoe Baptist Mission April 22, 1842


Missionaries of Meth Ep. Ch. Ind. Ter.

Tour communication of March 12th has been received  laid

before our Missionary Conference, ffcs Missionaries regret that any of

their proceedings have been the occasion of trouble or pain to their

Methodist Brethren, and still tgore that their conduct has been such as

to * lower the standard of Christianity**, among the people whose spiritual

interests they are professedly laboring to promote. They also regret,

that if the "evils complained of," actually exist, the character of your

communication is such, as to render it Improper for them to respond.

They are, therefore, under the necessity of returning the paper, assigning


[Page 124]



the two fallowing reasons for so doing

1st- "The evils complained of ,w are, ia part, such as the Baptist
Church alone, Is responsible for, and over wale a according to the usage
of the Church, we, as individual Missionaries, feat* a© more eoatrol than
the native, or other members.

Ed- ¥e consider ourseltres according to the teaor of your communication,
as having been arraigned, tried, and condemned. While under condemnation,
therefore, we eaaaot perceive what propriety or "dignity8, there would
be ia legislating- ex post facto.

Though until now, we did not know we were amenable to the authorities
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and are not a little surprised at being
called to account by then* still we do not refuse to reply to any charges
that any be preferred against us, provided they come in such shape as
will reader it proper for us to do so.

We greatly desire ♦'that peace, and Christian friendship, should exist
between both the Ministers and members of all religious denominations who
engage to teach the doctrines and duties of Religion to the unenlightened
Indians," and readily consent that "very much depends upon such evidences
of inward peace, and Charity." ie cannot, as consistent Christians,
wilfully wound the feelings of our brethren, unless it be considered that
the carrying out of our religious principles would be manifesting "a
great lack of friendship and 3eligione courtesy," calculated "greatly to
perplex,* and grieve them; encourage "drunkenness, lying, theft, ete;*
deprive the "Christian Character of its dignity and purity," ** alienate»*
end "encourage sinful habits in a people that ought to possess the most
exalted views of it," and evince in as, ia our common and religious inter-
course, an entire, lack of •Charity,* or inclination la any way to
"•promote harmony and Christian respect•• In which latter ease, it would


[Page 125]



act consistently

be expected of ua to yield points which, sees right sad proper, though

they might not be approved by those differ lag from us ia their views of

religious truth and practice.

Ia behalf of Conference

John C. Pratt

Cor. Sect*y.

P. S, If our Methodist friends will take the pains, ia preferring their

charges, to specify which apply particularly to the Missionaries and which

to the Church, they will promptly be attended to and answer returned.

J. G. P.

Pratt papers, MSS. Dept., K. S. H. S.

Apr. 28. J. C. Berryman writes to the Advocate:
"We have had a pretty good state of religion at our institution
through the winter ...

"At our monthly concert prayer meeting for March, we proposed that
all who felt like it should give one cent a week, beginning with the
first of November last, up to that time, to cause of missions. The
proposition was unanimously agreed to; we received pledges for about # 42,
which will be paid in due time; and we intend to follow up the plan for
the balance of the year."

Western Advocate, May 20, 1842. Copy in MSS. Dept., K.S.H.S.

May 4. Bishop Roberts, having disposed of carriage and ponies took

passage at Kansas landing on the Missouri river, for St. Louis.
See April 15, 1842.

June 10. Lieutenant John C« Fremont starts on his first expedition

to the Rocky Mountains. He remained at Cyprian Choteau's trading station


[Page 126]



for several days, @o?«$l<atlai sis arrangements for- tie trip. lis party

•mm easiest almost wholly of Frenchmen sat Canadian French ifataere*. ap
aroaai St. Louis, wits Christopher Carson as gatis.

Report of the Exploring Expedition to the Rocky Mountains

b* Brevet Captain J. C# Fremont, p. 9.

August 15. Report #f J. C* Berryman to Maj. R. W. Cummins.
Sear Sir;

la ©be&ieaae to your sail, I aarewlts present to you our annual
report of tae Indian manual-labor school. I bave eaassvored aot osly to
report on all tbs ratters easbraeed la your instructions, but also every*
talag else eoaaseted with our operations, that I bad any reason to
believe would be interesting to our Government,, waiob, we are nappy to
know, takes a deep interest la tae aalloratloa of tbe condition of tbe
Sighing Sons of tae Woods.

At the commencement of oar school year (October 1, 1841) we were
#S»©00 la toot, fas appropriation of tbe Missionary Society last fall,
was «a4e la view of oar raeeivlag aid fro» tee Government of tae United
State«t la eoapliaaee wlta far*er stipulations—wMob aid we iaavo sot
resolved tals year, I prssoae. because we nave aot asked for It. I save
aot yet posted up my books, so as to kaow certainly new oar accounts
stand. But tiss institution will be largely ia arrears witb various
persons who bave ol&lss oa Its funds* le respectfully suggest to tbe
Government, waose obild la part tals Institution is, to a 14 us la tbla
trying near, ana aot let tie brigbtaaing prospects of tals establishment,
waioa projiises to da so aaeb for tbe unfortunate Indian race, be blasted
for waat of- a little t lately aasoarageaeat,

Our missionary treasury is greatly la debt--but still tbe board


[Page 127]



will do ail they earn. Sat we do mm% confidently look to the civilization
fund, and to the 'Delaware and Kanzas school funds, for relief in our
present straitsoed circumstances.

Saspeetfully, Ac.
J. C» Berryman,

Sup't. I. M• L* school.
Reports of Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1841-1844, p. 114.

August 15* Additional report of J. C. Berryman to Mej. R. W. Cummins.
"fro* experiments already aa.de» we are fully satisfied that there la
no essential difference between watte aad red children; the difference
la all ia eircuastaaees.

fhare are difficulties, however, very great difficulties, to be
sunaouttted ia the education of Indian youth. !Phe igaosaa.ee aad prejudice,
instability aad apathy, of the parents, aad all the little whine that eaa
he laagiaed as being indulged ia by so degraded a people, combine to
hinder us, aad retard their owa advancement ia civilisation: aad oae of
the greatest hlnderanees to the success of our efforts to te&p&rt  instruc-
tion to the children we collect here, la the difficulty of keeplag than
a sufficient length of ttae to «tur« anything we undertake to teach than;
especially if they are considerably advanced ia age ??hes they eosaeace.
We have found that tie labors bestowed upoa those ehlldrea* taken ia
after they bar© reached the age of tea or twelve years, have, ia mw%
eases, heea lost; whereas, those taken ia between the ages of six aad
tea, have, ia a Majority of eases, doae well, ffeie is chiefly owtag to
the older oaes having formed habits of idleness, so that they will act
bear the confinement aad discipline of school. Another thing ia favor
of receiving these children at aa early age is, that they acquire our


[Page 128]



language aore readily, and apeak it sore correctly. They also aore easily
adopt oar ssanaers and habits of thinking.

Our method of instruction la literature, is such as is generally

practised ia the best primary schools in. the United States, le teach
in books six hours each toy, except Saturdays and Sundays— on Saturday
ma  teach three hours only, and on Sunday the school is conducted on the
plan of an ordinary Sabbath school.

The boys not employed in the shops, usually work on the fara, in the
garden, getting firewood, or something of that kind of labor, five hours
each day. They are at all tines under the care and management of their
teachers, the «hole school retire to bed, as a general regulation, at
8 o'clock, I. I*, ana rise at the riaglng of  the large bell at 4 o'clock,
A. Um   Is have three seals a day, and the mhole school, and all immediately
connected with it, eat at the ease time, at two long tables that will
accommodate nearly two hundred persons*

The children are boarded, clothed, lodged, and taught, free of any
cost to their parents, except in a single instance, in which the parents
clothe the child.

The total auisber of male and female students ia 97, and the expenses
of each la one hundred dollars per aaawB, which gives, as the total
aaoaat of expenses for the school year, the mm of $9,700,

These estia&tes have been aade out from accounts kept for the current
year—and we have wade the* as low as the facta of the case will justify.

Although some of these children have not been in school a whole year,
we have thought it best to sake the calculation as though they had been,
for the sake of saving unnecessary trouble; because our average auaber
of children in attendance le, in fact, over the number here reported:
for instance, there are 14 or 15 Kansas children belonging to the school


[Page 129]



but a large  portion of them being at hoiaa at the time of our examination,

we have not reported but seven or eight, although their parents have
promised that tfeey shall all return.

J. C. Berryman,

Sup't I. M. L. School

We concur in this report.
N. M. Talbott,
E« T . Peery.

Makers of Superintending Committee.

Reports of Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1841-1844, p« 114, 115.

Sept. 12. "The Shawnees own a traot of country twenty-five miles
north and south and oa® hundred aast and west, bounded oa the east by
the State of Missouri, amd oa the north by the Kansas river. This tract,
in point of soil, tinber, and water, is equalled by but few tracts of
the same sisse in any country; there is, however, hardly timber enough for
the prairie. The Shawnees have beeona an agricultural people; Their
buildings and farms are similar to those of the whites in a new-settled
country; all their far»» are enclosed with rail fences, aad most of them
in good form, each string ©f £©aee straight, and sufficiently high to
secure their crops, many of them staked and ridcred.

"They all live in comfortable cabins, perhaps half or more of good
hewn logs, neatly raised; they have outhouses, stables, barns, etc.

"It is impossible for me to state the number of farms or acres
cultivated, or the quantity it  produce raised by them; there is no family,
that I tasow of, but what has a farm of as much as five or more acres,
and some have farms of over one hundred acres. They raise Indian corn,


[Page 130]



wheat, oats, pumpkins, beans, peas, Irish and sweet potatoes, cabbage,
turnips, and mnf other vegetables. They raise horses, cattle, hogs,
turkeys, chickens, etc. Tbey depend ©a agricultural pursuits for a
subslsteace, end stoat of the* raise an abundance, and winy a large surplus;
take the whole nation together, and they raise considerable sore grain
than tfeey need for hoise consumption, fbe Shawnees have a water, grist,
and sew nlll, sad a large meeting-house, to bold public worship taj thay
also have a council bouse.*

Richard W. Cummins, Indian Agent, to Maj* D. D. Mitchell, Supt.

of Indian Affairs, Reports of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs,

1841-1844. p. 61.

Sept. 17. WI enclose herewith a letter dated 15tb August. last froa
the lev. J» C. Berryman, Supt. of the Indian Manual School. I em informed
personally as well as by letter froa bin, that the Institution is largely
in arrears at this ti»s and that without help He credit wmt suffer; I
would regret an eeeureaee of the Mad exceedingly—especially at this tine,
the Institution has taken a food start, yet young, it wold have an un-
happy effect sjBO&g the Indians-- ffeere are ninty-seven students now at the
institution— The farm, mechanic shops, and every other thing connected
with the Institution are going on well. T think there vms an arrangement
nade between the Society and Mr. Crawford for assistance annually out of
the civilisation fund, if so, I hope he will be able to relieve it.

*I will thank yon to report these fact* to Mr. Crawford, sad forward
Mr. Berryman's letter to aim, with the report of the Indian Manual labor

R. Cummins to Maj. D. D, Mitchell, Supt, of Indian Affairs.
Superintendency of Indian Affairs, St. Louis, v. 8, p. 71»


[Page 131]



Nov* 5. first Quarterly conference of the Indian Mission District
for the year 1842, 1843 eoovenes. The followiag resolution was adopted:

*8e*o,lired by the Q• M, Conference that whereas tfesr© is so great
Irregularity existing aaioag oar Indian Friends »ith reference to marriage.
Is now reooraend to the* to be sarrisd after the Christian mnaar al-
though they say ha*e ll*ed together as ana aad wife, aad that we will
require hereafter that all oar friends who matte with the Chorea shall
he so married»*

Recording Steward's Book for Shawnee Mission, K. S* H* S. vault.


[Page 131a]


131 - a


members of the Friends church
John P. Long aad Samuel Taylor, Jr. visited the Indian tribes west of

the Mississippi River.

After visiting the Friends Shawnee Mission they aide a visit to the
Shawnee Methodist Mission of w&ioh they swots;

*We made a visit to the Methodist Mission School, distant shout three
miles froa that of Friends', fheir haildiage are of nriek and large, sad
aa extensive fara Is attached to the Establishment. ©lis school also, is
eoadueted oa the manual labor plan. "is *ers informed that they iastruet
upwards of eighty children saaually at this Institution. Oar government
had doae ansa towards its estsblishseat and support, aad the deficiency is
Made ap ay the Methodist Board. the ehildraa wars asking tolerable progress
ia the various stadias ia which they were engaged, as wall as la agriculture
aad mechanic arts.

Indian Miscl. Pamphlets, V. 1.


[Page 131b]


131  - b






"Indian Manual. Labor School:

this institution is wader the patronage of
the Missionary Society of the it* S„ Church, and of the government of the
Halted States, The project of its establishment was decided upon at a seating
of the ministerial sad lay brethren held at the old Shawnee »issiea station,
and reeo8»©nded to the easuiag Missouri annual conference, Rev. Thos. Johnson
was appelated aa agent to go la person sad lay the subject before the hoard
of manager* la He* York and with their approbation to lay It before the
proper authorities la Washington city. Here the Indian Manual Labour School
took Its origin, ©a May 30, 1838 the board at Hew fork passed a vote of ap-
probation on the project, and resolved to sustain it. ,4ad on the 20th of
June, the authorities at Washington expressed their satisfaction with the
plan, and pledged thasselves to aid la carrying It out. At the next session
of the Missouri annual conference a eosstlttee of superintendence was appointed
to carry the whole lato effect. Regular and satisfactory reports have been
sent up from this school, both to the Missouri conference and the general

Frost owr latest reports we learn that there are 98 Indian children
la thie school, of whoa 88 are stales, and the re^atader females. There are
employed at this tins la the school I sales and 2  female teachers, besides
the ean who oversees the boys when at work on the fans. There are 4 sssebaales
employed here, and 6 boys work with the®., who are learning the trade of car-
penter, wheelright, blacksmith, and shoemaker. These children generally
learn fast and work well; m& both they and their parents are generally well
pleased with the school."

annual Report of the Missionary Society of the Methodist

Episcopal Church, 1842. p. 27-28.

Copy in K. S, H* S« vault.


[Page 132]




Feb. 9. Revd Mr. Ames  presents the Claims of the Manual labor
School, within the Fort Leavenworth Agency, for settlement:

Be elaiias for allowances under the agreement of SO Jim© '38, as follows:
Donation to aid in Erecting Buildings        $ 5,000
*   to aid in education for the year 1840,  2,500
«      •       *    -      *  w        1841   2,500

*    w 1842  2,500

In all                                $12,500

From which deduct the following payments:

1840 Ap*l 24. pd the donation                        $5,000
*     * 1/2 years education fund     1,250

1841 July 1, 1/2 years education fund     1,250
for the year 1841                                          2,500


Leaving due, and now payable to the end of the

1842, in full under the agreement                          $ 2,500

an allowance out of the funds set apart by treaty

with the Kansas and Delawares for education, to pay expenses in 1840,

'41, and 1842, during the time they supported 9 Kansas at #100 a year

say                                                                                  $2,700

& 16 Delawares at $100 a year say                       4,800


The treaty with the Kansas of   provides for a fund for education
of youths in the nation. The school in question claiming is not in the
Kansas nation, but among ths Shawnees. It is therefore thought the funds
provided cannot be applied out of the nation.

The Delawares have a fund also, of which $9000 have been invested in


[Page 132a]


132 - a

U. States 6 per cent stock                                                 $ 9.000

Interest received 446.42--due Jan^, 1842.

to collect, 135, making  ..  ..  ..  ..  $581.42

To which Is added the Apps for 1842 ..  «. 2,304.00


The Delawares expressed a desire in Jan* 1840, to have expended for
them in Agricultural lap; 1000 annually, and apply the residue for education
at this school, none of which has yet been so applied.

It is proposed now to allow the Manual Labor School as follows:

The Delawares 1304 $ annually for 1 Ian? 1843, and Int. on §000:
540 in all say 1800, if there should be kept at school 18 Delaware
Children                                         .                                             $1800

As the fund for Kansas are applicable within the Nation, and in lieu
of the $2500 allowance of the Civilisation fund, it should, in considera-
tion of the above allowance out of the Indian fund be reduced to #1500
per annua:                                                                                    $1500

This will pay the Society 3,300 in place of 2,500 as heretofore, and
leave $1000 annually of the Civilisation fund to be applied elsewhere.

This arrangement to be carried out from 1 Jany, 1843, and until
otherwise ordered by the Dept.

The foregoing proposition as to future payments to the Manual Labor
School is approved, if 18 Delawares shall be educated at the school,— and
if a less number, then the amount to be proportionally reduced; and the
payment out of that fund to be at the rate of $100 per head, for any
number not exceeding 18. This arrangement to be subject to such modifica-
tion as the Department may hereafter direct. If there have been IS
Delawares educated there during the year 1842, then $100 of the Delaware
fund may be paid to the school as a ^enumeration for such education.
If the number has been less, then at the rate of $100 per head.


[Page 133]



The $2,500 stipulated heretofore to be paid out of the Civilization

fund, will be paid for the year 1842.

J. C. Spencer.
Feb*. 9, 1843,

Photostat copy in MSS. Dept», K. S. H. S.

May 18.

Brother Elliott,—- My last communication was addressed to you from
Delaware mission. I now write you from this. 0a Monday corning, May ISth,
.Rev. E« T. Peery, superintendent of the Indian missions, Rev. 1. Browning
and Myself, met at a place previously designated, they costing frost the
Delaware mission and I from the Manual labor School; and we set out
together for the Kansas mission, a distance of some eighty or ninety miles.

Bar. T. Johnson, the other member of the visiting committee, was
not with us, he having concluded to remain and labor among the Shawnees,
and assist the missionary, Hev. L. B. Stateler, in settling some difficulties
which had arisen among some of the Indians* $» journeyed on, and after
encountering some difficulties from high water, back water &e., pitched
our teat not far from the lower ford on the Waghkarusa, at a place, which,
for reasons we will presently give, we named Camp Disappointment.

The first thing we did. after stopping, was to strip our horses and
hopple them, and then turn them loose to graze; because we had nothing
to feed them with. Ie next set about preparing supper, and arranging a
tent to sleep under. Just as we sat down to supper, brothers Peery and
Browning*s horses suddenly made off homeward with all the speed possible.
In the meantime I had taken the precaution to tie up my horse, fearing,
from restiveness manifested by them, that something might happen, the
brethren pursued after their horses some little distance, but it being
dark, they had to give the pursuit up.


[Page 134]



Mext morning, after we had takes "breakfast, we concluded to pack
all our saddles, saddlebags and oamp equipage, on the ess borate, and
return, as tbe distance to the mission was yet- »ore than fifty atiles.
411 being ready, we oomstenced our return, being disappointed, as we supposed
la visiting tbe Kansas mission. Is all, as a matter of course, started
on foot, I leading tbe bores, and attending to tbe baggage, and tbe
others tracking tbe horses tbet bad run away* - is pursued on for some six
or seven miles, and finally overtook tbem at tbe bouse of an Indian, Jim
Captain by name, be, bavins taken tbe& up and put tbem into bis lot*
After procuring some corn from tbe Captain, and feeding our horses, we
resolved to change our course and yet visit tbe mission for whieb we started.

Is set out and again reached Camp Disappointment, and crossing a deep
narrow ravine on a Caw bridge, at S o*clock we stopped at tbe foot of
Prince mound, hoppled our horses, and left tbem to grass* in tbe prairie,
while ws ascended tbe mound for tbe purpose of enjoying tbe prospect,
and taking soise refreshment, laving reached the top of tbe mound, perhaps
200 feet in height, we bad a most sublime view of tbe lmsense tract of
country around, principally prairie, but occasionally interspersed with
some small spots of timber, to tbe distance of some twenty miles or more,
in almost every direction, fhe scenery was beautiful, romantic, and
interesting beyond description. After we had gratified our eyes in looking
abroad upon tbe verdant landscape, we sat down to partake of a little
cold dinner, consisting of some dried beef, crackers and water. Having
refreshed ourselves, we descended the mound, saddled our horses, and so
went on our way rejoicing*

After traveling a few miles we came to tbe upper ford, on the Waghkarusa,
not being able to cross at the lower ford. Tbe stream being very full,
we concluded not to attempt crossing until the next morning; and to this


[Page 135]



necessity we yielded the more cheerfully from the feet that there was no
other suitable place to camp for miles on our way. Mext morning we set
out, crossed the stream without inconvenience, or much risk, it haying
fallen considerably through the course of the night; and after riding
some fifty miles or more, reached the mission. We found the missionary,
Hew. G. F. Love, in good health and at his post, though somewhat dis-
couraged In regard to his success la the mission.

We did not find this mission in as prosperous a condition as we
could wish: Indeed, the Kansas Indians have been found to be one of the
most difficult tribe® to operate upon we hawe tried la all this wast field
of missionary operations, fhy it la so we cannot tell, unless It he owing
to their wandering and unsettled manner of living, and the peculiar
ramifications of society amongst them. They are friendly, and seem to
wish a missionary kept among them, and yet at no time hawe they given
evidence that the labors of the missionary had been of much service to
them. They have had faithful men to labor with them, and some of them as
well qualified as amy could hope to have at any subsequent period.

Rev. W. Johnson, who died a martyr to his work, was a faithful
missionary, one who had great personal popularity and influence among
the Indians, and understood and could speak their language well; and yet
his labors amongst them seemed pretty much as water spilled on the ground.
We would ask the prayers of the whole Church to their behalf, peradventure
w0od may yet grant them repentance unto life."

Is called together several chiefs, their bravea and warriors, and
had a long conversation with them respecting the mission, and the great
propriety of sending their children to the Indian Manual Labor School;
this closed, however, without anything very satisfactory being accomplished.


[Page 136]



0a Friday, the 19th, we started back, accompanied by brother Love,
and some nine or tea of the Caw children, destined for the school. This
school is, so far as we sea fudge, the brightest hope of the Church ia

regard to this tribe of Indiana at present. If we can hat get their

children, and keep than at school, we may, in the coarse of tins, be able

to do the nation soae good. On Saturday the children all reached the

school in safety, aad ao far as we coald learn, were veil satisfied*

Yours affectionately,

W* Patton, Chairman.

"Kansas Mission, Missouri Conference, May 18, 1843."

[From Western Christian Advocate, Vol. X, p. 38, June 23, 1843]

Copy ia XSS* Dent., X. S. if. 8*
May 18, p 139 - a

May 23.

Indian Manual labor School

Shawnee Nation May 23--1843

Bear Brother

X herewith oowaunicat©» through yon, to the Board of Managers, some
information respecting this institution.

The Board are aware, X presume, that this Is the post extensive
establishment ever founded for the benefit of the North American Indians.
It has, indeed, cost the Society such money, aad sosse of its agents,
wjoh anxiety & labor. But it has already, though yet in its infancy,
accomplished seech good. It is a fountain that has seat forth streams of
life through the human deserts by which it is surrounded. Aad should God
continue to prosper it with his blessing, as he has hitherto, it will ever
be considered, one of the brightest ornaments of the church, whose zeal
aad liberality have founded, and sustained it. Ia its design, it con-


[Page 137]



template*, the christianizing & civilizing of the Indian Tribes around

it by imparting instruction in Religion, Science, Agriculture, and the

Mechanic Arts to  rising generation. But its establishment has la one

respect, done mors than was contemplated— It has ©pparated oa the Tries*

"afar off* a* well as those •aear at bead" — This institution has become

the model oa   the Govt is soar fouadiag a abates of education aaoag

the Indians. Bay aore, it seems likely to become tfea jsodel aftar which
otter Governments will patters la improving the eoaaitica of their Heathen
sal)jests* For daring the last winter taa Governor of taa Provence of
Upper Canada wrote to Governor Reynolds of Missouri requesting iaforamtloa
respect ine the plan oa which this last itatioa is conducted, with a visa*,
a* I iafer, of iatredusiag some similar system for taa Improvaseat of
the Indians ia that provence. So that the direct influence — resulting
from this taa establishment of this school, are not to be compared, with
indirect or  incidental ones*

Bat ay object, when I commenced, my 1sttar, was simply to give taa
Board soma fasts respecting taa details of tfea school, showing the cost—
&e—that the Board may be prepared to form a eorreet opiaioa of taa
processes &■ results to be expected—in similar establishments taat are
aow, or taat may be hereafter, sommeaeed, under their patronage. It is
aot intended ia the Choctaw schools, to expead as much for buildings,
as has been expended here—these are of brick, those will be of wood;
partly of logs, lapeeially, at Fort Coffee, where the buildings erected
for the Fort will be occupied by the school.

The improvemeats at this place ware eommeaeed ia the fall of 1838.
And pupils ware received ia Oct 183— The Reports made to the Government
from year to year show the following Resalts, as to students.


[Page 138]



Oct. 1840— 35 boys & 32 girls Total 67.    Oct 1841— 53 boys & 25 girls

Total 78.

Oct 1842— 64 boys & 33 girls Total 97. Oct 1843— 63 boys & 43 girls
Total 106— Grand Total 348— The number set down for 1843 have been is,
attendance siaca last fall, and it is presaned they «ili remain. The
follow lag Exhibit shows the Ixpendltare. Appropriated by the Mission
Committee of the Missouri Annual Conference Oct 1838 $8000, Oct 1839 -
$10,000 Oct. 1840 $8,000 Oat 1841 $8000 Oct 1842 $5000 Total $ 39,000.
Appropriated by the Sort frm. the Civilization fund April 1840 $6250
July 1841 $3750 Feb. 1843 $2500, and fro* taa Delaware School fund $1800
Total 14, 300 $ Grand Total 53,300$ Froai which subtract 4,300, the last
peyneat from taa Govt., which was applied to taa general objects of taa
Society and we have as taa total aeteuat of expendituras to Oat 1843 $49,000

The following is the estimated value of the property belonging to the
Institution, Buildings 16,450 $ Farm of 550 Acres 5000 $ Live Stock:
2000$ Farming utensils 400$ Household & Kitchen furniture 600$ Dry goods
300$ Tool© it stock on hand, in the Mechanics shops 1000$ Total 25,750$
fhich subtract frost th© expenditures,, leaves 23,250$ for the paysent of
salaries of persons in the employment of the Institution, the subsistence
of the Pupils &e &s from Oat 1838 to Oat 1643 inclusive, which is a
fraction less than 5000$ par annum on an average. .

It la supposed that the farm after supplylag all the Bread, neat
and vegetables eonsuaad In the family, and selling enough to pay for
the Tea, Coffee, Sugar &c yields an annual surplus in grain fc live stock
of about 600$ The following may be set dona as about the average produce
of the fara anseally, Wheat 2000 bushels. Oats 3500 bushels Corn 4000
bushels Hay 50 Tons— Annual surplus of stock for sale, or consumption,
110 hogs averaging 200 pounds each 40 Beeves, & 4 horses.


[Page 139]



There are la the employment of the Institution, 11 married men who have
ta their families 20 children* la addition to which there eaployed 10

single men & one woman, which added to ta© avexags nwafeer of Indian
children at the school, say 100— «ke 150 souls to fee supported eatiraly
fey the Institution. The Board know that this school 1© conducted oa the
Haaual labor System, that the boys are instructed la Agriculture & tfee
Mechanic Arts, as well as la letters; and that the Girls are taught house-
wifery, spinning, weaving, knitting, and how to cut and «ake gar»eats. The
labor of the children does sosething toward lessening the cost of their
support. The Boys, oader the direction of the Teachers, oat all the firs-
wood, cultivate the garden, ©laugh sad hoe corn—help to tend the stock,
& assist ia getting la the Arrest. The girls wtthta the last sis months,
have swde 446 garments for the Institution, aad 200$ has feeea reesived for
castes work done fey thea ia the sewing. Th»y do all the wash tag It sake the
soap, beside dotag afeoat half the cooking &e ia the kitehea.

Sow sroeh this Institution will east the Missionary Society annually
hersafter is uncertain. If the Govt do as Justice, It will require little
or so aid from the Missionary Treasury. We owght to have 2800$ from, the
Civilisation fund, 2300$ from the Delaware school fund, 2500$ frost the
Senses school fund— ted as the Wyandotts are now settling la oar iswedtate
neighborhood, I presume we shall get their school faad 500$ which would
give us an annual income of 6300$. The principal object of sy present visit
to this part of the Indian Territory is to sake arraageiaeats to secars the
funds I have senttoned. I sat fully aware that he who deals with oar Govt.
oa the subject of Indian school funds, or oa any other subject has a
troubleaoss task, and whether X shall succeed or not Is uncertain, but I
ave reason to believe 1 shall. If I do the Board shall fee duly advised
oa the subject . • •


E. R. Ames


[Page 139a]


139 - a


May 18. *S3us> expedition did not ashark for Westport until Saturday,
May" 13, and Is all probability Dr* Whitman and his nephew were oa the some
boat. Fremont r«*sshed Westport on May 18. This in about th« time that
Whitman axrivsd**

Clifford Merrill Drury, Marcus Whitman,. M. D., p. 329.

"A* sooa as there wae {sufficient grass to give pasturage to livestock,
the emigrants for Oregon bagrja to assestelo at a .readesvous afeaut twelve ailes
west of Independence, Missouri, aad just over the state line.*
Ibid, p. 330
Whitman aad bis nephew left the Shawnee mission on Thursday, June 1,
aad spent that sight with the Fremont party.                                                             -

Ibid. 332.
Whitman wrote four letters dated fro* the Shawnee Methodist Mission;
Manual Labour School near Westport.
May S7, 1843, to hi a aether; May 27, 1843, to Edward Prentiss; May 28. 1843.
to Jonas Galushu Prentiss; May 30, 1843 to the Reverend David Greene.

Letters in Archer Butler Hulbert, Marcus Whitman, Crusader, part 2, 312-321 •

"Whitman left Westport May 31, warn trains baiag already oa the road
aad eosas aot yet started."

Ibid, p. 122.
*After a short visit, aad haviag secured at least the ©as major ©bjaejr of
Ma journey {hut hoping still of obtaining the Protestant lay helpers he desired)
Dr. Whitman left Boston oa aa anknosm date for the lest by way of the Ithaea, 8. ¥.
ragiou aad reaehed the *|stport frostier as early as, if not before May IS.
Oa his return journey he was aeooapaaied by his nephew, Perrin B. Whitman,
thirteen years old.*    Ibid. p. 119.


[Page 139b]


139 - b


•first repairing to Ms forssur home in central New York, hs settled up
acorn private business affairs, siwl taking with Mm Ms young nephew, hastened to

the frontier, where, was being ©©lieetea for a flaal start the emigration of
164-3, of vMeb he prohaely heari as he journeyed east two aonths l&efore.   S»
arrived at the reMszmroa of the emigrants Just as they wars about t© organise
on th© 18th of May, asd was invited to make suggestions.    After this he
visited soae relatives tmue Westport, aad the Shawnee mission mn& overtook
the emigration oa the Platt River, travel!lag with thm aad rendering
professional sM other services, as required, on the way,"
H. H. Bancroft's Works, v. 29, p. 344.


[Page 140]



Rev. C. Pittman &e «se

From photostat eopy»

May 28, "Sun 28th we had hardly got lata action when the sky became
overspread with dark clouds which soon dissolved tfeeaselvs* la a cold

raia with the unpleasant aoeo»paaiement of a searching east wind. The
road was very heavy—may of our mules uabrokea, which caused greet
trouble to the sea; la soaie eases after unavailing efforts with the males,
they had to drag the carts through the worst places by hand. I west ahead
with sea* of the sea i horses to Westport sad there waited the arrival of
the rest of the party* Qsa of our wild mules, which had beea tied to a stake,
in its fraatio efforts to break loose, succeeded t» impaling biseelf. is
went 4 miles out iato the prairie, eajaping aear to the Methodist 'Mission
House, a large aatahllshaeat surrounded ibyl extensive improvements. It
had ceased to raia hut the evening was still anything but agreeable aad
ay first iatrodactioa to prairie life was rather inauspicious aad act at
all pleasant* The primary occupation oa unsaddling, is to water, and then
hobble our horses by tying the two forelegs together: with the wilder
oaes we take the additional precaution of fastening the*, with a rope 10
or 12 feet iosg to sa iroa shop picket securely drives iato the ground,
thus giving then aa opportunity to graze without danger of escape* The teats
were sooa pitched, large fires kindled aad every one trying to oak* Massif
as dry & comfortable as eircuastances would allow . . ***

May 29. "Mon 29th. The sua rose bright aad clear affording a happy
contrast to the gloosy aad alsost wintry weather of yesterday, Mr. Fremont
went to Westport to settle his business there. The country arenas' us is
very rich and of beautiful appearance; it is a rolling prairie intersected
by numerous well wooded streams. The Shawanese and Delawares have fine-
flourishing farms and are well advanced la the arts of civilization. There


[Page 141]



are two of their farm houses within a stone's throw of e&«t>; and »any

visit as. these Indiana are raaerksbly brave and intelligent, qualities
which give then great Influence asong their allies and render the® the
terror of their ©nesies. 'fhey are very proud of their renowned ancestry
and with aowe justice, assert superiority over the whole red race* ttaay
whites are married and live in the nation*

The Journals of Theodore Talbot, 1843 and 1849-1849, pp.  7, 8.
With Fremont Expedition of 1843.

May 29. John C. Fremont sets out on his expedition to Oregon aad
California. He arrived at Kansas May 17, where he remained to complete

the necessary preparations. Bis party consisted of thirty-nine men.

Report of The Exploring Expedition to The Rocky Mountains in the
year 1842,  and to Oregon and, North California in the years 1843-'44.

By Brevet Captain J. C. Fremont. p. 173.

July 2.    W. H. Goode visits the Manual Labor School. He writes:
*fhe institution known as the Indian Manual-Labor School* hut more eosBoaly
called the 'Methodist Mission, * ia the first missionary experiment upon
a large seal© of educating Indian youth, not only in cosmos English
literature, hut ia habits of industry end the duties of domestic life, by
taking the entire control of the*, hording, lodging, clothing, end instruct-
ing them.**

'About one hundred students were ia attendance* All were orderly,
end some- had wade a profession of Christianity* fhe school, thoa^s
situated on the Shames lands, was designed for the benefit of all the
contiguous tribes, and aost of them shared in its benefits.


[Page 142]



WA tm slaves, even then, were, or bad been, held by the preachers
eage^ed at th© isstitatioa; bat it wa» apologised for as m  temporary
arrange»eat justified by peeoliar circumstances • ♦ **

W. H. Goode, Outposts of Zion, p. 99

July 3. "la t&e afternoon previous to th© 4th of July, the
Superintendent set out with *©■» forty of bis pupils, male and female, to
attend a Sanday school celebration at Independence. They bad bsea sell
trained is vocal music by a eostpst&nt instructor, and tfceir presence was.
calculated greatly to heighten- the interest of suet aa occasion.**

Ibid, p. 99,
July 24, "iwoag the Shawnees, Christianity ia exerting 8 salutary
and growing lafInsane, inspiring those habits of uaifomity sad industry
which are always productifa of corresponding happiness ia the social fiat
domestic cireles. They have a well finished mrtlifl house, twenty-five
by fifty feet, neatly pointed with 11*©, aad plastered overhead, sad
furnished with two stoves* Ibis ferns the central point to which the
different classes with their leaders repair every Sabbath to receive the
iaatraetioas of God's word as expounded by their missionary. The prayer
and ©sap sasstings a.re attended to throat the m^st ia their respective
settlcaaeats sad ©lasses* Brother Stateler, the missionary, has also a
wee&Xy circuit, consisting of soise three or four appolatwents in different
parts of the antion, so that the Gospel is literally offered to the whole
nation, being brought, as it were to the door of &r^ry one.

E. T. Peery to Rev. E. R. Ames, Corresponding Sec.  of the

Missionary Soc. of the M. E. Church, Western Christian Advocate

Nov. 10, 1843.

Copy of letter in vault, K. S. H. S.

Sept. 30. from S. M. Irvin's report to the Indian Agent.


[Page 143]



"Sine® that time I had the privileg*, with Mr. Hamilton, of visiting
the neat and well-oondueted manual labor boarding school among the
Shawnees, SJ0t«V the direetioa of the Society of Friends, and also the
extensile and valuable institution, of fcisdrod character, under the
direction of the i-ethoiist tersttomaj la the s&»a tribe.   This institution,
while conducted with its present spirit sad interest, cannot fell t© wield
a powerful influence la favor of Christianity aad modern irefiaaaaea*.*

[S. M. Irvin was missionary at Highland.]

Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1841-1844, 1843, p. 316.

Oct. 1.   "This tribe is gradsally increasing in agricultural pursuits;
their blacksmiths ba"*e b»«tt constantly engaged daring the fear ia asking
aad repairing agricultural implements.   Although they have two blacksmiths,
they are enable to supply all their wantsj they have raised an abundance of
grain to supply all their wants this year, and will have a surplus left."

Report of R. Cummins, Indian Agent, Reports of Commissioner

of Indian Affairs. 1841-1844, p. 404.

Oct. 4. The annual conference convenes at Lexington, Mo.

W. W. Redman, W. Patton, J. C. Barryman aad James M. Jameson were
ehoseit delegates to the General Conference to bo held ia New York City
the following May.

L. B. Stateler was returned as missionary to the Shawnees, and J. C.
Berryman waa reappointed Superintendent of the Indian Manual labor School,
M'Anally. Life and Time of Wm. Patton, pp. 205, 306.

October 22.


""Brother Elliott, - I have for sobs® tisse past been thinking that 1
ought to say sonsthing to oar friends who are desirous to aid in this


[Page 144]



missionary cause, but on account of the hardness of the times are at a
loss to know how to do it* And I think this is the case with may of the
preachers as well as the people. I am inclined to think so store especially
since oar last conference in Missouri. 1 there heard many of the* say,
when called on for their missionary money, "I have none: the circuit
where X traveled has from three to five hundred members; hut there is
literally no money in the country, and X consequently could not stake
missionary collections.'* fell, we know exactly how this matter is, and
are willing to admit that these brethren would have had but little success
If they had tried to collect missionary money on their circuits. Still
there is a way for something to be done where no money can be had. let
the money come first if possible, because that is every way the most con-
venient for all concerned. But when the people have not got it, for the
lord's sake, let us not debar them from the privilege of giving such things
as they have. I will then, with your permission, tell the readers of the
Advocate how they can do a great deal without paying a single dollar in
money. And X fancy that many who may read this, will say when they come
to this part of my letter, MTou are striking the right cord now." Well
then, you know, brother Elliott, that we have a large Indian school Im-
mediately on the western border of Missouri where we have for several years
past averaged about one hundred scholars, or students we will call them,
and we closed our last session with one hundred and twenty. In this
school we are teaching the children almost every thing that they ought to
learn; and thank God, with a great deal of success too. Mere we have
various mechanical and farming operations going on. In which the boys are
employed; and spinning, weaving, knitting and sewing, in which the girls
are engaged to good effect. Our farm is large, and in harvest time,
especially, we have to employ many of the adult natives to help us. And


[Page 145]



these natives can generally be paid off for this labor la clothing; this
in faet is better for thea than aoaey. It takes not less than fifteen
hundred dollars* worth of clothing and bedding, per annua, for our school
children. Besides this the teachers and mechanics about the place must
have clothes from sons source. All taken together, two thousand dollars*
worth of dry goods would not sore than supply the place one year. How let
ae ask, What do our friends wear at boss? Any thing of the seas kind would
suit us here. Could they not occasionally spare us a little? le think
they could; we think they will, establish a place of general deposite
In each circuit; and one will have a pair of stockings, woolen or cotton;
another a few yards of linsey or janes; another some domestic cotton;
another a handkerchief or shawl; and soaetiaes one Merchant will give
you a set of knives and forks; another soae spoons; another aoae calico
or thimbles, pins and needles; and 1 had al»ost forgotten to say, sobs of
the sisters will give a quilt or coverlet, a pair of sheets, pillow-slips,
towels, table-clothes, or something of that sort. Let thea all be sent
to the general place of deposits; and when boxed up neatly, direct then
to the Indian Manual Labor School care of Simpson & Hunter, Westport,
Jackson county, Missouri, Whenever they arrive here I will vouch for
the right and honest disposal of them. Or if it be preferred, let the
boxes so aade up be sent to any convenient place on the Ohio or Mississippi
between the mouth of Ohio and St. Louis; or to any place on the Missouri
river, and let ae be notified of the faet before I leave hoae for Mew Tork,
the first of next April; or I can be informed by letter at Pittsburg,
Cincinnati, and St. Louis, on ay return about the first of June.

Mom$ ay deer brother, I do not see anything to hinder our people
from doing a great deal in this way without interfering at all with the
aoaey collections. And I want you to let our people kaow that the bishops


[Page 146]



and others, who control these matters, have brought down the appropriations
until we ere actually almost, yes, quite reduced to want* If our friends
do not help us the "Indian Manual Labor School", the grandest enterprise
ever undertaken in the Indian country, must decline, must die* fhank God,
there are no symptoms of decline yetj it is vigorous and healthy. Bat it
cannot live on empty prayers. Eo  doubt we have enough of these; but these
alone will not do. If these are all oar friends will give us, we don't
want them; let them appropriate these nearer home, upon their owe. stingy

But time admonishes me to quit. I could write you a book about our
school and the work generally in this mission district, but both you and
your readers have so such else to do you would not be likely to read it*
I will say, however, the good Lord is still with us, and Indians are being
converted to God.

Your fellow-laborer in the Gospel.

J. C. Berryman.
P. S. Should any wish to writ® to me, let them address me at Westport,
Jackson county, Missouri.

[From Western Christian Advocate. Vol. X, p. 130, Dec. 1, 1843.]
Copy of letter in MSS. Dept., K. S. H. S.

November 25• Report of the Manual Labor School;

Number of teachers - 4

Scholars, Boys    69

Girls   47

Total    116

Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs 1841-1844, p. 308.

"The church statistics for this year report tea colored children as
members of the mission. The conference minutes would indicate that they


[Page 147]



lived et the manual labor school. These colored children belonged to
the slaves which Rev. Thomas Johaaoa had brought into the territory,
and who worked oa the mission preaiaea.'*

Rev. J. J. Lutz, "The Methodist Missions among the Indian* in

Kansas," K« H. C, v. 9, p. 177.

*I have said that the management of the affairs of the Manual Labor
School was hard work, I certainly found It so. With an average attendance
of one hundred pupils of both sexes, all boarded, lodged and clothed In
and by the institution; an extensive mechanic's department for the instruc-
tion of the boys in different breaches of mechanism; a domestic department
in which the girls were taught to spin, weave, sew, knit, wash, cook, etc.;
a farm of seme six hundred acres in cultivation, together with grist and
saw mills in operation; all to be supervised by one man; and hs the general
financier, bookkeeper, and official correspondent of the establishment,
sad having at the same time the pastoral work to do in person--all this,
I repeat, was work enough for one man. 1 did it for three and a half
years consecutively, being actively employed upon an average of fourteen
hours every day.*

Rev. Jerome C. Berryman, bjl Circuit Rider's frontier Experiences,"

K. H. C, v. 16, p. 219, 220.


[Page 148]




Jan. 25.

Greencastle Indiana

January 25, 1844


jMseordiaf to as. agreement entered Into ©t Washington City June 20th

1833, between C. A* Harris Esqr, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, in behalf

of the Govt. ana Revd Thomas Johnson and Rev. S. Lucky D. D. in behalf of

the Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church; relative to the

establishment of a Manual Labor School ia the Indian territory, south of

tha Missouri River for tfe* benefit of the Tribes residing thara; tha

following ansa are now dne aald society. Tha payaaat of which 1 bag leave

respectfully to urge upon your attention*

The United States

The M.. s- of the M. E. Church Dr.

To Boarding, Clothing, Lodging & Instructing

Sixteen Delaware children one tear ending Oct 1840                             1600.00

T© Boarding, Clothing, Lodging & Instructing

Nineteen Delaware children one fear ending Oct 1841                           1900.00

To Boarding, Clothing, Lodging & Instructing

Thirty Delaware Children one tsar ending Oat. 1642                            3000.00

To Boarding, Clothing, Lodging k Instructing

Thirty nine Delaware Children one Tear ending Oct 1845      ...3900.00.


By Cash Recd of the Govt. from Delaware School fund

Fby. 10-1843                                                          1800.00 $8600.00

To Boarding, Clothing, Lodging & Instructing

four Kansas Children, one Tear ending Oct 1840                                      400.00


[Page 149]


to Amt. Brot. forward                                                                     8600.00

to Boarding, Clothing, Lodging & Instructing

Thirteen Kansas Children, one Year ending Oct 1841                           1300.00

To Boarding, Clothing, Lodging & Instructing

Eight Kansas Children one Tear ending Oot 1842                                     800.00

To Boarding, Clothing, lodging & Instructing                                                                     

Seven Kansas Children one year ending Oct 1843                                     700.00  $3200.00

To one half the expenses of supporting fifty Children for

one year ending Oct 1843, from Civilisation fund                                                     2500.00


Allow ise, Sir, in connection with the forgoing account, to call your
attention to sows Documents, connected with the subject, which, X presume,

you will find ©a file in your office. 1st. a letter from C. A. Harris
Esqr. Commissioner of Indian Affairs dated "War Department, office Indian
Affairs June 20th 1838. In which he says, addressing Bevf Thomas Johnson,
"I have the honor by direction of the Secretary of War, to oottsunicate to
you the views of the Sept. respecting the proposition, submitted by the
Hsv, Mr. Lucky k yourself on the 8 & 12 last for the establishment of a
Manual Labor School for the benefit of the Indians, by the Methodist
Episcopal Church*. M'r Harris goes on to say, *fhe Sept. is willing to
proaiae*' that *it will further pay 2500$ a Year, or one half the expense
of any number not exceeding fifty pupils estimated at one hundred dollars
for each, and so far as it may be proper, it will indues the Tribes, living
in %h® vlolaity, to apply the funds secured to them by freaty for education,
to the support and tuition of their children at your Institution.** In
another plaoe h© says "it*1 i. e. the Dept. **«ay withhold the allowance of
2500$ whenever there is cause of dissatisfaction or distrust." 2nd. A
letter froa C. A. Harris, dated June 20th 1838, To Gen} William Clark,
directing him "by giving the Indians favorable ispressions*, to prepare
tbea to expend their Treaty funds for Educational purposes at the Indian


[Page 150]



Manual Labor School** 3rd. A letter dated Jan. 27, 1840 Fros Maj. R. W.
Cummins, to the Dept. saying "The Delaware Chiefs la council requested the
percentage arising from their school funds to he applied to the support
of their children at the'Indies Manual Labor School.* {the chiefs indeed
requested thet a portion of their school fund should be applied to the
purchase of Agricultural isiple»eats* Sot the Sept. has decided that sueh
an application of the fund would be inconsistent with the provisions of the
Treaty, Thus having the whole fund to be expended at the X* It* School)

4 A letter fro* Maj R. W. Cummins to the ttept. date May 22-1841. In
which he says, *Yhs Kansas Tribe of Indians, in council in Faby. last,
requested ®e to inform the Govt* that they wished to apply the Interest
arising from their school funds to the education of as s&ny of their
children as they nay think proper to send to the Indian Manual Labor
School established asoag the Shawnees.w From these Boouaeats it nast be
evident, I think, to any one that the eoapensation charged in the accounts
herewith submitted, for the suport & instruction of the Delaware & Kansas
Children, as well as the 2500$ charged against the civilization fund; as
justly due the Society.

I did not understand, frost the conversation which I had with you on
the subject in Feby last, that there was any difficulty in the way of
paying the aaoant due froas the Delaware School fund, except the want of
a disposition to pay it on the part of the Govt. I know that the Sept.
in numerous documents annually laid before Congress, has expressed not
only a willingness, but an anxiety as far as possible, to consult the
wishes of the Indians, in the disposition of their school funds. This
you will find is done in your report of last year, in reference to the
proposed educational arrangeaente, aaoag the Choctaws, Chickasaws, Creeks
&c. And this is certainly a aost wise and judicious course of policy


[Page 151]



towards the Indians oa the part tit the Govt. Yon will pardon me, therefore,
if I say, to use the nlldest ptoses. It appears very singular that, after
the Dept has entered into a written contract to pay over the funds of a
Tribe to a certain school, and the chiefs of the tribe cordially entering
into the views of the Dept. have requested that their funds should he thus
applied; and after Congress from year, to year has made appropriations to
met this expenditure, until the money has accumulated in the treasury to
the amount of ease 10,000$ while the church in the mean time, is full
reliance on the good faith of the Govt, hy whose premise she was induced
to undertake the enterprise, goes on to perform the work; if after all
this condensation Is longer delayed or refused, it will indeed he singular.
I hope, Sir, for sssny & mighty reasons, which X will net state, hut which,
will ao doubt readily occur to your mind* that this subject will receive
your early and favorable attention, and thais the money due from the
Delaware School fund to the Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal
Church, will not any longer be withheld,

la sy conversation with you in fehy last, respecting the money due
from the Kansas school fund. Ton urged the words of the Treaty, as a bar,
to its payment; since the Treaty says the fund shall be expended within
the nation. Allow m  to observe that Instructions, 1 think, were Issued
from your office in 1837 to the *<• S. Agent for the Kansas; directing him
to procure some Children of that Tribe and send than to Col. Johnsons
School in Kentucky. After staking an effort to procure saw of the Children,
the Agent reported his failure to the Dept. because the Indians were un-
willing to send their Children to that School.

low, if the Dept. could la 183?, without any laproprietf send the
Kansas Children to Kentucky, or make an effort to do so, If la 1838 it was
proper for it, to give a pledge to the Church that it would through Its


[Page 152]



agents exert Its laflueaee to have them seat to the School among the
Shawnees; and if It die actually instruct its Agents to labor for the
accomplishment of this T©ry thing; low could it enter into the calculations
of the Church, that after she had expanded wore than 20,000$ in the erection
of buildings, and the improvement of the farm, in order that she might he
prepared to educate the Kansas children, in common with others,— That,
after the Kansas tribe of Indians in council, had through their Agent,
requested that their funds should be applied to the support of their
Children at the I. M. L.« School— That after all this the Dept* should say
"The Treaty will not allow us to expend the money at your school. The
Treaty with the Chickasaw*, as you are aware pro-rides that their annuity
of 3000$ shall be expended for the education of their Children, within the
United States, Yet notwithstanding' the Treaty in this case, you have expressed
your entire willingness that the nancy should be expended is the Indian
country, in supporting a school at fort Coffee, or among the Chickasaw*
on the Bed Hirer. Mow if it be lawful to expend money in the Indian
country which the Treaty says shall be expended with in the United States,
I confess it ammm difficult to discover by what process of interpretation
it is found unlawful to expend the funds of one Tribe, for the support of
their children who era at school in an adjoining Tribe, simply because the
Treaty says the money shall be expended within the bounds of the tribe
to which it is due, Especially after the Tribe have requested that their
funds should be thus applied—and the Sept. has promised thus to apply them,
I hope the unwelcome conviction will not be forced upon the Church that
*fiia difference in law arises simply, out of a difference of feellag toward
the parties who are to receive the money* If the Dept. is willing to
redeem its pledge, and to make compensation for the labor and expense
which under its direction have been incurred, in the education of the


[Page 153]



Kansas children at the I. M. L. School, there is certainly no legal barrier
to prevent its being done.

There is one other point to whisk I beg leave to call your attention

viz. Tfee promise of the Dept. to pay 2,500$ per annum from the- Civilization

fund. You  pleased to inform st© verbally., in Feby last, that the Dept.

would pay nothing »ore fron this fond till Jany 1844 &ad bat 1500$ ammally

thereafter. I em aware that the ©apt. reserved to itself the right of
withholding this fund at any time if there- should be "cause of distrust

or dissatisfaction. Before this coney is withheld, mj 1 not hope, that,
if the Church has in the application of this fund shown such corruption or
inecspetcney, as to give the Govt, cause of distrust, or dlssatlsfaction—
fhat the. Dept. will specify the acts of which she has been guilty, and

which have led to so unhappy a result as the lose of the Confidence- of
the Govt. Justice, I think, requires that this should be done, and it is
the custom of the Sept. I believe, to pursue this course, whore it is
dissatisfied with its Agents. If saus£»a of distrust or dissatisfaction
exist; and if, when stade known they are aai promptly removed, then, I
admit we have n© right to expeet the aid of the Sort* I confess, I am
utterly at a loss, to deviae whet the cause® are which have led to the
detsrwlnetiott to withhold the promised aid from the Civilisation fund,
especially, as I supposed that the Bept. in e case of this kind, ^cnld be
governed by the testimony of its own Agents, and both Maj Mitchell {&%
that time Sopt.j »ho visited the institution last spring in coMpany with
Be, and Maj Cummins, the Agent, who is constantly in the lwsediate vicinity
of the Institution, expressed themselves as being highly pleased with its
management %. prosperity.

I. can. hardly suppose that the Dept. is dissatisfied with the price,
as one Indian child is Boarded, Clothed, lodged and Taught, one Year for


[Page 154]



mot, 50$ waieh the M. E. Church reeetvee fross this fend. It esrtiialy
appears, that a A®gr»« of eaoaowy, smrics the  disharastteat of this faad la
this particular eaaa, which dees not efcagM&salPS its expand!tare a&ywbare

elsa— f stat© this, simply as « fact, not by any Mtt as cause of eo»-
platint. But while the Dept. is perils frora this faad "For two Seneca
Youths 325$, For a Chippeway Youth 150$ & for two Young ladies of the
Cherokees 300$ annually, it caa hardly be- supposed, that there la aay
dlasetlsf actios at paying 2500$ fox* the education of 50 Indian Youth
at the I. M. L. School.

And If the "Baptist General Convention," The American Boat* of Commis-
sioners for Foreign Missions'*, fcTha Catholic Bishop of Boston," «h©
receive bo large a portion of this fund, are allowed to expend it, when,
how, fc vrhere , thay consider met expedient in the prosecution of their
benevolent labors asso-ae the Indians; while the Methodist

Episcopal Church
is boand to expend dollar for dollar for all she receives of this faad—
end furtberssore to expand it at a certain place, and for a spec if 1© objects—
and then to aaha assarance doubly ears, the Dept. still retains the right,
through Ita Agents, of exercising aa especial supervision over the expeadi-
ture of thia fund at the I. M. L. School. If after all this, the Bept.
atill feels that there is ^Caaee for distrust lb dissatisfaction," it is
certainly such to be rorprettad.

Bat "I hope batter things thougih 1 thus write.*

And X cannot bat believe that oa farther consideration the Bept.
will continue the payment of the 2500$ frost the Oiviliisatloa fund as

I regret, very such, to discover from examination of year reoeat
Report, that the Report of the Supt. of the I. M. L. School is aot inserted
ia it; as it iat by far, the west important & saceesefal institution ever


[Page 155]



established oa this eoBtiasnt, for the benefit of the Indians. I cannot
iaagiaa why all notice of it is ojaitted--

Before closing this cowaaaication, I beg leave to call your attention
to- the claims of the M. S. of the M. E. Church, for laproveseats wade oa
the Wyandott lands la the State of Ohio, which were by the late treaty with
that Tribe ceded to the United States.

I haw thus laid before you, so far as 1 am adviseo. of them, all the
accounts, which at the preheat inquire settieneat between the &.  B. Church
It the Department.

In. April next, 1 expect to be in Washington City, whea I hope to
receive from you auoh an aiis&er oa the suyjeote contained ia this com-
munication, as will be entirely satisfactory, &»d which, 1 shall take
great pleasure ia layiag before the General Conference of the Church at
its session ia the City of Mew "fork, next spring.

With great respect
Men. T. Hartley Crawford                                           Ymx obt ggffl

Ccaaias ioaer of Indian Affairs                                          E. R. Ames

Washington City D. C                            Western Cor. Sec, M. S* of the M. E. Church

Feb. 28. **!•» the undersigned chiefs of the Delaware aatioa, being
invested with full authority to act ia the premises for oar aatioa whom
we represent, do agree and bind ourselves as follows, vis:

fast we will encourage and patronize the Indian manual-labor school
now ia operation oa the Shawnee's land, near the Fort Leavenworth agency
site—first, by using our iafluence to seed aad keep a suitable number of
the children of our tribe la said institution; and, secondly, by applying
our school funds to its support; and oar great father, the President of
the United States, is hereby lastraeted and respectfully requested to cause


[Page 156]



to be paid over to Rev. J. C. Berryman, now superintendent of said institu-
tion, or to Mis successor in office; the entire proceeds or internet arising
oa all our school funds annually, for the ensuing ten years, together with
all arrearage® due us to to this tine oa said funds*

#,ad the said J. C. Berryman, ia behalf of said institution, agrees to
receive and educate any nra&er of Delaware children--not exceeding fifty
at any one tiae, without the consent of MM superintendent of said Institution.
It ia herein understood that th« Delaware children froa ti» to tlaa seat
to the above-siantioaed institution are to he ccedtortably clad and hoarded
at its expease.

And we, the undersigned chiefs, wish to be understood that the Instruc-
tions herein given to our great father, the President, respecting our
school funis, are intended to supereed® all instructions previously given
contrary to the spirit and intention of this agreement; and our agent.
Major R* W» Cummins, is herehy requested to forward this agreewat to the
department at Washington City, with such explanations as he say think
proper to give.
February 28, 1844                                                           J". C. Berryama

Capt. Nah-Koomer, his 'X mark.                    Salt petre,             his X mark.

, Ketchum, his x mark.          Nahennan,                his X mark.

Sackendiather,   his X mark.                       P. M. Scott,                 his X mark.

Sankochia,     his x mark.                           John Peters,             his X mark.

Cochatowha,     his X mark*                   Capt. Swanao,            his x mark.


Richard W* Cummins, Indian Agent*

I certify, on honor, that the above sad forgoing agreesssat, asade

and entered into oe the 28th of February, 1844, by and between the Rev*
J. C. Berryman, superintendent Indian manual-labor school now in operation
«n§0Bg the Shawnees under the Fort Leavenworth agency, [and the chiefs of


[Page 157]



%%» "Delaware tribe* of Indians] was %y m eetefally ftttS ami @xfIaia-#& to
t<h* Delaware chiefs w&o»# m%&«® a)?* tb&nraato esawKotd, aad tbat tfcsj ««11
traderetood its eoatants, *sd tint It saataiaed f&e agrsssost aaS usd«p>
■JWMJtgg vehioa HMf hni sjad* *rith the Rev. J. C, Berryman, aupefiatandsat
Indian manual-labor school; aad'taat ISw Delaware chiefs w§t tasir Mtrfeo
to tbolr 'mm® ttttstqa&e hbbmwhNI la my gtwta—«

Richard W. Cummins,

      Indian Agent.

Superintendency of Indian Affairs, St. Louis, v. 8, pp. 161, 162,

feb. 28.    By Ml BglMMtti witb tb» Delaware Indians of Feb. 28, 1844 ♦
■MMHaatl by tb* Offio*, with reatrSotioa, tao Society was ontltlad to
rsooiva sasaaliy tt> lnt#T»st *■ tbo Delaware School faaft {$2,844} sad
furtbar tba ftriwap^gsi of lat#:r©st {apwawl of $2,000}»

f*wK Wm. B. Waugh, Abetr&ot of eas# of tse Manual Labor School
ia th* Shawnee Country, June 9, 1854,

8B$f la MSS. Dept., K. S. H. S. eopied fetus ta# original ia
Washington, *«at by Paul Flickinger, Dec. 15, 1937.

Shawnee Bap Mission House

March 2 1844
Rev S. Peck Cor—Sec. &c.
Sour ftret&sx1

"Accordlag to previous a^potatttent we kt« taatt ia Goafereaee

for tha >ns* fcso days mfl aer* with tr&sawlt to you *&• aattMNi of is^jortaaeo
sthio^ have tfcsa asder our coaeiiaratioa embodied la the two following
partloul&rs via

1st      »«.«♦♦»••«•*»»»•» 2nd  We are aware that it say be difficult for the Board to appreciate


[Page 158]



our reasons for attaching so smelt iaportas.ee to the natter; It seeusa to

as if the thing is carried oat in its present position, ana we remain

silent, it will be giving sanation to injustice on the score of heavy

speculation. And its probable effect will be to hold the whole of the

ruling influence of the Delaware 1stion (the Chiefs and Councilman) at

the beck of the Methodist missionaries. And will place oar efforts among

the* in a strugliag position as far as we can determine. It will produce
a  la the general hope of the blessings of Sod upon the means employed

for the evangelizing of that portion of our benighted field of labor.

It seems some time since as near as we can assertsin, the attention

of the Delaware Chiefs was drawn towards the disposal of their already

accumulated *school fund' interest. Resulting from their degradation, they

care nothing for schools, Therefore the first thought was to get the 'fund*

turned to secular purposes. Becoming at length convinced that this could

not be done, they were on the eve of eonsnmatlng a plan for a national

school in their own country under their own supervision where such portion

of the money might be expended as should be actualy required for the

ssalntainance of such of their children as should be placed in the school.

At this juncture there were some misterioua movements noticed among them—

Messages were received by the Delaware chiefs from the conductors of the

Methodist gen— school among the Shawanoes  -Reports oceured thereof

offering flour and waggons et cetera to the Chiefs for the purpose of

getting the controll of their school fund. Bro. Blanchard was called upon

to write orders to the following effect ♦Delaware chief to Mr. Berryman

The barror of this is wanting 100 lbs* Cor 200 lbs as the case may be}» of

flour which you will please 1st hia have as proposed the other day* By

way of explanation the chief remarked that Mr Berryman told him that if

any of his people (not common people) wanted flour get some ©as to write


[Page 159]



an order and they shall have it— The next thing was a general council
called at the above named institution. Two or three days effort was
expected. The Indians vers Invited with the understandlag that they should
he comfortably provided for while present &©. me* Public addresses vers
aade ia favor of schools and particularly recommending their Institution.
The Intervals were employed la operating upon such portions of the Delaware*
as was thought necessary for the accomplishment of the object In view.
The result was that the chiefs signed a recommendation to the War department
to give to that Institution the entire interest of their school fund for
ten years to come, and all the back Interest that say have accumulated.
Bro Meeker and myself per advise of conference called on Mr Berryman.
The' result of our enquiry corresponds with the above statements and If
the tar department approve of the arrangement the Institution Is to pay
for making the Delaware mills now under contrast ($3400t) The Institution
h&d previously received $1800, on arrangement made during the superintendence
of another saa over the establishment. Mr {Berryman) now had three waggons
nearly ready for delivery to the Delaware* on that old arangeweat, he had
told Delaware* that It was useless t© ask the government to let any portion
of that fund be applied to any other object than education, but if they
wasted some of it for other purposes, turn it over to them and he would
attead to that  Be also stated that the Delawares were now at liberty
to sand fifty of their children to the Institution These appear to be
the facts as they stand out In the case. But for the better understanding
of the whole Is ought to say that the Delaware nation had consigned over
to the Chiefs $3400, previous to this, from the money coming to them from
a recent sale of a part of their land to the Wyandots for this mill so
that In truth this Is the sum for which the Chiefs have placed their names
to this contract. As to the fifty children, they propose to take. They

have ever been using every effort to swell the roll of Delaware children


[Page 160]



to the greatest possible amber mod ms the result of their long effort

they now hare seven Del-r children the whole amount of the bargain seems

to be that the Delawares threw into the hands of that Institution about

thirty one thousand dollars aad that they ia tura throw into the hands of

the chiefs aad priaeipal men three thousand four hundred dollars aad board

aad teach
aad clothe  soae eight or ten of their children ten years  We can bat

hope, with these facts before the Board, their wisdom will devise measure*

to bring the case before the Department, ia season, and ia each light as

shall arrest the sanction of the government to this affair

It aay be asked why the Delawares have not been induced to draw ap a

remonstrance to this proceeding. It will ocear to yoa that it would not

answer for a sessionary to aid ia preparing such a document, although

three fourths of the Mat Ion would sign it  Power resting ia the hands of

tae chiefs, to excite their ill will would be fatal to our religious effort

among them.*

Draft of a letter ia John G. Pratt's handwriting.

Pratt Papers, MSS. Dept., K. S. H. S.

Mar. 14. "I enclose herewith an agreement made aad entered into by
&. betweea the Rev. J. C. Berryman and the Delaware Chiefs by which you
will see that the Delawares have made an arrangement with the Rev. J. C.
Berryman to school fifty of their childrea annually for ten successive
years, provided they wish to send that number, at the Indian Manual Labor
school established near my Agency site among the Shawnee Indians. The
Chiefs evince a determination in future to have the childrea of their
tribe educated. X consider the agreement a very advantageous one on the
part of the Delawares If they will only keep their children at school, aad
they seemed determined to do so. I will thaak yoa to forward the arrange-
meat to Washington at your earliest convenience.'*

R. W. Cummins to Col. T. H. Harvey.


[Page 160a]

160- a

April 22 on p 161

April 24  A representative of the Protestant Episcopal Church visited
til* alssion ia 1844 and reported to the Board of Missions:

"Passed ©a to the Methodist Manual Labor School ssaoag the Delawares,
for beys aa& girls. Rev, Mr. Berryman is at tha head of it. .Ha was absent
la the last, and the Rev. Mr. Peery, Superintendent of Missions ia teat quarter,
received as and aho»»d oa the institution.

wBera wars asternalv® brick buildings, adapted t© all the wants of such
an lastitutioa. A steals grist-sill, which not only was a4aq.us.ta to the supply
of flour for their largo fassily, but to all the Indians v®wt& about, was
formerly know not what to do with their aora but pound it; but who ar® now
eneeurttfied to raise grain, bae&use they eould here have It ground. Here, also,
they find a tssrket for their wood, vales they sell at $1.50 p«r cord. _-0arpea-
ter, wheel-wright and blacksmith shops, a brick yard, looms, dairies—-in short,
©very facility for iapartlng instruction, not only in letters, bat ia mechanical
arts. Five fields of 100 acres each, were under cultivation of the school,
and everything wearing a aost prosisiag aspect.

"ffeat a eotsMualoa not reputed to possess isuch of this world's goods,
ia addition to its other missionary operations, should have generously expended
$70,000.00 (but $10,00.00 of which ease from the government), upon this one
institution for the red aaa, say wall lead to sslf-essalaatloa ia other quarters.
It is a central school for ail the tribes asoag who® they operate.

•laeir fttiftesasi preachers aisoag the surrounding Indians, find ao difficulty
in obtaining children for the school, which averages one hundred pupils —■
60 boys, 40 girls, 'the latter sake the boys clothes; candles, soap —they
wash and cook —• la short, are taught to ha useful. Ia April sad September,
the planting and gathering seasons, the children after performing their offices
on the farm, are allowed vacation to see their parents, and assist thasx on the
farms, this being spring vacation {.April 24th}, we saw but few of the children.


[Page 160b]


160 - b

"English alone is taught, Mr. P. thinks their idolatry connected with their

language, and the sooner the English supplants it the hatter. On stating ay

previous impressions, that the Indians were not idolaters in the usual sense
of the word, he replied that the Delawares worship a Northern deity, who sends
cold weather — a Southern, {a female) who fclosrs softly and sends wara --
between whoa, there is constant struggle; a deity who presides over hunting,

Joab Spencer, Missouri Valley Historical Society, The Annals of Kansas City

v. 1, pp. 451, 452£.


[Page 161]



Superintendency of Indian. Affairs, St. Louis, v. 8, p. 160.

Apr. 22. "I have read with interest and pleasure the agreement of
28th February last, between the superintendent of the Methodist manual
labor school and the chiefs of the Delaware tribe of Indians, by shieh
they devote all their school funds to the education of the children of
said tribes at said institution for the next ten years; during which time,
the entire assount of the interest accrued, accruing, and to accrue, shall
be paid to the said superintendent, or his successor in office.

X as glad to see this agreement; it manifests a friendly disposition
to education. I do not see any objection to its conditional ratification
by the department, the interest they are entitled to receive annually is
$2,844, and the arrearages of unpaid interest are upwards of $2,000. The
terms I would impose a re-
1st. "That there shall be always at least 30 Delaware children in
a course of education at said school; and if at any time, or for any
period, there shall be fewer than 30 under instruction, the sum to be
paid the superintendent shall abate $100 for every scholar short of the
required number of 30.

2d. "that one half of the scholars shall be females, as near as may
be practicable.

3d* "That in addition to the comfortable board and clothing stipulated
for, there shall be furnished to every scholar, should he or she unfortun-
ately require it, proper medical aid and advice; and still further, books,
stationery, and whatever else shall be necessary to the successful
prosecution of their studies, and to their comfort and health.

4th* "The interest to be paid annually, where it may suit the
treasury; and this ratification to be subject to withdrawal, and the
agreement Itself to rescission, and to be annulled, at the pleasure of the


[Page 162]




5th. *!eporta of the number and pragmas of the Delaware scholars
to be made prior to tie annual payment.

Bespeetfully submitted: April 22, 1844.

T. Hartley Crawford*

"Approved, with this additional stipulation and condition: that the

first within article shall aot is any way impair or change the number of

children agreed in the treaty to ha educated, that article la meant to

limit the minimum number; hat if more Delaware children shall he aent to

the school, not exceeding in all fifty, thay shall he received and educated

upon the terms mentioned."

William Wilkins
April 22, 1844.

[Sec. of far!

Reports of Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1844, p. 369, 370.

May 1. The 9th delegate General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal
Church assembles in the Green street church ia the City of New York.

Resolutions were passed providing for the separation of the church
in the slave-holding section from the church ia the north.
Buckley.* American Church History, p. 407.

May 15. "On motion of E. R. Ames, the report, in part, of the
Committee on Missions, preaented on Friday, 10th last., relative to the
formation of an Indian Mission Conference, was taken up. H. Slicer moved
to refer this report to the Committee on Boundaries* This, on motion of
T. Stringfield, was laid on the table. The report was adopted, after some
discussion. The resolution of the report read thus:—

1. Hesolved, That there he established an Indian Mission Conference
to b* hounded as follows, viz.:— On the north by the Missouri liver; east


[Page 163]



fey tine states of Missouri sM Arkansas; south fey Red River; aad west by
the Rocky Mountains,

'•♦g. Issolved, That the Indian Mission Conference fee entitled to
ail the privilege© of other Annual Conferences.*

"Oa motion of E. R. Ames, the report as adopted was referred to the
ccamlttee oa Boundaries.'*

General Conference Journals. 1840-1844, p, 46. [In Baker U. Library.]

June- 3. Report of Committee on Boundaries:

♦•♦Missouri Conference shall include the state of Missouri;

**Iadi8a Mission Conference shall be bounded W follows, naaely:
[Boundary as gi?«a afeoire]
IMA.  p. 94*

May 30. Great floods ia the Mississippi vallsy. J* Meeker writes;
*!f#wr saw such a tine of rata. It has fallea slssost e-werf day for tae
last throe weeks. The river has ovarflown its hanks, sad the bottoms
ia Many places haira heea iaundated sore or less for three weeks, aad
continues all of to-day withia oar door yard, fhere has heea no plotting
aor planting done of say consequence daring the rain; so that the fields
aot pleated still remia aad such that was planted hss heea drowned oat.
Meay of the Indians fear that they will hs-re no crops at all this year."
Meeker Journal, p. 363.

June 9.

Sir: *Ia eoupliaao© with your Instruction* of the 23d April last, I
herewith trassait to your office a hrief report of the state of this school.
The account oa the other side of the sheet is- substantially correct. It
is not practieahle for as to show, ia detail, precisely what each pupil


[Page 164]



cost; eeesuaa oar supplies of goads, groceries, sad other provisions, are

purchased at wholesale, and the children are comfortably furnished out

of these—sows requiring Bare, and so»e lass. Also, the fata wills, and

mechanic-shops yield a considerable part of the support of the school;

the awcant of iflhieh a© cannot exaetiy asserts la. Bat, la eonsaqaeaee

of these resources, we d© not actually have to pay oat the sum of §100

per annum on each scholar; though we should have had to expead that waeh

on eaoh, hat not oar society gone to the expense of erecting these shops

and mills, and staking a large farm. Still, besides ifewt tss receive. fro*

the government, oar society continues to appropriate liberally of her

funds annually, to carry oa this school and other aiseloas among these


My account current Is so &spt as to show exactly the awaaat of moneys

I receive from every source, and how theae moneys are applied; and I have

hills of purchase, receipts, aad vouchers for all that I expend.

Office of Indian Affairs la account with

J, C. Berryman Supt. of Ind. Man. Lab. School  Dr.—


Mar* 15 To Boarding, washing and lodging for twenty four

Delaware children six months at $52.00 per anata*    624.00

""Clothing the aajse at $33.00 per aaaaii                          395.00

"Tuition, Books aad Stationary and medical attention

for the sas» at $15.00 per annam                                          180.00

*aaja» for five Kansas children                                               250.00

•the sane for eighty one other children                           4,050.00



[Page 165]



June 15

"the saaa for thirty eight Delaware children

for 3 month                                                                          950.00

"the seas for three Kansas boys 3 souths        75.00

*tha asaa for sevaaty four other ehildrea 3 souths


Total for tha three «jaart«Wi of the yea* $8375.00


3y amount fata as at Washington City as par agreeaeat

with Delawares, rat if lad by tha departaeat

Apr. 22nd 1844 $2355.42                                                      2355.42

' $6019.58

Tha afKH&tt paid hy tha Department to Rev. E, R. Ames la April last

was dae oa aceoaat rendered hy s» oa 15th of Sept. 1843. And r© the

treasury of She Missionary society of the M. K. Church bad furnished

this Institution with tha »«ss of carrying on its operations that amount

ms paid over by i!r. /saes to the Society*s treasury.

Beapaatfully snb&ltted

Bon* T. Hartley Crawford

J. C. Berryman, Supt.
Com. Ind. Affs.

Washington City.

Photostat copy ia MSS. Dept., K. S. H. S.

June 9. Our number of scholars for tha first two quarters of the
year, beglasiag September 15, 1843, was 110, sa€ for tin third quarter 115:
aad this last ia the number with which wa have cosseaeed the fourth and
last quarter for tha current year. Toe will psreelva from ay account that
the ntaaher of Delaware ehildrea for tha first ana secosd tpartera of the p
praaeat year is similar thaa it «as last year. This is because formerly
we hate reported the Munsee ehildrea as Delawares, srhich is aot doaa ia

this report. Tha ausber of Delaware ehildrea now oa omr roll is 38, 14


[Page 166]



of whoa era females, besides 9 Munsee girls and 3 Munsee boys, who are ts
fast Delawares, end living oa Delaware lead, bat act identified with the*
i» their moneyed interest. Sose of oar sore advanced scholars have left the
school tbis spring, and gone bouts. Some of these bid fair to beeotae useful
sen and wowea. Those now la school are generally advancing la their
studies, aad both they and their pareats sees to be beeosing acre sad store
interested la education. 1 feel very coafideat that we aeed nothing bat
the ooatiaued patronage of the government aad the church, aad, of coarse,
the blessiag of God upon the whole, to erowa oar efforts with traascoadeat
saeeess la christianizing aad civilizing the Indian tribes. Aad without
intending to speak disparagingly of amy branch or appendage of «y couatry*s
goveraseat, I will veatare to say that if these frontier tribes of Indiana
be eivlllaed aad christianized* they will be a better defease oa oar
borders, oa which they live, than all the troops yoa can station here.
flth alaser® respect, I as yoar obedient servant,

<J. C. Berryman.

Hon. T. Hartley Crawford,

Commissioner Indian Affairs.

Reports of Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1841-1844, pp. 367, 368*

June 11. Meeker writes ia his journal, "fas river rises higher than
we have ever seen It. the water covers saay of the Indian' fields, and
surrounds their houses. The Indians who live la the bottoas nearly all
flee to the hills, laay of the hogs we thin!* will be drowned, aad crops
and other property destroyed. Move oar things out of our cellar and ssoke
house, both of which are deep with water. The river is not quite upon
a level with the bank at our house, but is still rising aad may surround
us before moralag.

Sept. 21. "The Shawnees are aa agricultural people, They depend oa


[Page 167]



the produce raised on their fame for a subsistence; they have 20 towns
or Tillage*, each family select and settle at such place as they may choose
1 am unable to state anything near the number of ferns, or acres they have
is faras, or in cultivation, or tbe quantity of produced raised by them;
they ell raise eora, potatoes, pumpkins, beans, cabbage, and other garden
vegetables, and many of thee .raise wheat m& oats. This year their crops
are very sorry owing to the abundance of rain during the spring and early
part of the saa&er, all those farming on the bottom lands of the Kansas
river and other bottom lands lost their ©rope entirely; not only their
erops, but nearly all their stock of hogs, cattle and sows horses, all
their fencing end houses swept off by the flood ... Many of the Shawnees
attempted this yesr to raise hemp but their erops of heap were almost
entirely destroyed by tbe repeated hard rains." •

Cummins to Harvey, v. 8, p. 204.

Superintendency of Indian Affairs, v. 8, p. 204*

Oct. 11. Bishop Thomas A. Morris arrives at the Indian Manual labor
School where he ted appointed to sect a party of missionaries *te proceed
on together through the Indian country to the Indian Mission Conference.
lis description of the school is as follows:

The land from the Missouri river to the mission Is well timbered,
and is as fertile and beautiful as can well be conceived of; but the
mission farm Itself is partly in the prairie. The school is patronized
by several neighboring tribes; but the largest number of scholars are
children of the Shawnees and Delawares, who, being thrown together,
ignorant of each other*s language, more readily adopt English as the
ordinary medium of Communication. Since the establishment of this great
central school, the small schools previously connected with each tribe


[Page 168]



have been discontinued, though their respective missionaries continue In
the racial1 missionary work of preaching sad visiting, which contributes
»ucb toward keeplug the central school wall filled with children. The
students vary in age from tea or twelve to twenty years, and in number
from one hundred to one hundred and fifty* 1 was is time to witness part
of the examination exercises at the close of the regular tar®, and to
addreaa a few words of approval and encouragement to then. Their performance
in spelling, reading* arithmetic, geography, composition, autography, and
vocal Music, was such as would do credit to any of our city schools in
the United States. Children, who one year previously knew nothing of
letters or of the English language,, read the New Testament well. Besides
obtaining a knowledge of literature and science, the hoys are learned
practically the business of agriculture; and soma of them the sore useful
mechanical arts; while the. girls are taught to knit, spin, weave, cut and
Make garments, and the important business of housekeeping ... But the
best of all is the religious influeses brought to bear on the children by
the daily reading of the Scriptures, morning and evening worship, the
Sabbath school, and regular Sabbath preaching.

The improvements on the premises are quite respectable. Besides
some comfortable frame buildings, there are two large substantial brick
buildings, one on either side of the spring* The boys and their teachers
live is. one of these houses, and the girls and their teachers and governesses
in the other. The outbuildings, barm, etc., are comfortable and convenient.
The Mission Farm, too, is extensive and productive. The whole number of
acres enclosed with strong fencing, is five hundred, of which three hundred
are well cultivated, and the balance in grass and .-pasture. It is well
stocked with horses, cattle, sheep, hogs, and poultry; and among the stock
are three native buffaloes, which were captured when young, and subsequently
purchased for the mission ....


[Page 169]



"There Is also connected with the Indian Manual labor School, a steam
flouring mill, capable of grinding three hundred bushels of wheat a day,
and does good work, which cost the society four thousand dollars, with
four years to pay it in, the net profit of which, the past year, amounted
to more than one thousand, eight hundred dollars; at which rate it will
soon pay for itself, and besoms very productive stock. At the earnest
reijaeat of warn of the Indians in their official council, the superintendent
is about adding the machinery to saw lumber—they engaging to furnish the
lumber at the Kill for half of the sawed lumber—which, it is supposed, will
increase the profits of the mill. This establishment, while the improve-
ments were in progress, received from the Government four or five thousand
dollars, and from the Missionary Society ten thousand dollars a year; but
now, with five thousand dollars from the Society, and nothing from the
Government, it gets along comfortably; and It is probable the sum may be
gradually reduced till it can support Itself, though the expense of
feeding, lodging and clothing and educating one hundrad and fifty students,
must necessarily be considerable.

Rev. Thomas A. Morris, Miscellany. 1853, pp. 348-350*

Oct, 14. After the interesting spiritual exercises of the Sabbath,
we left on Monday, the 14th, for conference. Utile some brethren on
horseback steered through the border settlements of Missouri, four of us,
in two buggies, took the military road through the territory, which was
once ■ comfortable road for a new country; but the bridges were mostly
destroyed by the freshets, and the sloughs were extremely boggy, which
rendered travelling difficult. Our company consisted at first of Bev.
L. B. Stateler, missionary to the Shawnees, Rev. Thomas Hurlbut, late of
Canada conference, and missionary among the Chippewas, Rev. E. t". Peery,
superintendent of the Indian Manual Labor School, and myself. Se got a


[Page 170]



1st© start the first Say, and after proceeding about twenty-fire miles,

took lodging at Hickory Camp, ae&r a small branch. Our tent was made of
domestic cotton, circular, after the form of the hahitations of Northern
Indians, supported hy one center pole, and the base extended by cords and
peg*, with an opening fronting the fire. It shed rain sell, and afforded
sons shelter from the wind, 'Be ted two buffalo-skins for beds, a blanket
eaeh for coveriag, carriage cushions for pillows, and passed the night in
safety. The next day, having journeyed about thirty-eight miles, we camped
on the south bank of Mary de Sine, in a quiet and pleasant plana, sheltered
by tall trees, with but little to break the- stillness of night except the
tingle of the horse-bell, and an occasional report from a neighboring camp
Pottawatomie Indians, who were sojourning there, probably for the benefit
of the fall range. ...

Bevlng reeeverea* our horses at Camp Mary de 2ine, we resajsad our
journey, and, at Osage creek, overtook Bev. Thomas B. Ruble, missioner
among the Pottawatomie Indians, and Washington, com of chief Boashman. . . .
Thus reinforced, our three carriages formed a little procession, and we
found it necessary at night to raise two stoop fires ....

Tuesday, 22d, after traveling thirty-five miles, late in the evening,
we reached Tahelquah, the capital of the Cherokee nation, commonly called
the Council Ground. . . •

«... The distance from the mouth of the Kansas to Tahlequah is
about two hundred and sixty miles by military road, and about seven-eights
of the way are dreary barrens, or prairie, mostly of inferior quality,
being arms or skirts of the almost boundless plains of sand, stretching
toward the Kooky Mountains. ...

Rev* Thomas A. Morris, Miscellany, pp. 350-356.

Oct. 23. The Indian Mission conference commences its first session


[Page 171]



at Riley's Chapel, Rear Tahleqaeh is the Cherokee nation* 'There msi in
the eonferease twenty seven ma&i8»f* about oae~fourth of the& native

preachers, . . . All their work i» Missionaryj ess* eonseqaently, there-
is ao esrattbliag for popular appoiatssaats, or eity stations. . . , The
whole aaount appropriated for all the conferences this year is, fourteen

thousand, four hundred sad atasty dollars, and thirty-two easts. Had
this, let it be observest is m% only to support tweaty-ssren missionaries
and their faiBilies—for soat of the® have- families, and all of the*
should bate—hut also the helpers, interpreters, teachers, to pay for
accessary isprovesieats, aad feed, cloth©, ledge, aad educate the children
ia the Mission schools. Three of these schools, alone require seven
thousand dollars; nearly half the whole aeoaat.'"

it this coafereaee J» C, Berryman was appointed Superintendent of

Ibid, p. 360.

Rev. E. T. Peery was assigned to the Indian Manual Labor School,

Lutz,  op. cit, p, 227,

The Indian Mission conference adhered to the Soath ia the division
of the Church**

Stanley, Life of Stateler. p. 116,

•The influence of the large mission establishment at the Manual-Labor
Sehool already described was strong. There were few to counteract or
explain; and at the separation, the saaia body of our Shawnee seofeership
was carried, nolens volens, into the Church South. They have a large
j&eetiag-house sad ©fflsp-groaad, and eaert a powerful influence over the
tribe. Oar aeabership is reduced to about twenty—a faithful band.**
Rev. William H. Goode, Outposts of Zion, p. 295,


[Page 172]



Oct, 24.    *A dreadful hurricane pasaed aw the iastitatioa, deaolisbiBg

aaay of ttp latlMl&gl •&£ injuring MM fe* individuals, but ao lives «er»
lost.    It p&aaai lata ifea State {Missouri), l-iyiag waste assay boildiaga
aa& Aastroylag aboat fifteen lives.**

Stanley, ap» alt, p. 116:-.

Ala© ta Meeker Journal, Oct. 26.

Nov. S5,   "Tha Methodist manual labor school Is prospering.   "The
ladastry, eaergy, aa« piety, ah tab belong to this seat, are « tare gaaraaty
of saeasas*   Ttse exteasloa of operations la agriculture sad ta* various
aeehsale braaehas, ualtei with tha liberal ©eaaoay tJtast has directed the
aakiug of this eatabltsbi&sut; the aWMMMMJaatitia that ta afforded to iaatrueted
aad iastraatora; tha patlast labors tint tqgaxi knowledge, nad the pure
lives that tee eh good aorala—-all xseasasad thla last ttut tea.   The Deiemre
Xadiaaa, who have had easts ehildraa educated at this school, (by aa agreeswat
of 28th February last with the superintendent of It ,5 have appropriated the
balance of their education fund Iflng ia tha taMMf ji^aajfla of $2,000) to
ita ase, aad the interest falling da© annually {#8,844) thay have eoaveated
shall ga for ten years to this establishment; la consideration whereof,
their children ta any aagritefd? act excess din,? SO, ImS naver fa foil below 30,
shall he educated, fed, elathsd, aus.   this la a very agreeable arraa©&»@at;
for the Bslaaeares had manifested a decided aversiaa to schools, aad have
had aosa BftS&g themselves.    It shows changed views—altered J a the right
direction,   their sonsy la afgliM as the treatyyof 1829 intendad it
ahoald he, sad it la applied where it caaaot fail to he useful."

Reports of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1841-1844, pp. 307,



[Page 173]




Jan. 6. "There are about 80 Munsies, 171 Shawnees and 240 Delawares
that were deprived of bread stuffs by the freshet last spring—the most
of these fsallies lost their houses as well as their crops & fences, and
many of them their old corn la their cribs or houses, and a great sany of
their hogs, some oattie and horses."

Cummins to Harvey.
Superintendency of Indian Affairs, v. 8, p. 217.

May 1. Convention of southern delegates asset in Louisville, Ky.

Bishop Soule and Bishop Andrews presided. ""After full deliberation, it
declared the Southern Conference a distinct church, under the style of
'The Methodist Episcopal Church South.**

Cyclopedia of Methodism. p. 600.

July 8. J. Meeker, Baptist missionary to the Ottawa*, takes two
Indian boys to the Indian Manual labor School.

           Meeker Journal.

Sept-. 30. Msbursestents wMte by E. T. Peery, superintendent Indian
labor School* froa Oct. 1, 1844, to September 30, 1845.

Date           To whom paid, and for what object.                       Amount.                                Aggregate.



Oct.  1         Amount paid farmer, as per receipt No. 2    $175.00

        3        Freight and passage from St. Louis, as

                                           per bill No. 10                                 34.20

      25        Merchandise, as per bill No. 11                  152.51
Dec. 1        Amount paid steward and cook, as per

                                                   receipt                                      175.00

        3        1 bull, as per receipt No. 4                            11.62

        5        Merchandise as per receipt No. 12                64.62

      18                  Do                 do       No. 13              665.49

      31       Amount paid teacher; as per receipt No. 5 250.00

                 My salary three months -—- — — -- -- --    125.00                      $1,653.44


Jan. 1                  Merchandise as per bill No. 14, by

J. C. Berryman               $2,265.26



[Page 174]



Mar. 13     Merchandise as per bill No. 15, by

     J. C. Berryman                  305.80

     14     Ratan, for making boys' caps, as per

           bill No. 16 by J. C. Berryman           2.06
           Skivers, for makiag boys' caps, as per

           bill No 17, by J. C. Berryman         5.70
           Hats, as per bill No. 18, by J. C. Berry-

           man                                                                   51.75

            Sundries, as per bill No. 19, by

            J. C. Berryman                                          82.73

            Carpeting, &c., as per bill No. 20 by

            J. C. Berryman                                              46.08

     22     Iron, leather, hardware, &s., as par bill

           No. 21, by J. C. Berryman            917.57
     26    Salt, as per bill No. 22, by J. C.

               Berryman                       26.70

     29      Merchandise as per bill No. 23, by

           J. C. Berryman                 54.27
    31      Amount paid teachers, as per receipt

           No. 6                         250.00
      My salary three months           125.00 $4,132.92


Apr. 3    Merchandise as per bill No. 24   163.62
    24           Do           Do    No. 25  19.71
     25     Bacon, as per receipt No.7.            70.90
     28     Insurance, as per bill No. 26      5.94

May  1    Amount paid wagonmaker, as per receipt

               No. 8                        350.00

 9    Lamps, &c. for the chapel, as per bill

           No. 27                        19.50

     16     Tin ware, &c., as per bill No. 28 65.20

    20    2 barrels vinegar, as per bill No. 28     8.00

     24      Tools, &c., as per bill No. 30   28.50

          Iron, as per bill No. 31        103.78

          Groceries, &c., as per bill No. 32    391.47

          Insurance, as per bill No. 33           8.17

     31     Freight, as per bill No. 34        4.75

          Freight and passage, as per bill No. 35      72.53

          Amount paid farmer, as per receipt No.9    281.25

June 14     Amount paid miller, as per receipt No. 10  429.15
     28     Amount paid for weaving, &c., as per

              receipt No. 11                 218.88

     30     Amount paid teachers, as per receipt

          No. 12                         250.00

          My salary three months           125.00  $2,616.35


July 24     For amount paid for labor on farm, as

           per receipt No. 1            136.72

29     For amount paid steward and cook, as

           per receipt No. 2            217.40

Aug.  14      Amount paid for bacon, as per receipt

         No. 3                           83.91

Sept. 3     For amount paid chambermaid, as per

         receipt No. 4                   21.00

     17     For amount paid for labor on the farm,

as per receipt No. 5                      28.83



[Page 175]



Sept. 19    For itaouat paid tax labor on the faxn,

a* pST receipt SO. 6             84.00

30     For ssseaat paid tailor, as per receipt

So. 7                           200.00

For asount paid teacher, as per receipt

ffo. 8                            250.00

For sy salary three ©oaths             125.00  1,146.57


The United States la account current with E. T. Peery, superintendent

Indian' Manual Labor School, tha quarter ending September 30, 1845.

1845    Dr.

Sept. 30   To amount brought from last quarter    $8,294.80

To assouat disbursed ia the 3d quarter

1845                                          1,146.86


To balance due superintendent   $9,441,66

1845    Cr.

Sapt. 30    By amount carried to next fsarter   $9,441.66


I cartIfy, oa honor, that the above accounts are just aad true, aa
stated; that the disbursements have bees fully made for the objects
ia the vouchers; sad that all items embraced ia the above
have beea applied solely to the benefit of the school.
Sept. 30, 1845.    E. T. Peery, Superintendent Indian Manual Labor School.
Eat, Doc. No. 91, p. 102, 1st sess. 29 Cong., v. IV, 1845-6.

September 15. Schools.—The Methodist Missionary Society h&v© a
mission and keep up a manual labor school aaoag the Shawnees. They have,
this year, 137 male and female scholars from sundry tribes. For further
particulars, 1 will refer you to atateasata Sea. 1 sad 2, herewith enclosed,


[Page 176]



which show the number of scholars, sale sad female, ttost sash tribe, the
name, age, and tiss© they entered the school, aaS progress lead® by each,
la addition to the buildlags heretofore reported at the Methodist 1. L«
school, they hate now oa head a large brick building, fouadatioa of stone,
this halldiag la 100 feet to length sad twenty la width, two stories high,
plasma the. whole leagth, with the exception of a small roost at each ead
taken off the plamza. This building is laid off Into suitable rooms, and
is lateadsd for the female school, This halldiag is now up to the stpare,
and it la expected will he finished by the 25th day of December next.

Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1845-1848, p. 539.

Oct. 12* The second session of the Indian Mission Conference convenes
at the Indian. Manual Labor School.

"J. C. Berryman and Wesley Browning were elected delegates to the
convention of the southern delegates to be held at Louisville, Ky.»
[Petersburg, Va.] the ensuing year, f• #« Berryman was eontiaaed Super-
intendent of the missions, and also placed in charge of the Indian Manual
Labor School, L. B. Stateler was appointed presiding elder of the Kansas
River District and placed In charge of Shawnee Circuit.'*

Rev. E, J. Stanley, Life of Rev. L. B. Stateler, p. 120.

November 16. Dr. E. White visits the Shawnee Manual Labor School
an his return from Oregon.

The following is taken from Ten Years la Oregon;

"laving been favorably impressed with the external appearance of
the mission they had passed, three miles west of Westport, the doctor
determined to return and visit it. He found it under the direction of
Mr.  Berryman, with a school of not leas than oae hundred members. Mills,


[Page 177]



and every department of mechanism was carried on with the assistance

of the pupils, sad never All Is© visit a mission more flourishing, or la
better condition. The plantation contained six hundred acres, well fenced
aad ta a fine state of cultivation. Be here Iseraed the death of Ilev.

Jason Lee, and obtained other news of interest •**

A. J.  Allen, Ten Years in Oregon  Travels and Adventures of
Doctor E. White and Lady,  p. 313.

At the Missouri Sonferens© of 1845, William Patton "was again appointed
to the Columbia District? bat before the expiration of the year, a* was
removed by Bishop Soule to the charge of the Shawnee Manual labor School,
thea la the bounds of the ladlaa. Mission Conference.*

M*Anally, Life and Times of William Patton, 1858, p. 240.

1. Indian Missions la the Kansas River District

fain is the most aorthera district of the three, aad was formerly

attached, to the Missouri Ooafereae©. It Includes three missionary circuits,

eat the Indian Manual labor School. It is under the superintendency of

Rev. Nathaniel M. Talbott. fhe ngalar circuit work employs at present

seven traveltag preachers, three native helpers, and five interpreters;

and the number employed at the Manual Labor School, as teachers, mechanics,

millers, farm heads, etc.. Is about twenty. 0a the whole district there

are, according to the best information w© have beea able to collect, about

seven hundred Church members, aad two or three sabbath schools, containing

la all, aoa© two haadred scholars. The names of the three circuits oa

this district, aad of the brethren who labor wlthia their bounds, are as

follows: —

Delaware sad Kickapoo Mission.—Nathaniel M. Talbott, John T*
Peery, missionaries

Shawnee aad Wyandot Mission,—James Wheeler, missionary—another
to be supplied.


[Page 178]



Pottawattomie, Chippeway, etc., Mission.--Thomas Hurlbert,

Thomas B. Ruble, missionaries.

1* deeply regret that a© detailed report of these missions, separately,
fees reached as. Te are, therefore, only able to say, that so far as we
taws information, they still continue to claia oar sympathies, prayers, .
and contributions; and promise to reward the lsbors, sacrifices, and means
bestowed upon then.

Indian Manual Labor School.—Edwd. F. Peery,  missionary.

This institution, we are happy to state, continues to prosper. It now
nus&ers about one hundred sad fifty pupils; the regular attendance averages
one hundred and fifteen. All these receive their satire support fro» the
institution. They are taught to work at every branch of manual labor
necessary to prepare boys to become good and useful citizens, and the
girls to becossa good wives and Mothers, the literary instructions they
receive here consist of a plain English education, and nothing «ore.
Brother Berryman observes, eeaceralag the spiritual advantages of this
school: "If I were to say, that a food religious influence constantly
prevails at this institution, I should express myself in terras two weak
to convey the whole truth. It asses to ss, indeed, that the divine presence
and the special blesslag of God rest upon the place. So ansa so, that
noae have stayed with as long, who have not realised, to the joy'of their
hearts, the truth of the above statement.w "The progress of the children,*
he adds, "is necessarily slow, they have everthlag to learn, and the very
habit of study has to be acquired. And this frequently requires a -leas
tine, and always much patience and perseverance on the part of the teachers.*

For several years past, this institution has been gradually acquiring
a reputation in the country where it is located; both among the Indians
and the adjacent white eoawsuaity, which is numerous and intelligent. The
state line ef Missouri reaches within a mile of the school. On the whole,


[Page 179]



to bm tae laagoag® of oat of ti» missionaries, !*we aave aotalag ia oar

prospeets aere to Mmmmga as—all ia*lt»d as to peraewre, aad to flaal


Excerpts froa Annual Report of the Missionary Society, 1845, p. 73,
Copy ia MSS* Dept., K. S. H. S.   Ssat fey Sec, of Board of Home
Missions, of M. E. Church.
[fbs appoiatawata ia taia article appear to se taose of 1844, aeeor&iag

to list of appoiatoaats as §ivaa ay J. J. Lutz, K. H. C., v. 9, p. 227, 228.]


[Page 180]




Jan. 14. wfl» Kansas Indians s«d« to the United States *two millions

of asms of land oa the east part of their country, embracing the entire
width, thirty miles, and running wist for ipality.*w

Wilder, The Annals of Kansas.

May 1* the first General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church,
South siesta la Petersburg, Va. It consisted of eighty-seven members* *0a
the second day Bishop Soule formally enaottnced his adherence.*

fh© organisation of the Methodist Episcopal Ohureh, South was "thaa
completed ia the organization of the General Conference.*1

J. M. Buckley, A History of Methodist la the United States, p. 461.

Ia American Church History Series, v. 5.

May. Francis Parkman stops at the Mission oa his way to Oregon. Ss

'"fording the creek, the low roofs of a number of rude buildings
appeared, rising from a cluster of groves and woods oa the left; aad riding
up through a long laae, amid a profasloa of wild roses aad early spring
flowers, we found the log-church aad school-houses belonging to the
Methodist Shawanoe Mission, fhe Indians were oa the point of gathering
to a religious seating. Some snores of thea, tall asm ia half-civilised
dress, were seated on wooden benches under the trees; while their horses
were tied to the sheds and fences. Their chief, Parks, a remarkably large
and athletic nan, had Just arrived fro© Westport, where he owns a trading
establishment. Besides this, he has a large far® end considerable ausfeer
of slates. Indeed the Shawanoes have asade greater progress in agriculture
thaa any other tribe oa the Missouri frontier; sad both la appearance end


[Page 181]



in character fom a marked contrast to our late acquaintance, the Kanzas."
Francis Parkman, The Oregon Trail, p. 15.

July. William Patton "ws» removed by Bishop Soule to the charge of
the Shawnee Manual Labor School, then, la the bounds of the Indian Mission
Conference. Be west to this work la July or August, 1846, and remained
there eat11 the Conference of 1847» when he was transferred back to the
Missouri Conference.

"the labors and success of Sr. Fatten at this school haw heea

differently represented. Soae have spoken of them as a failure; others

have regarded hte as sueeeedimg there as srell as did most others, lis own

account, as found among his private papers, was, la effect, that the school

prospered, the sasbsr of pupils increased, the lastitotloa was relieved of

a eoasiderahle debt, lad the haslaesa geaarally, as well as the religious

interests of fcfee school, meat oa mail. Bat he adds:

"Of this charge 1- sotrn bewams tired, mot so wach oa aeaoaat of the
labor, toil aad responsibility—although all this mas very great—as oa

account of some white persons associated with the ladiaa missionary work,
mho, it mas believed, threw every obstacle la ay may among the Indians,
because they wished the appointment. This was the more evident from the
fact that they manifested opposition to me from the first day I arrived

at the Institution aatil the last, though we never had any personal dif-
ficulty-- Indeed scarcely any personal acquaintance—before. I finally
resolved that I should not remain say longer in the Indian country, if
some suitable man oould be procured to take charge of the establishment.

I wrote to Bishop Capers on the subject, aad 1 also visited the Missouri
Conference, aad saw the Bishop la person, and, finding that Rev. Thomas
Johnson could be.obtained for the Indian work, t took a trensfor to the
Missouri Conference, aad was appointed Presiding Elder on the Weston

Rev. D. R. M'Anally, Life and Times of Rev. William Patton, p. 240, 241.

Aug, 7.   "Mr. end Mrs. Peery anfi Martha went to the Shawnee Institution

to hear Mr. Patton's Funeral Sermon oa the death of Mrs. Berryman**

Wm. Conneeley, William Walker and the "Provisional Government of

Nebraska Territory, p. 191.


[Page 182]



Sept. Late ia the south.

Francis Parkman again passes through the country of the Shawanoes.
"We had passed the ease road on our outward journey la tli® spring, but its
aspect was now totally changed* The young wild apple-trees, then flushed
with their fragrant blossoms, were hang thickly with ruddy fruit, fall
grass grew fey the roadside is place of tender shoots just peeping from
the wars and oossy soil* . The vines were laden with purple grapes, and the
slender twigs of the swamp a&ple, then tasselled with their clusters of
sa&ll red flowers, now hung out a gorgeous display of leaves stained fey
the frost with burning crimson. On every side we saw tokens of maturity
and decay where all had before been fresh with opeaisg life. We entered
the forest, checkered, as we passed along, by the bright spots of sunlight
that fell between the opening boughs, &a either side rich aasses of
foilage almost excluded the sun, though hers and there its rays could find
their way down, striking through the broad lea-res and lighting the® with a
pure transparent green. Squirrels barked at us frost ths trees; coveys of
young partridges ran rustling over the fallen leaves, and the golden oriole,
tfe® blue-jay, and the fluting red-bird darted among the shadowy branches.
fe hailed these sights and sounds of beauty by no scans with usaiagled

Parkman, The Oregon Trail, p. 378, 379.

October 26. Report of William Patton to the Cowtlssioaer of Indian

"Dear Sir: In compliance with instructions I would beg leave to
present you with the third quarterly report, for the current year, of the
condition of the Indian manual labor school, now under say superintendence.
The school closet its summer session the 31st of August, and the examination


[Page 183]



showed that the pupils have made good progress la the different branebe* of
learning they have been pursuing; showing that the efforts sade at ibis
institution to improve the intellectual powers of the children of the
wilderness have bo* beea la vain. It is not to be disguised, however, that
the greatest difficulty we Mm to contend with, la regard to their mental
sal tars, is to get the Indian youth to feel an interest la books j such an
interest as would indues them to apply themselves to reading ana study,
when th#y shall cave retired from school 'to mix and mingle with their
friends sad relatione, and form ehar&uter for themselves la coming time.

The number of children, aad the different tribes to which they belong,
say bo set dos« as follows; Delawares, 32--13 sales; 19 females, number
of others, 61—41 males; 20 females-~i» all, for the quarter, 92. for
further particulars, 1 would most respectfully refer yoa to the statistical
report for the last seholastls year, which I presume ass beea forwarded you
before this time by Major Cummins, the agent for Fort Leavenworth agency.

The school has beea la vacation suae five weeks, aad the winter sessioa
is mow be lag opened uader tolerably favorable circumstances; sad It Is to
be hoped that after a short time, the aamfeer la school will be as great
as at any former period.

The general health of the place has beea good; at least much better
than during the same period last year.

Our far® is in good condition, having fielded aa abundant harvest of
wheat, com, vegetables, 3te.» whiah has beea gathered, or is now ready to
be gathered lata the garner*

Our mills aad shops are dolag well, affording eonsiderable assistance
to in© Indians around, in various ways. The shops furnish the sore
industries* and enterprising with wagons, and such li&e, by which they are
enabled to sale, for themselves and families, something to subsist upon*


[Page 184]



Of the mill® I mast ©peak isore definitely. There h&.s nothing been done for
tli© Indians la all this section of country, la the way of improvements,
which Is of equal iaportsmee, or amy thing like equal Importance, with the
erection of the atea» flouring and saw-mill at this place. Her*, the
Indians from several tribes arounds get a .large quantity of their Bread-
stuffs; such a© flour and com ae&l. But this te not the only advantage
derived—the esas-a&tll furnishes them isith lumber for building, and. furnishing
their housesj and what is of still greater isipartsnee to then, the mills,
aai especially the saw mill, offers to than* inducements to industry. We
purchase fros the Indians all our saw logs, oar ateaa wood, *«.» thus giving
them employment, aad furaishing thess is return, flour, seal, sugar, eoffee,
salt, and sueh other things, ia a dry goods liae, as they or their families
my need, and those, things which, ia uwtay instances, they could aot have
without these facilities, at least to say considerable extent«w

Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs. 1845-1848, p. 365, 366.

Nov. 12. fhe third session of the Indian Mission Conference awt at
Riley's Chapel, Cherokee Nation, Bishop Pain, presiding. "Again J. C.
Berryman was appointed Superintendent of Missions."

W. F. Dunkle, Indian Clippings, v. 1, p. 197., K. S. H. S.

William Patton, was reappointed superintendent of the Manual labor

Lutz, op. cit. p. 225.

Indian Manual Labor School. This institution, which durlag the past
year, has been under the management of the Rev. E. T. Peery, and now under
that of the Rev. J. C. Berryman, is increasingly prosperous; so sash so,
that aaother large, substantial brick building is being erected, which


[Page 185]



will accommodate souse fifty ©* sixty students.

By judicious management, it has acquired the aoafidaaee of all the
tribes ia the flelaitf, to the tmsfo&K of tea or twelve. They, seeing

the isproveseats their children are a&lciag, look to this institution as
the hope of the risiag generation asoag. them. They eoaippatalate themselves
that a new era has oomsaced la their hopes sad prospects; &adf although
the- elder ssesbers of the. tribes, who are salightesed, »ay oecaaioaally
regret that it did aot eonsseaee sooaer, that they themselves might hate
eajoyed ssore of its beaeflts; yet they express stroa§ satisfaction aad
delight ia view of the prospects of their children. The aamher of the
students during the past year has heea 137. They ere instructed ia school
each day, from nine o*clock to twelve, sad fros oae to four* They are
eoaatastly aader the eare of their instructors, before and after school.
The larger portion of the hoys are la the various departaseats of agriculture;
while others of the® are atqalrlag a knowledge of the various mechanic
arts, such as blacksmithing, wagonmaking, shoemaklag, &c.

The girls, when aot ia sahool, are instructed ia the vajfioas breaches
of domestic economy, each as spinning, weaving, sewing, &c.

Shawnee Mission. The Shawnee nation aaabsre 928 persons; 53 of whoa
are members of the church. They h*sv© a meeting-house, hat mo parsonage.
Their exteat of territory, being so sash greater than they earn occupy,
Sires them opportaalty to ladalge- their disposition for reaoviag fro»
pl«ee to place; which is a great «ba»asst»nt to missionary operations
ssong them. Their preseat missionary is Rev. L. B. Stateler.


[Page 186]



Kansas River District - L. B. Stateler, P. E.

Missions.    Missionaries. Ch.  Ms.  Chs. S. S. Lit. It's  Pupils

Indian Mission ) J. C* Berryman}

M» L. School  ) W. A.  Duncan)       49.......1.. 1 • . . • 137

Shawnee       I. B. Stateler   186 . . 1

Annual Report, of the Board of Missions, Methodist Episcopal Church,
South. Copy la MSS. Ept., K. S. H» S. [From Nashville, Tenn.]

Is have already stated that, is eoaforalty with the Flan of Separation,
provided for fey the let* General Conference, such the larger aa&ber of tteas
ssieaioas arc mm  included within the jurisdictional limits of the Methodist
Episcopal Church, -South, fbe Indian Mission Conference eabr&ees as extensive
territory, and includes wlthia its Units several of the larger and hosts
civilised triees of Indians. Anoag these are the Choctaws, Cherokee*,
Creeks, and Wyandotts. These ware sarong the first object a of the sympathy
aaa efforts of this Society; and fron tfe« also the first fruits of its
Missionary toils were gathered, this Conference at its last aessioa •
declared its adhesion: to the Southern Church, fey a decided vote, sad thereby
withdrew these interesting mission© from our sure, and placed the responsi-
bility for their future support upon that Church, la this we cannot rejoice,
though we endeavored to submit without complaint, that your Board should
continue to cherish a lingering affection toward these missions is both
natural and reasonable; and that the sundering of so tender a relation.
Which has existed between us «ad the* during the lapse of a fuarter of a
century, should excite in us sorrowful emotions, is only what sight naturally
be expected. But while we oaaaot but regret the loss of so large a portion
of this promising misaioa field, it affords as such gratificetioa to lsara


that prosperity still attends it; and that it has been, and is likely to


[Page 187]



be, amply provided for by the Society uadsr ^e« supervision It has beea
placed. May great grass rest upon It, ss& an »b«adaat harvest of precious

souls crowa the instrumentalities sow employed la its culture!

Excerpts from Annual Report of the Missionary Society, 1846, p. 85.

Sopy in K. S. H. S. MSS. Dept. seat by Sec. of Board of Home Missions
of the M. E. Church.


[Page 188]




July 3. Left Independence for Fort Leavenworth. Passed through
Westport, a thriving village near the state line and a place where many
trading an d ©migrating companies rendezvous. Saw several Indians in the
town, and among them a gay young squaw arrayed in fantastic robes and wearing
on her head a high-crowned hat decorated with glittering tin plates, jingling
bells, etc. Some five or six miles west of Westport we passed the Methodist
Mission, The appearance of the large brick houses and the extensive fields
of wheat, corn, etc. (about twelve hundred acres) denoted wealth and
prosperity* Camped eight miles west of Westport at Gum spring, near Shawnee

July 4. Hear the camp lived an old Frenchman who had en Indian wife
and two pretty, half-breed daughters, all belonging to the Methodist
Episcopal Church. Several of us took breakfast at his house. The Shawnee
settlement extends from the state line to the Kansas, or Kaw, river, on the
other side of which are the Delaware, higher up the Kaw, and near by (on the
north side of the Missouri, I believe) the Wyandotte. Today we crossed the
Kansas, a clear, beautiful stream in which a number of us took a bath, which
was very refreshing after the fatigues of the day. We were ferried over the
river in flat-bottomed boats by some Indians, there being two ferries here,
one owned by the Shawnee, the other by the Delaware. The boats were pushed
along by poles. Along the road we frequently saw squaws with whiskey to sell.
These Indians live in log houses, raise com, etc., and a large number of them
have been converted to Christianity by the missionaries, and many of them are
tolerably well educated*

"Diary of Philip Gooch Ferguson,* Southwest Historical Series, v. IV,
pp. 293, 294. Edited by Ralph P. Bieber.


[Page 189]




Aug. 12.                                                                  Ft. Coffee, Aug. 12, 1847


four letter of July 20th ©as® by last Mail; aad I haat©a to comply,
though It anast be ia a very imperfect manner, with your iastructioas
therein expressed. &n&  la do lag so X will take up your "queries* as they

1st. fa* a«s» of our Society is, "The Missionary Society of the
Methodist Episcopal Church. South" And the Board of managers aad the
Corresponding Secretary, as wsll as the Treasurer, are all located at
Louisville, Ky. This Society is sustained by that portioa of the M. 1.
Church which lias la the Slaveholding States, asa Territories.

2. 1* hate four Schools under our care ia the Indian Mission Conference,
aow ia operation; and two otters projected, which will soon be ia operatloa
we hope. The first one of the## schools Is located ia the Shawnee nation
near the junction of the Missouri aad Kansas Rivers. The aaae of this
School is, "Indian Manual Labor School.*' This was the first school of any
aota ever attaspted ia the Indian country oa the Manual labor System;

aad «e gave it by way of dlstiactioa the above asms: aad sane of us who
had a hand ia originating it have felt a little opposition to altering its
nam*, although aow almost every place ia this Territory where children are
taught is called a manual labor school: aad indeed it would sea® a little
hard to take the name away from aa Institution which has made it so
respectable ....

3. The Government annually coatributes to the Indian Manual labor
School the sue of twenty five hundred dollars frost the civilization fund;
aad the interest arising from the Delaware school funds, which interest
averages about twenty eight hundred dollars per annum ....


[Page 190]



4. The Society has for the last alae years made annual appropriations
to the Manual Labor School varying froa tea thousand dowa to four thousand
dollars: . . .


6. The number of Teachers besides mechanics, aad exclusive of the
superintendent, at th® Manual labor School is four;, this lacludea the
Matron who overseas sad instructs the girls la housewifery ....

7 & 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9• As to the system of education at pres«st is operatloa maoug the
Indians, la ay judgment, it is far fros heiag perfect; But whether it
saa be improved at present is a doubtful question. It slight be wholly
superceded by sossethlag entirely new, greatly to the advantage of all
concerned: bat the time has not yet eoae for this, and the present systea
had better be left to be sore fully tested.

10.' The Manual Labor School was established la 1839, aad originated
with the Methodist Missionaries; who after some years of experience beeaae
dissatisfied with the old plea of neighborhood aad saall board lag schools
among the Indians; aad after much consultation aaong themselves reeoaaeaded
to the Missionary Society and the Department at Washington the plan of a
large central school for the tribes on aad aear the Missouri, to be conducted
on the Manual Labor System; which plaa was adopted' hy the Society aad
sanctioned by the Department. . . .

11, fas cost of the Buildings at the Indian Manual Labor School has
been not less than thirty thousand dollars; of this sum the Government
paid five thousand dollars, aad the Missionary Society the balance ....


[Page 191]



12. The buildings at these several institutions are ia good condition,
sad supposed to be wort a the eatisssted cost ....

As ever

Hon. W* Medill

Tour nest Obt. scrvt*
Com. Ia4. Affrs.

J. C. Berryman

Photostat copy in MSS. Dept., K. S. H. S.

Oct. 30.


Friends» Shawnee School,

Indian territory. 10th month 30tht 1847

Friend Bailey: 1 have ao other apology to offer for troubling thee

with tbls eoamuniestlon, than the desire to bring to the aotlce of the

frieads of Humanity the exlateaoe of slavery la this Territory, contrary

to the restrictioas of the Missouri Compromise. We are situated near the

south side of the Kansas River^ sad & little to the south of the 39th

degree of aortfe latitude; consequently, the existence of slavery here is

aot legal, and yet it does exist. It Is true, it does aot exist to any

great extent, for there are perhaps aot wore than twenty slaves in this

region; but if there m only one, it would be a grievance sailing for

redress. Kit the question may be asked, who is it that holds slaves ia

this territory, which is inhabited oaly by Indians? In the first ©lace,

one of the chiefs assess the Shawnees owns a anther of slaves, sad he

ia the only Indian in this part of the Territory, so far as I am informed,

that either owns slaves, or has the* in his employ. But it is white men

in the service of the Government of the United States, and missionaries,

that have introduced slavery here. And some say be startled at the

information that missionaries have slaves; but startling as it say be,


[Page 192]



such is the fast. I presusta that no one will be more surprised than I
was a® coning here to fiat such a atate of thing®, there is a very ex-
tensive missionary establishment here, trader the care of the Methodist
church 3outb, and, strange as it nay appear, they have soae half dozen
or nore slaves, to assist in civilizing and christianizing the Indians.
Is not this the olissue of inconsistencies'? And this syste® of operations
Is not without Its results; for sons of the children who have been at
that mission have that aversion to labor which Is so ec-moa aaoag white
people in a slave-holding community; which is a sad state of things, for
It is highly ijaportaat that these Indian children should he trained up
to habits of industry.

I have besa happy to learn, that ssaay of the Indians &r» decidedly
opposed to slavery| hot there are others who, no doubt, would own slaves'
if they were able to buy the®. Some of then will take up runaway slaves
whenever they find then, whilst others will quietly let then pass.

Those that return them to their masters do so, most probably, for the
money that is generally paid for the return of the poor fugitive; and
possibly they say do so from a fear of sharing the same fate as did the
poor Seminoles in Florida, who, for harboring fugitives from oppression,
were subjected to years of harassing but unsuccessful war, la «hieh alllioas
of the public money were squandered for so despicable an object.

Hy object In bringing this subject to public notice Is, that something
stay be don® for the removal of slavery from this part of the Territory.
Cannot this subject be laid before the proper authorities at Washington?
After thus bringing it to public notice, I shall look to the friends of
Justice In the East to atteud to it.


[Page 193]



If this object should be carried oat, it aight subjeot w»  to bitter

persecution bare, aM perhaps oblige ma to leave the Territory; but, after
mature deliberation, 1 have determined to bring the subject to public

notice at all hazards. 1 as engaged in labors of a public nature, for
tfee good of a wash-injured people; aM although lay lot is at present
east among the Indians, yet X as no less a friend to the sable sons of

Africa than to the poor outraged Indian.
fains in the bonds of Reform.

Richard Mendenhall.
The National Era. Washington, Dec. 23, 1847.

Oct. 30. Richard Cummin's report to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.

w.4t the Methodist manual labor school eaong the Shawnees, this year
there are 125 scholars—78 males and 47 females. Of this number the
Delaware* furnish 19 males end 19 females; the Shawnees furnish 21 males

and 9 females; the balance of the number is nads up fro* various other
tribes. At this institution they are endeavoring to give males and

females at least a eeasaon .English education. The stales are taught the
various branches of agriculture, some of them are placed under mechanics,
to learn trades—such as wagon-makers, blacksmiths, and shoemakers. The
females are taught all the duties of housewifery, cooking, spinning,
weaving, knitting etc."

Reports of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1847* p. 845.

Fall, Rev* Thomas Johnson returns to the Indian Manual labor School
as Superintendent.

Nov. 4. The fourth session of the Indian Mission Conference convenes
at Doaksville, Choctaw Nation. J. C. Berryman was transferred to the
St. Louis conference. This ended his connection with the Indian Mission


[Page 194]




W. F. Dunkle, Indian Clippings, v. 1, p. 197.

Indian Manual. Labor School. This institution at th® last conference
was placed under the superintendency of Rev. J. C. Berryman, feat has since
passed Into the tends of Rev. William Patton. At this place there are
a meeting-house, (or chapel,) 1 society, 34 members, 1 Sabbath school,
100 scholars, sad a library containing 200 volumes. The resources of this
establishment are sow sufficient for the aoeoasodation of one hundred
mA fifty children, males sad f*«ales, sad it bids fair with proper
aaasgeaeat, to bcoone a sourae of knowledge *ad piety to all the surroaadiag
tribes, The aassfcer of children ia the school proper, has averaged about
one hundred.

Kansas District - L. B. Stateler, P. E.

Missions.  Missionaries.  Ch. Ms.  Chs.  S.S. Schrs. Lit. Ins. pupils
Indian M.L.S. . . Wm. Patten. ...40....1.. 1 . . 50 . . 1... 100
Shawnee ....  L. B. Stateler . 152 ....1 ..1 . 25 . .

Annual Report of Board of Missions, Methodist Episcopal Charch, South.
Copy la MSS. Dept., K. S. H. S. sent from Nashville, Tenn.


[Page 195]




Rev. Johnson decides to organize & classical department in eaaaeetioa
with the school asd advertises it as follows:


I« have detemalaed to opea a school of high order for both males
sad females, « ft. Leavenworth Indian Manual Training School, oa the
25th of September, 1848*

The Coarse of Instruction will eahraee all the broaches of a eemplete
English education together with the Latin sad Greek languages.


Has heea eagaged as Principal; sad assistaats will he procured if
accessary. Mi. SCARRITT is exteaeively knowa la the State of Missouri,

haring heea for several years Principal of the Male department of Howard
High School, aad we presume that all who teow his, will aaite with as la
opialoa that he tea hat few equals, sad so superior as a teacher ia the
State* ,%s we are renewed from the vices to »hieh youth are exposed about
little towas, sad have the satire control of the place, we hope to he
able to Bake such regulations with regard to Both the discipline and the
Boardiag of the students, as to give satisfaction to those who asay Choose
to pattroai^e as, aad sake it a desirable place to educate their children:
To aeeosplish which we pledge oar best efforts.


Primary........................   $ 6.00

Common English Branches ......      8.00

Higher English Branches ......     10.00

Latin cad Greek Languages .....    12.00

Extfs per Session, for the purchase of Apparatus . . $1.00
Bofirdtng, including lashing, Lodging, Lights, Fuel, etc . . .$l.25 per week.
August 17, 1848.                                        Thomas Johnson,

Sap«t F. L. Ind. M. L. School.


[Page 196]



Mo» Valley Hist. Soc.» v. 1, p. 445,

■ original i» owned by James Anderson, a grandson of Thomas Johnson.

Sept. 25. Classical Department is orgaaissed ia Indian Manual Labor
school with Rev. Nathan Scarritt ia charge. He*. Scarritt writes,

"This aew departure ia the history of the school—though undertaken
as aa experiment, and with some alagiviags~.prov©d to be a decided success.

*& score or »re of young gentlemen sad young ladies from "across
tea line*; sad souse, indeed, from tea MMra distaat parts of Missouri—
having limited aeaas, yet desiring to enjoy the advaatages of a classical
school, ware ad»itt«sd iat© this department, fats brought whites aad Indians
iato close competition ia taa race for knowledge, sad gate rise to aa
emulation both laudable aad salutary."

Missouri Valley Hist* Soc. v. 1, p. 435.

Sept. 26. Report of Richard Cummins to the Commissioner of Indian

•Of all taa tribes oa the border taa Shawnees have asde the greatest
progress, aad soae of their feme will eoapare with many of the bast
withia taa Stat* lias; aad in very s&aay instances, they are superior
botb as regards Management sat culture. A few of the sore opulent have
aegro slaves.*

"torn will observe by th© statistics herewith, that almost every
family ia well supplied with farming stock; sash as horses, oxon, milch
sows, aad other cattle, hogs aad some sheep, and agricultural iapliaents.
They have raised sbnads&ee of corn, some wheat, potatoes, oats and garden
vegetables; have &ade butter aad cheesa, aad have cultivated fruit. Their
hunts will appear of little or no ssoaeat. Ia feat the ♦Indian hunter1 has
disappeared from among the borisr tribes, and the farmer has tahea his
plaee. All these Indians dwell ia good log cabins, and some have extremely


[Page 197]



neat houses well furnished. They have outhouses, stables, well fenced

lets, and soae have gooi barns* Indeed, e traveller passing through

their country would fancy himself within the pale of the 'white settlements*

were It aot for the swarthy lineaments and. strange language of tj» inhabitants."
Reports of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1845-1848» p* 446.

Oct. 6. Report of Thomas Johnson to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.

w$lri la compliance with the regulations of the Department, I
respectfully submit the following report of the condition of the school
under my charge for the quarter ending September 30tb( 1848.

The number of Delaware children for this cuarter is thirty-one, fifteen
males sad sixteen females; of other tribes fifty-four, thirty-one males
and twenty three females; total number this quarter, eighty-five. They
have bees engaged as usual, ia the schools a part of the tins, and the
other part at work. But as we bad oar eraser vacation ia the month of
August, aai the most of the® were absent for four weeks, they hate not
wide as great proficiency as ia sow* other quarters* Though they have
now returned,'aad we are expecting a sore regular aai perhaps a fuller
school through the winter*

We have raised tolerably good crops. But as we have had ao rains here
of much duration for two years, our excellent springs are failing very
fast; our meadows and pastures have suffered greatly, and we have been
compelled to haul water to keep our steam sill running for two months

Tb* health of the institution has been better than common for this season
of the year.*

Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1845-1846, p. 449, 450.


[Page 198]



October, about the first. Bishop Andrews on bis way to tb© Shawnee
Mission passes through Fort Leavenworth. Be writes: *Fort Leavenworth,
beautifully situated oa a commanding bluff, which overlooks the Missouri

river. It has sore the appearance of a handsome village, than a military
position . . . Hundred of wagons were there when we passed, sad a fall
complement of the poorest males I have ever yet seen. Tness bad just

returned from service in the Mexican war. What disposition TJnele Sam
will make of all these wretched cattle, is past my calculations.*1
Bishop Andrews writes of the Shawnee manual labor school:
"The institution is ©onveaiently located in the midst of a fertile
and beautiful prairie. It has an abundant supply of excellent water from
ever-running springs, and it is said the plaee has proved to be exceedingly
healthy. There are three large and convenient brisk buildings; one for
the superintendent*® family, and a steward's hall for the boys, affording
also lodging-rooms for the hands employed about the farm. Some fifty yards
distant is another brick building, occupied as & school-room, for the boys.
Including also a chapel and a number of lodging rooms. Oa the other side
of the street, and at a. considerable distance frem the two former, is saother
large brick building designed for the girls; besides these, there is aa
ample supply of the necessary oat-buildtags, giving to the whole establish-
ment the air of a clever, thriving village. There are a wagon-maker's
shop, a black-smith's shop, a steam saw, and grist mill, which formerly
supplied the Indians from all the surrounding country with flour; but as
there are other mills springing up ia the neighborhood, we have Judged it
b#st to curtail the expenses of this department, by reducing the operations
of the mill to some two or three days ia the week. The farm is one of
the most extensive, and well-managed that I have ever sees, amounting to


[Page 199]



sosas five or six hundred acres. The stock is of the finest description,
asd the whole establishment tinder the discreet management of our friend
Johnson promises to be all its friends could reasonably expect. On
Friday we rode over the farm, and on Saturday uioraing, while walking about
tbe establishment, we saw a company of sen singularly equipped, passing
just below the sill. We understood they were a part of Col. Fremont's
company; and, as I had a great curiosity to see how sueh a company, entering
on sueh a tour, would be accoutred; and as 1 had, asoreover, quite a strong
desire to see the distinguished leader, for whose Intelligence and enter-
prise, and general character, I had been inspired with a very high respect
by his previous exploring tours, brother Johnson and myself saddled our
horses and started in pursuit; but we were too late. The cavalcade was
too far ahead for us to overtake them without a pretty long chase; so we
were reluctantly compelled to abaaioa our object.

"Just as we were reconciling ourself to our disappointment, we espied
on the prairie at sons half a nils** distance, a company of men and dogs
in full chase. *A wolf chase,* said ay friend. Met us join tbe»;» and
iiwadiately he was in full gallop, and wfeat eotald 1 do but follow bi*f My
friend swept over the prairie.as though he were asoustoaed to it, but I
could not divest ayeelf of a certain sense of uneasiness as to the fate of
my neck asong the holes and salamander hills which abound in the prairie;
so I slackened ay pace. I could not help feeling that there was sosethiag
ludicrous in our sppearamie. fe were, neither of us, very saall risen; brother
J. weighs about two hundred and thirty pounds, and his eoap&nion something
ahsjrt of two hundred; neither of us in very fine plight for playing the
active; and, perhaps, sows of .you grave readers say question whether it was
quite canonical for a bishop and a priest to engage so heartily in the


[Page 200]



sjgussttent of hunting. How I am not going to enter into an? sober argsiaeat
on the subject. I don't think sty friend felt any qualms about it, as the
wolf was a soman ©sewy, and bad, a© doubt, had aany a seal of Bias fat
pig, at tba expense of ths mission far*; and for myself I bad long wished
to exasine a prairie wolf. We war* not at ths death, but we were on the
spot ti»e ©sough to see tba object of our pursuit.*7

Rev. James C. Andrew, Miscellanies, 1855, 146, 153-156.


Oct. 10. Grand eon vocation of Indian tribes bold near fort Leavenworth.
Eer© the .Emigrant tribes rekindle the Council Fire of th© Ancient Confederacy
of tb© northwest. "At this council th© position of the Wyandotte as
keepers of ths Council-fire of th© northwestern Confederacy was confirmed
and renewed.*

William Connelley, William Walter and the Provisional Government
of Nebraska, p. 265.

"Indian M. L. School. Rev. W. Patton has had charge of this institution.
there are in the society here IS whites, 20  Indians, and 3 colored asrabers.
The average number of students in the school the past year, of both se*ea,
has been about eighty. There is also 1 Sabbath school, with 1 superintendent,
S teachers, 100 scholars and 200 volumes in library.* [Annual Report of
the Board of Missions, Methodist Episcopal Church, South.
Gopy in vault, K. S. H. S. sent fro® Nashville.]

list of appointments to the Indian Missions of the Methodist church
for 1848:

Kansas River district, L. B. Stateler, presiding elder:

Indian manual-labor school, Thos. Johnson, T. Hurlburt.

Shawnee, L. B. Stateler

Delaware, B. H. Russell


[Page 201]



Kickapoo, N. T. Shaler

Wyandot, J. T. Peery

Kansas, T.  Johnson*

Wester Academy, N. Scarritt.

Lutz,  op. clt. pp. 228. 229.


[Page 202]



Jan* 25, 1849

Sir: I ha*® the honor to enclose for your consideration a letter
this day reef from Agent Cummins in relation to sterol* difficulties

aaosf: the Shawnees; also a copy of a letter addressed fey Bishop Morris
to the Sev. M. Curley[?] from Ohio who has been appointed fey the Bishop
to press!! to the Wyandotte.

It is to ha deeply regretted that this difficulty should he agitated
aaoag the Indians fey two societies asaiatalaing the bsb© church doctrines
and diaeiplla*; the only point of difference feeing that in which the
Indians can have no Interest iassdiata or reaote.

Major Cummins fens very forcefully alluded to difficulties that Kay
occur la refereaes to the subject; and should they, occur it will he
difficult .to forsa® their effsot upon the Indians*

ly own opinion is that the agitation of the subject will h® a

serious affair to the Indians; it is already prejudicing their stars!

& religious character ... If it is practicable the sooner it is

sheeted the better.

Thomas Harvey, Supt. [Indian Affairs]

Hon. M. Medill

Commissioner of Indian Affairs

Superintendency of Indian Affairs, v. 9,

Mar. 9. Jotham Meeker visits the Methodist mission and spends

about three hours "critically essoining the schools sod© of sanaglng
the children &a* vftfe a view to putting sose of the Ottawa children there

Meeker Journal, v. 2, p. 107.

March 26. **Write a letter lev. Th, Johnson relative to seating

to his school IS of the Ottawa children.**
Ibid. p. 109,


March 27, Meeker writes: *l  eead off to the Shawnee Meth. Mission
school ay boys Robert Merrill sad Ephraim Robins, Shawboneda seada two,
aad Washkee oaa, all for tare© fag**-*

May 19. "We raaaiaed aaeaaped to-day. Is order to enable Mr. Boone,
a graadsos. of Daniel Boone, aad bis faally aad party, wbo *rish to jfoia
as, to eosfi® ap* Sfeasra. Kirkendall, Jacob, aad Greenbury, reached es«p
this sorsiag about sevea o*clock, reliaviag aws soae uaeasiaees oa their
account. They had found a ford, asar the mission, about twelve alias
up Kansas; bat wbaa they returaed to the ferry, fiafiisg that oar train
bad ail passed over, sad it beiag late, they reaaiaed dariag tbe night
with the party that separated fro® as this isoraiag. The alssioa uhleh
they visited, aad at «bieb tbey war© 5*ell .received aad satertsiaed, i»
aa establishment for the education and christianization of the Indians,
supported ia part by the raited States government, sad uader the patronage
sad superintendence of the Methodist Episcopal Church of the Waited
States, There is a blacksmith's shop at the mission, sad aa extensive
fsras uader cultivation.

A as* census of oar party sat t&kea this aoraiag, end it was foaad
to consist of 98 fighting-mea, 50 woman, 46 wagons, aad 350 cattle,
Two divisions wer« made of the wagons for convenience ia aarebing, f»
were joiaed to-day bj nine wagons from Illinois, belonging to Kr« teed
and the Messrs. Donasr, highly respectable aad iatelligeat gentlemen,
with interesting families. Tfeey were received into the company by a
uaanalmous vote."

Edwin Bryant, Rooky Mountain Adventures, pp. 45, 46.


[Page 204]



Sep. 8. Wm. Walker writes: "kent to the oaap ground and heard a sermon
froas Rev. Thomas Johnson, decidedly the best Indian prencfasr 1 e^ar heard."
Wm. E. Connelley, William Walker sad the Provisional Government
of Nebraska Territory, p. 297.

Oct. 12. Report of Thomas Johnson to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs*

"Dear Sir: As tha agent recently appointed for this agency has not
yet arrived, 1 have taken tha liberty of forwarding to yon directly a
copy of our annual rapo.rt, in which yon will perceive, as wall as fr©» our
quarterly reports, that our sahool Is still saving on with reasonable
success, notwithstanding the efsbarrfissasants froas having the cholera in
the cowauaity, and fro® »ay other causes that we have had to contend, with,
I think there has been an increasing desire for education, especially
sasasg the Shawnee®, sanifested dnrlat the past fe&.

The Shawnees, and portions of other tribes, era beeoalng a working
people, and are making considerable progress in the arts of civilised •
life* Bat txm things operate vwry such against them; first, the want
of suitable lews esB&g themselves, for the protection of their persons
and property; secondly, their disposition to save abotit txtm plaea to
place. Wot unfrcquently, after having worked bard, and built « comfortable
bor.se, ©ad Bade a convenient little fare, they ia&edlataly take a notion
that so®8' new place will suit thea better, ©ni »ove off. right away to
eosaense anewj and thus, in soss instances, tfieir large tracts of land
prove a disadvantage to them.

"For »ny years »y sind has bees directed to the probable destiny
of theae restnants of tribes west of Missouri; and I as fully satisfied
that they never can be extensively improved as separate nations, and that
the tine will cease when it will be best for our Government to throw around


[Page 205]



this ftsaatry soae- font of government, aad buy ap the sarpiaa leads
belonging to these little tribe*; laevinc, a reservation la eaob tribe
far those s*ho sir© not willing; to live astoag civilized people, ead let
the enterprising part of e&oh nation hold property in their saigas, and

live mang,  the whites, sad take their ehaase with the®} mad at * aaitable
tine, when they wr© foaad qualified for it, lot then have eitinessMp
with the whites.

*»1 believe fcfest sore of ths Indians, ia this pert of the eo&atry,
wttW be brought to enjoy the benefits of civilisation on this thea any
other plan ever presented to ay ulnd. I have conversed with a ausfaer of
the more Intelligent la the different tribes; eM I have no doabt bat
*GB8 snob arr&ageieeats could be igade soon, if the Government shonld think
proper to eajgssesc© it.

"Oar crops this year of say sad oats iters tolerable good, end els©
of the different kinds of vegetables; bat owe ©era 1® far short of aa
average one, ia eoasataeace of the alaost constant r&ia tbroagii the
eatire season. Bat X think, with proper eeonosjy, we shell be able to
winter oar stock, as we have considerably reduced oar aassbar of settle
aad hogs.

*X have aat tias to add «©rs at present, ss I mm much pressed with

"I have the honor to be, yours, with due respect,

Thos. Johnson
Boa. 0. Brown,

Supt* F. L. Ind. M. L. School.
Commissioner of Indian Affairs.


[Page 206]



Kuiaber of sohoiars of different sexes sad tribes.
























































fife apprentices not included la the above







Reports of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1849, 1850,
p. 149, 150.

Oct. 19, Kef. Meeker writes: "Purchase lussber of Meth. Mission
Steam mills for our still wheels ets.w

Meeker Journal, v. 2, p. 136.

Oct. 24. "Br. Jones takes to the Methodist Shawanoe mission his
girls and Pooler's boys, ana to the Shawnee Bap. mission. Pahtee*s children.*

1849 lev. John Thompson Peery is appointed to the Indian Manual
labor School. **fie was associated ia the work with lev, fbos. Johnson.
lis special work In this school was teacfeiag» bat he preached oa the

Sabbath and held social seatings and rendered, other services.11*
ft.  St. Louis ..Christian Advocate, Nov. 22,  1905.

Indian Mission Clippings, v. 1, p. 48, K. S. H. S.


[Page 207]



Appai&t«£B&ft for 1849

Kansas River district, L» B. Stateler, presiding elder:

Indian manual-labor senool, Thos. Johnson, Superintendent, J. T. Peery

Shawnee, L. B. Stateler
Delaware, J. a. Cummings
Wyandot, B. H. Russell
Kickapoo, N. T. Shaler
Kansas, T. Johnson
Pottawatomie, T, Hurlburt

Western Academy, N. Scarritt.
Lutz, op. cit,  p. 229.

1849 '

1848 - Received #ro« samdry aonrees as follows:    (fro* treasurer's ac-
count) Kansas River District - Indian manual labor school 86 00, Shawnee 31 05,

Delaware 20 00       Dr. $137 00.


By tnia aaoant paid %m.  L. B. Stateler  $248 60.

Annual Report of Board of Missions, Methodist Episcopal Church,


Oopy In MSS. Dept., K. S. H. S. from record* at Nashville, Tenn.


[Page 208]




May 6-. Letter of vies Archbold to Julie Anne McBride, Paris, Mo.

-Westport, Missouri, May 6th, 1850
Indian Manual Laboring School.
distress Julia Anne McBride

e/o Judge E. W. McBride,

Paris, Monroe County, Mo.

??y Sear »rs. McBride; Tou requested so to writs fro® this poist,
wbloh rsqaisifeioa should bars bssa eojeplied with, but that s§y health and
sssaay prassiaf: ea&sgestsats b«r?e hitherto prevented ate. I caught cold
easing over the bleak prarisa that 11a beteeea fiascos to tils place aad
ay ooagb aad pais ia »y aide hav® bsaa sstsr-s* I passed through a ©ours®
of blue pills aad was bled. 1 as now such better thosgh I but saldo»
sit up a whole day. I got here the first day of April asi eo»aacsa'
school the third. I aft such pleased with, the school. The girls ara
perfectly quits sad easily siiaapNt. fhey were never knows to sauce a
teacher and ar    fca -sff^ct leasts asi kind, barstless and playful, fae
sals school Is tasght by twa young geutlasss©, one a Methodist preacher,
I never had batter ace osriodat ions—my washing Is don© 1b the best of
style, by a black girl birei on purpose to wash for the teachers saft
preachers of the iastitutloa.

I live la s stately brisk house that has thirteen rooms, all very
conveniently arranged. 1 have a wry nest roo» with window blinds aad
nicely carpeted floor aad as ales s stand sad as good a bad as I ever
wish to hairs. The presiding elder aad bis wife lire to ©as esd of this
house sad the lady keeps the hoardiaf house.

We have souse thirty odd Indian girls- wbea we have school but it is
vacation acs?. My school will eaasteaoe a@ala weslc after next. I shall
be pleased as I like to teach tbe®.


[Page 209]



2\ist aeros^ the  road is another very largo brick house with thirteen

spacious raoas. In this Preacher Johnson tM family reside. Ee is the
superintendent end has a most interesting wife sad seise beautiful children.
There our iserehsat and his family reside, they keep the male boarding house
here sadi the store is handy. Is the same lot steads another large brisk
building—in this the preacher la charge g«v, Dince end family lire ia one
eadt in the other Elder Hurlburt sad his noble wife and meat salable sister
live. Brother sad Sister Adams, another very salable pair, live there to©,
so you see we have the best ©ad most fleas lag society iss&ginsble. fhis
house contains thirteen rooms also. One of these rooms Is appropriated
to divine Worship. It has a pulpit and has a very.spacious room ia sjfeleh
the male school le taught, it have fine trees growing in our lot and yard.
Se aave fine gardens and flowers of all descriptions, and one of the largest
©ad most beautiful farras I ever saw with, several springs and gurgling rills.
Oh, I wish, ay dear frleud you could visit usj you would be amply paid for
the visit, I aesure you. ie could give you plenty of strawberries and
cream* Is have seventy eons belonging to the Mission. & Steam mill too
«here me get as beautiful flour as I ever saw so you see I am still la
the land of plenty—yes, to profusion. Here I aa willing to labor* to
spend ay day® if I can hut do any real or lasting good. My life mill
soon be past as a dreas or tale that is told. I fain would Improve the
isoaeats as time flies. Stermity mill soon open upon ay astonished vis lea
mad Oh, thst I any be prepared,

Oould you see the difference it makes la.these children of nature to
have the benefit of Christian Education I tfeiak you would with me be reedy
to bless the first Missionaries that erected the first rude hut, and then
the lofty Temple, la these plains to Instruct the poor, debased Savage,
for many miles around you may see neat farms and good dwell lags: these


[Page 210]



occupied by the red saea bet you would still be better pleased, dear friend,
to see them wearing good apparel and hear then pray, and see them in the
Stead proclaiming the Gospel of Peace aad then, could you bat sell around,
the Wild Savage Just as I have seen scores of them la their Own Costume
which consists of a blanket thrown around the perfectly naked body, save
a cloth wash below the shoulders aad their legglns with their shoes of
skins and their ornaments, of which they are extraaaly fond; Indeed,
our fashionable young ladies would be ^ulte in the shade as It respects
necklaces and shells—feathers and beads—warm furs, and aany other articles,
too tedious to aeatlon. A whole nation in this wild state came and osaped
here at the alll. The poor wesan carried the babies, while their lordly
husbands rode on horses, end s»de thes carry all the bags of flour, and
load the ponies, while their lords of earth walked near with erect foras
and highly painted cheeks, I wish your dear girls could have seen them.
fe »ade up a party aad went down to their camp. The wesson were cooking
supper. They had cakes made up and laid on the ground or what was worse,
on their eld polluted blankets. The assn and boys were laying round painted
to the life with red paint over their faces--eyes and hair then, striped
with yellow paint soat fancifully. 0hv I think Bina (Now Mrs. Woods)
would have wanted one of their babies. One little ataoat naked thing got
hold of ay hand and played so fondly that 1 felt Ilk® taking It from Its
heathen Bother and educating It*

-My dear niece returned from this place after staying near three weeks.
She was ®u©h pleased aad thinks of returning in the Fall. She was disap-
pointed that we could not visit you but we had to give it up. I hope to
visit you aoRstisae, however,

I would like Judge McBride to read soae of the speeches ay good
Democratic Brother ssade at the State Senate this winter. I have two papers.


[Page 211]



Ky Brother, the preacher, is nearly wall.

My love to your dear children I would so love to teach the» again

but could not say*

Your sincere friend,

A. Archbold

Missouri Valley Historical Society, Annals of Kansas City, v. 1, p.
also a copy, slightly different, in MSS. Dept., K.S. H. S.

May 9. Meeker writ**: "titwi ia sy busty to the Shawnee Meth.
Mission. s»«t a great s&ay California emigrants.w
Maeker Journal, v. 2f p. 159.

May. fha General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church South
meets ia St. Louis. This conference ebanfsd the boua&aries of the Indian
Mission conference by attaching the Xausas Sistriet to the St. Louis
Conference. Tale district was called the Indian Msaioa District.
M* Anally, Life and Times of William Patton, p. 253, 254.
Parrish, fhe Rise of Methedism in Kansas. p. 43.

July 9. wWe visited the Shawnee Missions. There were three within
sbout six ailes. The first is Methodist sad is sustained by the Government.
fhay have three large brick houses—one for the boardlag-house, one for
the school, and the other is used for a high-school for whites fres the
States. This is under the superintendence of Thomas Johnson. Be is a
Methodist and a slaveholder.

"■One of the chiefs of the Shawnees rents part of the farm, which
consists of ?0© acres, aad carries on faraiag on a pretty large scale.
Has a large fine house and large stock of cattle aad horses, aad has his
work mostly dose by slaves.

w<fhere are soastises as many as 120 children in this school. Many
of the young asea leara trades, sad toe wasea are taught, besides the common


[Page 212]



branches of edaoatioa, housework ssad needlework.

*fhe iaflaeaoe of the missionaries has beea very great. A majority
of this tribe are farmers, aa& have eoaalderable tracts of laad aader
good feaee aad culture, aad are disposed to be quiet aad Industrious."

John 0. Wattles to Horace Greeley, New York Tribune, July 9,


Kansas River District — L, B. Stateler, P. E,
Fort Leavenworth Indian M. L,. .School. — Rev. Thos. Johnson In
©barge. Students 120. Dae Sabbath School, 80 scholars; 200 *o lasses la
Library. Members la Society — Indians 5, Whites 20, Colored 3.
Missionary collectioa $33, State of religion tolerably good. la the
appointments to this work, He*, Thomas Hurlburt was connected with Brother
Johnson, bat oaly remained a part of the year.

Annual Report of Missions, Methodist Episcopal Church, South.

Copy ia MSS. Dept., K. S. H. S. Oopled from records at

Nashville, Tenn.


[Page 213]



Jam. 29.

BFort Leavenworth, I. M. L. School, Jan. 29,  1851.
lev. E. W. Sehon.

Dear Brother: Having learned thai the secretary of the St* Louis
Conference Missionary Society failed to furnish yon with the last annual
report, as required by the discipline, J will forward to you all the
statistical and other important information which I can eoasaad at this
time, relative to the missions embraced in the bounds of the Lexington
district, St. Louis Conference, Though in many particulars I fear the
inf creation will be but very meagre, yet as 1 have no time now to seek
for farther information among the missionaries, I hope you will accept
this, not only as supplying to sons extent the lack of the report referred
to above, but also as ay second quarterly report from these missions.
&U the missions within the bounds of this district, prior to the General
Conference In May, 1850, belonged to the Indian Mission Conference, and.
at that time were added to the St. Louis Conference; and at the last
session of the St. Louis Conference, they were attached to the Lexington
District. They are five in number, each of which 1 will notice in orders—

1. Fort Leavenworth Indian Manual, Labor School. — This institution
is under the superintendence of He?. Taos. Johnson, In whose prudent and
judicious management of its interests the Church has ttv&Tf reason to be
satisfied. There are about eighty children in school this winter, though
considerably more than this number have obtained their outfit of winter
clothing here. The attendance during the past year, and up to this time,
has been more regular then it formerly had been. As a consequence, we
think the children have improved much more than they have done before,
in the same length of time. Indeed, if we consider that they have to
acquire the language in which they learn their lessons, it is a matter


[Page 214]



of wonder that they advance as rapidly la their studies as the; do. AM
the facility with which they acquire the use of the English language,
affords a striking evidence of the practicability of giving to the rising

generation of the Indians a knowledge of the Holy Scriptures, throat the

medium of the English language, these children ere taught spelling,

reading, writing, arithmetic, English grammar, and geography, k part of

each day, except Sabbath, is devoted to so» kind of useful manual labor*

They are required to be present at family worship twice a day, and to

attend public worship at the regular hours on Sabbath. ¥9 have at this

place a very Interesting Sabbath school, of more than one hundred scholars.

Some of the little Indian girls, in the course of a week, besides their

other studies and duties coralt from twenty to sixty verses in the New

Testament, and recite the® in Sabbath school. It is truly delightful to

meet in this Sabbath school, asd hear all these little Indians unit® with

their teachers in singing the praises of Sod-. Indians mostly sing well.

He think this school gives promise of such usefulness.*8 ■

{Report from other missions follow - letter signed by J. T. Peery.)

Kansas District - J.T. Peery, P. E»
Fort Leavenworth M.L. School, T. Johnson."""

Ind.  W»  Col.  Chs.  S. S.  Schs.  P.

3    15   3     1      1    100   89

Copied froa the Annual Reports of the Board of Missions, Methodist

Episcopal Church, South, Copy in MSS. Dept., K. S. H. S.

Office Supnt Indian Affairs
St. teals lay 86, 1851
Sin During sy late trip to the Indian Country, in obedience to
your Instructions, I visited the Shawnee Mission for the purpose of
examining, and reporting the condition of that institution.

On the day of my examination (1st May) I found the school to consist


[Page 215]



of II Indian boys, and 4 white boys. Is the female Department, 1 found
25 girls 3 of whom were white—ssa$tiag the whole aomber of scholars present
©a that occasion, fifty of both sexes aad colors. There was a separate
room occupied exclusively fey white boys sad girls—28 to ausifeer; these
latter ware the ehildrea of frostier inhabitants whose education was paid
for fey their parents or friends*

I found upoa a brief examination that a few of the Indian scholars
of both saxes bad ®sde some progress la spelllag aad reading, sad two
of the toys understand the rudiments of srithmstlo— Owing to the absence '■
of Hr. Johnson, the Superintendent, aad also that of the principal teacher,
I was unable to procure such stst1stleal, aad other information as 1
desired aad aeedei is order to eaable m to sake out a satisfactory, or   \
useful report. I regretted to leara however, that hut few of the hoys
ever act aired much knowledge of agriculture or the Mechanic arts. This
I  leara (frost those who have opportunities of kaowiag} arises partly
fro* the ladlsposltloa of the hoys to engage ia manual labor, aad to
some extent to a waat of seal oa the part of those whose business it is
to iastruot them. The indisposition of the hoys to labor will be readily
understood, whea you reflect, that whenever they arrive at aa age aad
size where their labor aad skill would be profitable—they and their
parents are aot willing for them to labor for & bare aad poor sufesistsaee,
without any promise or prospects of a pecuniary reward. It will also
be readily understood that nothing hut great zeal la the cause would
induce the teachers to trouble themselves with the tuition of boys, that
will be sure to leave the® as sooa as their labor becomes valuable.

Oouid the proceeds or profits of the fans {which is on© of the finest
aad moat productive la the Western country) be so arranged as to inure to
the benefit of the Indians themselves, the result would be widely different.


[Page 216]



But unfortunately this is not tit© ease; the profits (which are very
§*»«**) &1I go to enrich those who are so fortunate as to have the manage-
ment of the institution, and I am informed by gent lessen who have heat
opportunities of knowing, that the .^superintendents of this institution
never fail to make fortunes within the course of 4 or 5 years; at which
time they retire to make room for some poorer brother. These remarks are
mot iateaded as a reproach to the gentlemen who have heretofore had charge
of the establishment, but merely to show that the Indians ought to derive
a greater amount of good from the expenditure of their own money.

fhe tribe having nest cause of esmplaimt I think are the Delaware®.
At the tfcas of my visit, there was only one Delaware scholar at the mission,
and. she a avail half breed, fhe teachers who were present very frankly
confessed that they had no hopes of ever being able to induce the
Belawares to send their children to the school of the Shawnee Mission;
this they attributed to the jealous interference of rival missionaries—
of the truth of this X had no scans of judging*

fhe mill built by the Society as a part of their agreement with the
Delawares, S am sorry to say, is of no use to the Indians, or to amy one-
else, and sever will be.

In conclusion, X will give it as sy opinion, that the money annually
paid to missionary societies for the purpose of educating the Indians,
could be better used for that purpose by the resident Agents of the
Government; partieulariy as the societies have within the last few years
introduced politics in its most baneful form into the Indian country— I
mean the political question growing out of the subject of negro slavery.
This hateful question has already scattered religions and civil discord
and contentions among several of the border tribes, and the evil is
rapidly increasing, fostered and cherished as it Is by some of the mis-


[Page 217]



guides missionaries.


{Signed) D. D. Mitchell

Ion. L. Lea.                                                                  Supt Ind Afr.

Com. Ind. Affairs.

Superlnteiideaey of Indian Agency, St. Louis, v. 9, p. 325,

Aug. 25. *Ufce Delawares have disposed of their education fund far
several fears yet to sobs; it being -rested ta the Shawnee mission W.  L.
school. They have, for some eauae not correctly known to sa, refused
to send their children to the Shawnee mission school, which their fund
sustains, for the space of a year. I feel in great hope that, with ay
eld, the Shawnee mission superintendent will be able to get back to his
school sose twenty or more of the Delaware children.

"*fhe Delaware sill, which was built by the Methodist missionary
board as a boon for their education fund for a tern of years, is now «
complete wreck. I have visited it, and reeoweaded the chiefs to retain
I 3000 out of the money they received from the Wyandotte*, which they did,
for the purpose of rebuilding the sill: but whether they will expend it
for that purpose is, I as fearful, uncertain. The tribe is anxious it
should be rebuilt, as there is not a still in the Indian country near,
but the chiefs seem to feel indifferent**

Thomas Mosely Jr., Indian Agent for the Kansas Agency, Reports
of Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1851, 1852, p* 80.

Summer. Nathan Scarritt resigns his place in the school to devote
himself exclusively to preaching to the Indians.

Missouri Valley Hist. Soc*, v. 1, p. 437.


[Page 218]



Sep. 12. Bar. Meeker writ**; "Seat to ta® Meth. Sh. School ay boys
Robt. aM Ephraim, together witb those who haw baea tfcere to school the

le»t year,, -sad aewa aesr ©see, la all 20.B

Meeker's Journal, v« 2v p. 213.

Sep. 30.   Statement ahosriag the coailtion of Fort Leavenworth Indian manual labor school for the aarreat year eadtag September 30, 1851 •

Male Department.
Teachers - A. Coneatzer, T. Huffaker, W. Luke, s. Haffaker.
ffaaber of male scholars   53

Female Department.
Teachers • Frs. M. J. Peery sad A. E. Chick.
laafeer of fea&le scholar*   47
fatal aaafeer la both departments 100.

Sabjeets tuaght - "Latin, Eng'h grammer, geogra'y, arithmetic,
philoso'y, penman*p, declamation,* needlework.

Reports of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1851, pp. 87, 88,

{The assies of the pupils together with their age, tribe, when eatssred,

sad stadias, -ars also given ia this report,    See next page.]


[Page 219]



Statement No 1, showing the condition of Fort Leavenworth Indian manual
labor school for the current year ending September 30, 1851,

male: department.

Teachers—A,Coneatzer, T. Huffaker, W. Luke, S, Huffaker.
Names     Age  Tribe  Entered   Studies.


Levi Flint         17  Shawnee    November, 1842.  Latin, Ing«h Grammer,

                                                  geogra'y, arithmetic,

Robert Armstrong  14  Wyandott   September, 1850.  philoso'y, penman»p,

                                                   declamation, &c
Henry Garrett     16  do,        do.             



Legarus Flint     15  Shawnee        August, 1942.

Mebzy Dougherty     15  do.            November, 1848.

John Paschal     16   Peoria          January, 1841.
                                                   Grammar, arithmetic, 

John Mann        14   Pottawatomie   do.               geography, reading,
                                                   writing, spelling,

Thaxter Reed     13   Ottawa        March, 1849.       declamation, &o.

Alpheus Herr     15   do.             September, 1849.

William Fish     14   Shawnee       May, 1849.

John Anderson     15  Pottawatomie   September, 1848.

Robert W. Robetalle  11 Wyandott       November, 1849.



Jacob Flint       10  Shawnee        July, 1848.

Stephen Bluejacket   13 do.            June, 1847.

Moses Pooler     12   Ottawa          March, 1849.

Francis Pooler     11   do.                do.              Arithmetic, reading,

                                                          spelling, writing,
Solomon Peck     12    do.                do.              and declamation.

Robert Merrill     12    do.                do.

Ephaim Robbins     11    do.                do.

James Hicks      15    Wyandotte      April, 1851.

William Barnet     15    Shawnee            do.

Jacob Whitecrow     15   Wyandotte      March, 1851.

Peter Anderson     12   Pottawatomie   October, 1848.



[Page 220]



Peter Mann        13   do.             January, 1848.


Peter Sharlow      13   Wyandotte      March, 1851.



Robert Bluejacket  12    Shawnee          September, 1849.


Thomas Bluejacket  10    do.                June, 1847.


Cassius Barnet     14    do.              March, 1849.


Samuel Flint         12    do.              May, 1851.


Lewis Hays       17    do.              July, 1850.


William Flint    15    do.               April, 1851


George Sharlow    15     Wyandotte           do.


Anson Carryhoo      15     do.                 do.


Thomas Huffaker  10    do.              do.


Eldridge Brown   7     do.              do.


John Solomon 1st. 17      do.                 do.


George Big River  12      do.             October, 1850.


Henry Lagotrie    11      Pottawatomie     April, 1850.       Tro» the alphabet

                                                     to readlag, spelling,

John Solomon, 2nd. 6     Wyandotte        do.          sad writlag.


Francis Whitedeer  9     Shawnee       June, 1850.


James Baltrice    13      do.            September, 1848.


William Deskin   8     Do.           June, 1850.


Robert Sergket    16      do.                 do.


Nathan Scarritt    12      do.            March, 1849.


Edward Scarritt  10      do.                 do.


John Charles      16      Wyandotte      October, 1850.


John Coon         16       do.                 do.


Charles Barnet      9      Shawnee      February, 1850.


Joe Richardson     7     Ottawa       October, 1850.


George Williams   16     Wyandotte         do.


Isaac Frost       20      do.            January, 1851.


Albert Solomon    11      do.           March, 1851.


George Luke      12      Delaware     October, 1850.   

 [Page 221]






Teachers—Mrs. M. J. Peery and A. E. Chick.







Stella A. Harvey



September, 1846.]


Sally Bluejacket, 1st.



February, 1849.


Mary A. Anderson



Pottawatomie October, 1848. )


Elisabeth Johnson



May, 1847,



Emily Bluejacket



June, 1844.

L   Grammar, arithmetic,

I   geography, reading.,

Sophia Green



October, 1847. j


1   writing, and aeedle-

I   isork.

Susan Bluejacket



March, 1849.   ]


Hannah Wells



December, 1847. ;


Rosalie Robetaille



January, 1851. ]




Margaret Peery



August, 1844.  ]



Sarah Driver



February, 1851. ]



Sally Bluejacket 2d.



March, 1849.



Caty P.  Scarritt



October, 1848.



Catherine Donaldson






Rebecca Donaldson






Nancy Green



 October, 1849.


I  Arithmetic, geography,
\         reading, writing.

Susan Wolfe



April, 1849.

an# needlework.

Elizabeth Robbins






Louisa Shigget



Jnly, 1850.




Sarah Sarahas



September, I860.'


Elizabeth Robetaille





Mary A. Wolfe



April, 1851.



Ellen Miller



July, 1850


Eleanor Richardsonn






Sarah Armstrong






Eliza Armstrong





[Page 222]


Mary Armstrong      8     do.            do.


Mary Solomon        8     do.         September, 1850.


Susan Buck          10     do.          February, 1851.


Frances Williams    14    do.         September, 1850.


Sarah Sharlow       6     do.         March, 1851.

Philomene Lagottrie  9    Mohawk          do.


Rosalie Lagottrie   6     do.             do.


Susan Driver        14    Wyandotte   April, 1851.


Ella Dougherty      8     Shawnee     October, 1949.


Mary Hill           9     Wyandotte   October, 1850.


Sarah Hill          11    do.              do.  From the alphabet,

                                               to reading, spell-

Emma Williams       12    do.             do. ing and needle-


Mary William        16    do.              do.

Sally Bluejacket, 3d  6    Shawnee     September, 1850.


Mary L. Scarritt    6     do.         May, 1849.


Anna Scarritt       4     do.         September, 1850.


Nancy Barnet        6     do.         May, 1849.


Mary J. Owens       10    do.          September, 1850.


Caty Whitedeer      7     do.         July, 1850.


Mary, E. Ward       7     Peoria      September, 1849.


Susan Miller        13    Ottawa      April, 1849.




Total number ia tie female department.....    47

Total aa&feer in the male department ......  53

Total number in both departments    ..... 100

Reports of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1851-1852, pp. 87, 88.


[Page 223]



May 31, Meeker writes; wHii© to tha Meth. Mission and to Westport. . .
People were sick &»3 dying at Westport and Kansas with Cholera**'
Meeker Journal, v. 2, p. 249.

June 24. "Oo with ay wagon to Meth. Mission. Attend thslr annual

school examination."

ibid, p. 252.

June 25* lev* Meeker writess #§tart is ay wagon fro® the Meth. Mis*
with ten Ottawa children, for Ottawa* The ro«ts very had.*

August 26* lav. Thomas Johnson's report to Thomas Moseley, Jr.
Indies Agent.

Sir: In pursuance of your instructions, I respectfully sufeait th«
following as ay assaal resort of the Indians nndar ay charge•

The fast year, taking in view tha interests of tha institution in
geasral, cannot hut fee regarded as one of soars than ordinary prosperity*
As to ttis health of tha school* we have a good report to readar. of tha
oaa hundred and six scholars who hats haea in attendance, ©asides lahorer®,
fee., employed in the service of the institution, not one death, nor even
a ease of serious illness, has occurred* this &sreiful dispensation, con-
sidering the prevalence and fatality of. the cholera and other diseases
on every side of as in close proxlalty, is traly reaarfeahle, m& for which
we desire to r#adar grateful «efcao»ledge®eats to the Great Author of all

"for the sore particular statistics of the school 1 hag leave to refer
you to the aeooapaalag document So, 1, which scats las, ia detail, all the
items of information required fey the department. On the examination of
that doeuaeat, you will find that during the past year the Delawares have


agsia seat their ehlldrea to the school, aa4 I hop* will soatiaue to do so.

**©ur erop this ee&soa aay be proasaao^d & good oaa, espeoially of
hay, eora, sad oats. The seas say be said of the crops of the tribes ■■
adjaoeat, via: Shawnees, Wyandots, sad Delawares.

Is rid lag: by tbeir pleatstloss aad obserrlag their fssa-houses,. aaay
of which are very »*at aad e^afortabl®, aad also tbetr fields, iadea with
rich pisoduets, asd promieiaf aa abaadisat supply of all the aes&saaries ©aft
Kaay of the Isataries of life, oaa eaa hardly he broufht to he lief® hat
that they were the results of a higher degree of skill sad iadastry thas
is geaerally attributed to the red s&a of the forest, fhis state of ia-
prov@sseat, it is true, is aot equally observable la all. parts of those
tribes, fhere asm  portioas of sash that still eliag store or leas to their
heatheaish saaaers sad sodas of life} stoat of tbeae are latenpsrat* sad
abeaioasd, aad teve but little respectability ia tbeir assttoa, aad, ladeed,
their regeaeratioa is fait* hopeless. Bat the priseipsl classes, those
m® eoapose the streagth aad hody of each of their aattoas, sad who wield
the chief lafleeaee la their a&tioaal eouaeils, are those who hare attained
the state of laproveaseat we have aeatioaed above. They are iataatrlous,
ssor*l, and iatelligeat, aad, to ®y jaiad, there sees* to he aotaiag la the
way of tbeir taklag a etaaS oa e^aal ground with the whites ia every dapsrt-
aest of cossetitioa, except it is ia the shelter of a government, whieh,
la poiat of social aad political privileges, weald afford the saw© precious .
hooa to the® as that eajoyed hy our ows eitiseas; asfi, uatll they are raised
to aa equality with tbe whites ia this re^rd, it is folly to suppose that
they eaa ever hoia a fair scapetItloa with tbea.

"the ability to hold real estate, the safeguard of eoapeteat lawn
for the proteetloa of property, aad aa eligibility for riaiag to public
office aad esdowaaat, seem to be accessary stlaaiaats aaoag nay people
to draw oat their uadeveloped eaergles, and secoad their eleratioa to aa


[Page 225]



enlightened aai prosperous stats, Much mite,  then, are suah last institutions necessary a»oug those who were 1st sly untutored savages, sad who tow just
broken off thess th« fetters ©f hestbesisa, and straggle into a state of

**X throw out these suggest ions, hap teg that they may sot sees ©f fieions,
hat »»rsly for the consideration of those to whoa such setters sore properly

"fhe laoral and religions condition of these tribes is still thought
to he slowly ©a the advance for the setter. Besides sway sew converts to
the profession of Christianity, the older professors are beginning to
understand »sre perfectly the deeper principle of the christian syste»,
end t© settle Sown ia the practise of a tsor© uniform end eons intent piety.
fhe principal•obstacle we find ia the success of oar missionary effort
aaong a large portion of these tribes is their iatasjperssee ia the as* of
ardent spirits. Abandoned wretches snong the white asea have always been
found sufficiently artful and corrupt to elude the laws, and deal out
doses of physical and ©oral death to the unfortunate vie tins of their avarice.

*Im aware that the benevolent designs of the government in this
regard have been Bsnifestei hf the repeated enactments of very stringent
laws. Bat these, to a great degree, have proved insufficient* If sojsc
step eould still be ta&sn to arrest this evil, it would be an ashleveaeat
ia behalf of the poor Indian, than which, perhaps, no other benefaction,
within the power of the government, would have a sore favorable bearing
in the present condition and future prospects of the ladies race*

MespeetfuXly submitted:



ThoMas Moseley, Jr.,

Indies Agent.

Reports of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. 1851, 1852,
p. 371-373.


[Page 226]



Sep. 1. **S» Shawnee Methodist manual labor school, under the
superintendency of Sew. Thomas Johnson, is oas on a large seal*, aaspared
with, a ay other la the tribe; the auaber of ebllireB atteadiag Taryiag
from 80 to 106. In the year. 1 attended, ia June last, the animal eaaalaa-
ttoa of this eshool, a»4 the'result of the examination wis truly highly
satisfactory to all, The ehlldrea asqulttsd themselves la a naaaer that
showed they bad bees taught and sasaged by enapetsnt bands, and had iasproved
well their tim at sehool. fhe higher elass were learning geography,
English grammer, arithmetic, fee. the other ©lasses ^«ir® la the elementary
branches—writing, vocal music &e. The teacher of *hls scbool, ia the
male department, 8eess@d to be well qualified for bis station, «M I would
be doing injustice to the ladles sagged as teachers ia the feaals department,
aot to say they were every way qualified for their vocations, and well
deserve tha aprobatlon of all, far the aotherly care manifested for the
ebildrea, aot only la sehool, bat la their ear* and watchfulness over the*
at all times, whilst at the mission***

Thomas Moseley, Indian Agent for the Kansas agency, t© Col. D. D.
Mitchell, Supt. of Indian Affairs.

Reports of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1851, 1852, p. 368.

Oct. 12. Move to establish territorial govenseaat la the Nebraska
Territory, in election for delegate to Congress Is Mli, ia. the Council
aoass of the Wyandott Nation, Abelard Guthrie received the satire vets
polled h^ the Wyandotts.

Wm. E. Connelley, William Walker and the Provisional Government

of Nebraska Territory, p. 26.


[Page 227]



Oct. 17. wFer detailed isfowmtioa in regard to the condition of

border tribes* I met as usual refer yea* to the reports of the sever®!
agents; teachers, fee., at the aaas ti»e# I feel It my duty to state, that
these reports with few ©xeeptioss, ars colored ia lights entirely too
flattering. Bo far as «y personal observation enables ns to judge, little or
so good has resulted from the Insane efforts of the Government, and that
of pious indivitols to hasten the civilization of tt» Indians,

D. D. Mitchell to Luke Lea.
Superintendency of Indian Affairs» v. 9, p. 413.

the Fort Leavenworth Manual labor School, sad the Kansas, under the
superintendence of the Her* Thomas Johnson, are enjoying great prosperity.
Kansas District — J. T. Peery, P. E.
Fort Leavenworth M. L. School, T. Johnson
Ind.  W. Col. S. S. Chil. P.
3    15   3   1     100   89

Annual Report of Missions, Methodist Episcopal Church, South.
Copied frara records at Nashville, Tenn. Copy ia MSS. Dept.,
K* S. H. S»


[Page 228]




Feb. 11* Thomas Johnson to J. Meeker:
*Bwu Meeker:

1 forgot to tall yoa waaa I »$m job about tae ttw* of our
**aaiaatiea* It will ba oa %te® last Friday ia tills ao&tfe a&iea 1 baliav*

i« twa wasisa frc* this day. W* will to®vo aa aasaia&tioa "sat so iraeutloa.
la abali oa f leased to have you. vita as if ooavaaiwst.

Tbe elillwa ara all wallet jtr»*«at» bo farther &awa*

Tours iifi»3jrf

Thos. Johnson."
Meeker Correspondence, K. S* H» S»» MSS. Dept.

April 12. {tb» foilewiag Is takes ttm a report from J. T. Perry,
P. E. of Kansas District)

Fort Leavenworth, Ind., M. S. School,

Apr. 12, 1853
•@s» aissiaaa aaoag tb* Shawnees, Delawares, and Wyandott Indians,
all talags eo&sldarad, ar® £©iag as aall *s at say forsar juried for
ssvaral yaara past* 0uriag tike fast wlater, the Shawnees saffarad a graat
daai froai sioksaaaj a grsst s&ay of thm a tad.

Thm casa of oaa poor yoaag wokss iss easaot forbear to steatlosu §b»
had boaa a aefeolar ia tbe F. L. I. M. Labor School for aavar&l years,
bat bad returned to fear people—tae Delawares—<sad soass aeatbs bafore
bar destk **&# carried to a you&g m,n of fear osa trie©. Ber sieSsaasa una
very E«Tor-?s» bat of abort durstioa. Ska eadared it with true Christian
fortitude, express©! bar fall eoafidesee in the merits of Christ bar
Savior, «ad just before «fc# departed, aha as'eed bar busba&d to ©pea a asall
buadle «ad take oat a little wmey, m\%l®fa aba bad oarefaliy put away, aad
requested ate to give it to tbe support of missloas as bar last eartaly
tokea of gratitude to God for spiritual taa aleasiags ^iieb, aader God,


[Page 229]



aba ©urea to missionary  effort.    §3$fe #vsta ©a* &ueb e%&# before as, be*
attall we aiaokaa oar missionary affoirta?

lbs Fort Leavenworth Indian Manual Labor School is still is a awry
prosperoas eoai.it ioa; psra&ps it mmv «as s&ora   so.   I seaslder that it
is dolag great good aaoag tl»» tribes for wboas bsaafit it was built up*
*fh» jgaay dsatbs aaoag th« Shawnees last sriater Ms cade it ascttsa&ry
to take ia a great may orphan children.   Tfes school, daring tbs last
srlatar, auafesred about 100 scholars."

Kansas District – J. T. Peery, P. E .

Fort Leavenworth, M. L. School, T. Johnson.
Ind.     W.     Col.     Ch.     S.S.     Chil.     P.
3       15       3      1        1        100      100

Annual Report of Board of Missions, Methodist Episcopal Church,
South.   Oopy ia faait of K» S. H. S. oopied fro® origiaal ia

Nashville, Tenn.

June 16-23.    la-port of Lieut. Beckworth:

"Oar asaaaspasat *»a soas fits alia* fros Westport aad tbs Western
lias of tfee State of Missouri, saleatad by Kr. Kern ia a fia« grow aear
a spring, mad aarrooa&ad by f las grass aad aa Optra preiris, «ai ia tas
s&i&at of tbs varioas Shawnee stisstoaa, sbicb appeared well ... 7km
paraaas* of salsa sat aoreaa aa& eaqpdoyiag aaa suitable for tas expedition
osoapisd several days at tais swap, aaa lb® breaking ia of tbs taaats ©ad
tasaatsra as mmg aera, duri&g aaiab oar e«p was oaly ssofed to aaeare grass
wbea tas aatoala bad fad it doira $mr as *  .  . Tas 21st of June waa apsat,
a* tbs prenrioas two or tares days bed bs«a9 ia breaking ia wild raaleej
ao ot&sre aoald be obtslaad ©a abort setise, so larg® bad b#e& the dsssad
by emigrants go tag seat of the ssoaataias.   lor stars we more fortaasts ia





preearlnn eapahla teassters, the large trains walea asaaally cross the
plains having proceeded as; but by ladustrloas drilling, -and rep-lasing
incompetent isea by the trial of the skill of others, we 3#«ed ourselves
at evening in a condition to acre* forward the following morning." 0a the
83rd the fadvsase "was ordered, and we ^nrsued the usual Santa Be road for
eight miles**.

Pacific Railroad Explorations and Surveys, 1853-1854, p. 4.

July 26. A "Rail Road Convention*' ia belt at the Wyandot Council

house, this convention organises a provisional government for Nebraska Territory, William Walker is elected provisions! governor and A. Guthrie
Is nominated as candidate for reelection.

ft resolution *expressive of the Convention's preference of the Qrsat
Central Rail Road Boat" Is adopted.

Wm. Connelley, William Walker and the Provisional Government

Of Nebraska Territory, p. 35, 36, 383.

Aug. 1. Governor Walker writes: "Monday, August 1, 1853.—Issued

ay proelaastioa for holding aa election la the different pre©lasts la
the territory ©a the seeoad Tuesday ia October, for one delegate to the
33rd Congress**

Ibid. p. 37.

Aug, 29. "Start for Shawnee at 12, M. ia wy wafoa with 8 Ottawa

children for the Meth. Mission.*
Meeker Journal, p. 302.

Aug. 29.

Indian Mission Labor School, August 29, 1853.

3ir: la eoB^liaaea with Instructions, 1 have the l±ono? to ©ubslt the

following remarks, together with the aeooapaniag statistieal document, as


[Page 231]



sty report far tie past year:

to consequence of a greet s&ny. orphan children—whose parents died

©B»ug the Shawnees—'having been left without team  or frl&uds to car© for
the*., we peimitted our school to be eroded mors than we usually Is daring
the winter session, and 'indeed -the desire for education- is gaining every

year «s»ong the surrounding tribes j so that instead -of having to go mad
hunt them up, as we did in former years, and per suede the« to cose to
school* they now eoae of their own accord and beg admittance, fhie is
a® it should he, an<5 gives us a muoh better opportunity to control thaw
then we had before. t*he prospect is f&vorabie for es many as s» cam take
ear® of for the next session.* is ha*© had hat little sickness, and only
one death during the past yeas*, for which we &r# thankful to the Author
of ell good.

Our crops sad fruits ere ebusidant, and the sees stay be said for the
tribes generally around us. ~£m live in & delightful country, tat nothing
seem to be wanting to stake these people prosperous end happy but industrious
habits wad suitable laws for tin protection of person and property, M
for industry I think they are gaining a little. But as for these fra©ssnt8
of tribes ever introducing and executing suitable laws for their own
protection and prosperity, I have lost all hope, as gleoaty as the thought
way bej but I s& forced to the conclusion that, as separate tribes, they
sdst la a few years pass mm$.

the only hope is for the few who say became identified with the

white population, and take their position in the walk* of civilised society.

having written so frequently on this sub jest, I dees it us»oa»ary to add

anything sor®.

Usepeetfully subsittsd,

Thomas Johnson, Superintendent.

Annual Reports of Board of Missions, Methodist Episcopal Church,
South, Copy in MSS. Dept., K. S. H. S,


[Page 232]



 s   the

alio Is Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1853-54,

pp. 34l, 342.

August 30.   w&* 1 P.M. we arrive at the Meth* Mission,   leave the


Meeker Journal, p. 302.

Sep. 6. "Tuesday 6.—Mr. Commissioner Manypenny eaae ever la eoapany
with lev. Thos. Johnston to pay the Wyandotts a visit. The Council being
ia sasaiea, I introduced aim to the Council, to which body a© made a
short address.'*

Connelley, William Walker aad tag Provisional Government of
Nebraska Territory, p. 386.

Sep, 14. John C. Fremont aad Ms party arrive at Westport to
na&e preparations for his expedition to the far west.

S. N. Carvalho, the artist of the expedition writes:
"ffee Ifuipagse of the easip that had bees previously shipped fro»
St. Louis, had arrived safaly. As soon as oar baggage was landed, it,
together with the rest of the asatertaX, was transported by wages to essp
near Westport, a few alias ia the interior.

"Oar teats were raised, sad aettve preparation for oar journey was
lamed lately ooaaeaeed. Several droves of sales saw la next day frost
ehlab. Sol. Fremont selected a few. Tery aear tea prises were exacted by
the owners; it being aeeessary that we should proceed without delay, we
were obliged to submit to extortion.

S, N. Carvalho, Incidents of Travel and Adventure in the Far

West; with Col. Fremont’s Last Expedition, pp. 23-29.

Sep. 20 *A beltlag convention was held at Kickapoo Village, September


[Page 233]



20, 1853, at wit lob Johnson was placed in nomination as an opposition
candidate. 1® was elected over Guthrie, as was claimed by Indian vote.

Ha want to lashing-ton, bat owing to the delay In passing the Territorial
bill was not received as a delegate.* A. Guthrie was nominated as a
Benton sen, and Thomas Johnson was put forward as a friend of Atchison.
Andreas, v. 1, p. 83.

Sep. 22» *A trial start was made, and the cavalcade started In
excellent order and spirits and we camped at the Methodist mission, about
six miles from Westport*

le remained st the Methodist mission, until the next day, when we
proceeded to the Shawnee Mission, a few %11.es further, and camped for
the night ... Col. Fremont, who had been slightly indisposed during
the day, finding himself worse, decided to return to Westport, accompanied
by Mr. Strobel."

S. N. Carvalho, op. elt.

Oct. 11. Election held for delegate to Congress.

""The priest hood of the M. 1. Church made anusual exertions to
obtain a majority for their holy brother. Midst the exertions of their
obsequious tools it was apparent It was an up-hill piece of business In

Connelley, op. elt. p. 39.

Oct. 31. Governor Walker writes: I suppose we may safely set down
Thomas Johnston1s election for delegate as certain. It is not at all

surprising, when we look at the fearful odds between the opposing Candidates.
Mr, Guthrie had only his personal friends to support him with their votes
and influence, while the former had the whole power of the federal
government, the presence and active support of the Commissioner of Indian


[Page 234]



Affairs, the military, the Indian Agents, Missionaries, Indian traders,
Its. A eosijlast power that is irresistible.'*

lev. 8. "Johnson is chosen delegate fro» Nebraska. He is the tool

of Senator Atchison of Missouri, and plays his part adroitly, we deeply
regret his election. So does the Missouri Democrat. The Rev. Thomas
Johnson, it says, »is one of Atchison** tools, and will cooperate with
Ms at Washington ia endeavoring to defeat the organization of the Territory.•*

Reprint from the Cleveland Forest City in the New York Tribune,

Nov. 2, 1853.
lev. 7. The returns of the electloa are canvassed. Thomas Johnson
receives the wajority of votes and is declared elected.

Ray, The aspsal of the Missouri Compromise. p. 151.

Nov. 9. Meeker writes: "Start off »y hoy Robert Merrill to school
at the Shawnee Mission Meth. School."1

Meeker, Journal, v. 2, p. 310.

Dec. lav. Thomas Johnson goes to Washington.

The Kansas District is in the bounds of the St. Louis Conference,
having been detached from the Indian Mission Conference at the General
Conference of 1850, and attached to the St. Louis. It embraces the
Shawnee, Delaware, Wyandott and Kickapoo Missions, and also the Fort
Leavenworth Manual Labor and the Kansas Schools. This district is under
the superintendence of Hev. J. T. Peery, froa whom an interesting report
will be found below. The fort Leavenworth Manual Labor school is under
the superintendence of lev. Thomas Johnson. We were delighted in visiting
this school, to find all the favorable reports we had received frost otfeers,
of its prosperity, its wise and prudent aaaagessnt and direction, fully


[Page 235]



eaafirasd fey all that we saw sad heard while to», fhe school is oa a
large scale, averaging froa 90 to 100 scholars. The eMMrea are instructed
la all the ele&eatary branches of a good English causation, while saay
are making: considerable aawaneesieat ia Geography, English, Grammar,
Arithmetic, Aa* The teachers ia hotfe' department are well qualified for
their stations, aad exert the aost salutary influence ever their p«#li»*
They ar® aot oaly lastmeted ia hoars of school, hat they are taught
hah its of latestry, by labor lag oa the fawn, la the shops s. aad ia aaqairlag
the useful arts of housewifery, They all appear contented, well «ad happy.
The loeatloa of the school is most beautiful—-ia a region uasurpaesed for
fertility aad beauty la oar whole country, sad ia the saidst of a far* of
»re thaa oae thousand acres, well enclosed sad aeatiy cultivated.

From Annual Reports of Board of Missions, Methodist Episcopal
Church, South, Copy ia vault, K. S. H. S., seat fro® Nashville, Tenn.


[Page 236]


Jan. 18. John G. Pratt writes to fiev. Meeker;

"la regard to your becoming ^Secretary Meeker,s I So not know as I
ought to say such. If it is not in accordance with your taste. I would decline,
but I see no reason way you should aot accept it, if offered, on the score
of your being a minister of the gospel; it surely need not entangle you
much in worldly affairs. I can hardly conesIts an office you could hold
in political administration, where less would be required. • * If you
can get the appointment, I reeonBaasd you to accept. Why should Baptists
be ever la the shade, while a Thom. Johnson Is at Washington, acting the
legislation? I would not do evil because others practise wrong, but
the appointment offered .you, is honorable, does not come of underhanded
votes, and crafty management. • •*

Meeker Correspondence, v. 7.

Jan. Hadley D. Johnson writes:

"On my arrival at Washington (early in January, 1854) I found that a
bill had already been Introduced la the senate, and I think referred to
the committee on territories. • . I also found, seated at a desk, la
the House of Representatives, a portly, dignified, elderly gentleman,
who was introduced to me as the Reverend Thomas Johnson. Be was an
old Virginian; a slave holder, and a Methodist preacher. This geatlemaa
had also been a candidate for delegate to the informal election, and was
credited with haviag received 337 votes. Be had preceded me to Washington,
and together with his frleads, ignoring our Sarpy election, had, through
some influence sub rosa, been installed la a seat at a desk aforesaid,
where betag duly served with stationery, etc., he seemed to be a member
of the house.

"Previous to this time, ia one or two instances, persons visiting


[Page 237]



Washington, as representatives of the settlers in unorganized territory,
and seeking admission as legal territories, had been recognised unofficially,
and after admission, had been paid the usual per diam allowance as well as
mileage, and in the present ease I think my namesake had looked for such
a result in his own case, but for my part I had no such expectations.

"On being introduced to Mr. Johnson, who seemed somewhat stiff and
reserved, I alluded to the manner of my appointment to the present mission,
which, like his own, was without legal sanction, but was for a purpose;
told him there was no occasion for a contest between us for a seat to
which neither of us had a claim; that I came there to suggest and work
for the organization of two territories Instead of one; that if he saw
proper to second my efforts, I believed that we could succeed in the objects
for which we each had come.

"After this explanation the old gentleman thawed out a little, and we
consulted together upon the common subject.

*The Hon. Bernhart Henn, at that time the only member of the house
from Iowa, who also was my friend and warmly advocated our territorial
scheme, finding that the Rev. Thomas Johnson was seated in the house and
posing as a member and not wishing to see him more honorably seated than
myself, interceded, I presume, with one of the doorkeepers, who admitted
me into the house and seated me at a desk beside my friend, the minister,
who it afterwards appeared was, like myself, surreptitiously admitted to
the seat occupied by him, unknown to the speaker, or perhaps to the chief

"The fates decreed, however, that we were not to hold our seats a
great while, for one day the principal doorkeeper approached me as I sat
in my seat, and politely inquired who I was, and by what right I occupied
the seat; and being by me answered according to the facts, he informed me


[Page 238]



that as complaint had been made to the speaker, be was under necessity of
respectfully asking as to vacate tee seat, as such was tee order of the
speaker. I replied to him that of course I would do so, out, I  added, as
my neighbor on the left occupied his seat by s right similar to ay own,
I felt it to be aty privilege to enquire why I should be ousted while he
was permitted to remain. Qm this the doorkeeper turned to Mr. Johnson,
who corroborated ay statement, whereupon the 'two Johnsons' as we were
called, were incontinently bounced and relegated to the galleries.

"I never learned, nor did I cars to know, whether I was removed at
the instance of the friends of Mr. Johnson, or whether a Mr. Guthrie,
who had also been a candidate for delegate, had fired a shot at his
adversary, the Eev. Thomas. If the latter was the ease, in firing he
hit two birds. 1 did not feel hurt by this event, but believe that the
dignity of the other Johnson was seriously touched, and himself ssortified."

William Connelley, William Walker and the Provisional Government of Nebraska Territory, pp. 86-88.

January. "In our negotiations as to the dividing line between Kansas

and Nebraska, a good deal of trouble was encountered, Mr. [Thomas] Johnson
and his Missouri friends being very anxious that the -Platt river should
constitute the line, which obviously would not suit the people of Iowa,
especially as I believe it was a plan of the American Fur Company to
colonize the Indians north of the Platt river. As this plan did not meet
with the approbation of my friends or myself, I firmly resolved that this
line should act be adopted. Judge Douglas was kind enough to leave that
question to me, and I offered to Jfr. Johnson the choice of two lines, first,
the- present line, or second, an imaginary line traversing that divide be-
tween the Platt and the Kaw. After considerable parleying and me* Johnson

not being willing to accept either line, I finally offered the two alter-


[Page 239]



natives—the fortieth degree of north latitude, or the defeat of th« whole
hill, for that session at least. After consulting with his friends, I
presume, S£p. Johnson very reluctantly consented to the fortieth degree
as the dividing line between the tiro territories, whereupon Judge Douglas
prepared and introduced the substitute in a report as chairman of the
eoas&ittee on territories, and issedistely, probably the hardest war of
«orde known in American history eosRsesfted.*

Statement of Hadley Johnson, in Proceedings and Collections

of the Nebraska State Historical Society, Second Series, v.3, p. 88.

March 27:. Governor talker* s Journal says on March 27» 1854* "Heard
that Bon. Thomas Johnson, Delegate elect from this Territory, returned from
Washington yesterday.*

William. Connelley, William Walker and the Provisional Government, p. 41.

April 5. ^Shawnees to the number of about one hundred act the Suited
States Agent in council, at their meeting-house, to which council they were
called, by him, to hear a proposition from the government, relative to the
purchase of their lands." & delegation of eight was chosen to proceed to
Washington to make a treaty.

Harvey, History of the Shawnee Indians, p. 308, 309.

April 15. "The Independence (Missouri) Messenger says: *The Rev.
Thomas Johnson, 'Delegate to Congress .from Nebraska Territory, passed down
the river the other day, on the steamer Polar Star, on his way to Washington

City.' fie has Indians with him, and is negotiating treaties."
D. W. Wilder. The Annals of Kansas.

April 24. wLaarn that during all last week great numbers of eattlm
have been passing evmry day. On yesterday morning 1000 left her®. They


[Page 240]



continued passing all day. Q& last night between 2200 and 2300 loose
cattle ©ncaaped within a alia of oar house. Large drovsa still aove
onward through the day. Jbout 1500 ear* «&oa*p this evening within a

mile of us. We have beard of ova? 2100 having passed and arrived today.
Boa*t know bow sany aore there have been.*

Meeker Journal, p. 331.
[Meeker is at the Ottawa Mission.]

May 10* Treaty with the Shawnee Indiana.

"The Shawnee tribe of Indians hereby cede and convey to the United States,

all the tract of country lying west of the State of Missouri," shich was
set apart' for the Shawnees by the treaty of November 7, 1825,

"The United States hereby cede to the Shawnee Indian® two hundred
thousand acres of land, to be selected between the Missouri State line, and
a line parallel thereto, and west of the same, thirty miles distant;
which parallel line shall he drawn fro® the Kansas River, to the southern-
boundary line of the country herein ceded.' ...

Of the lands lying east of the parallel line aforesaid, there shall
first be set apart to the Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal
Church South, to include the iaproveaeats of the Indian Manual-labor
school* three sections of land? ... also five acres of land to the
Shawnee Methodist Church including the aseting-house and graveyard.

Article 6. ^Ths grants of lane" above aade to missionary societies
and churches, shall be subject to these conditions: The front to the
Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, at the Indian
manual-labor school, shall be coafiraed to said society, or to such person
or persons as say be designated by it, by patent, fro* the President of
the United States, upon the allowance to the Shawnees, by said society,


[Page 241]



of tea thousand dollars, to be applied to the education of their youth;
which it has agreed to Make*"

Indian Affairs, Laws and Treaties, -v. 2, p. 618-620.

May 30. fit* Kansas and Nebraska bill is signed by the President
and become a law.

lay, The General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church South
Meets in Columbus, Ga. The work in Kansas Is organised into a separate
conference known as the "Kansas Mission Conference.*

Stanley, Life of Statler, p. 138.

M'Anally, Life and Times of W. Patton, p. 269*

June 1. Meeker writes, "Learn that Nebraska and Kansas are organized,
that the Shawnees hare sold their lands, and that emigrants are squatting
around us la great numbers**

Meeker Journal, v. 2, p. 336.

June 9     The national Ira has a eowualcatioa froa Richard Mendenhall,
a Mission teacher of the Friends Shawnee Mission la Kansas*- wherein it is
stated that at an extensive Missionary establishment famed and controlled
in that territory by the Southern Methodist church. Slaves have been long
kept (In direct violation of the Missouri oospronise which prohibited
slavery la the Territory) to do the Menial offices of the Mission. Mr*
Mendenhall farther avers, that Thomas Johnson, the superintendent of the
Mission, was elected last fall a delegate to Congress, and has used all his
influence fairly and unfairly, to secure the passage of the Nebraska Bill.
Besides this he is now endeavoring to persuade the Indians to sell out
entirely and remove. This is the incarnation of the Southern Methodist
church! An apostle of the glorious liberty of Christianity, he seeks to


[Page 242]



he the propagandist of slavery! *£b» evangelist of Nebraska becomes its
enslaver! With the delivering worts of the gospel upon Ms lying lips,
he clasps fetters upon th® liafos of the slaves!"

Daily Commonwealth, Boston, June 9, 1854.

June 19. "Alaoat within sight of this station [Baptist Mission] is

a pro-slavery Methodist station, {M. E. Church, South.) which needs to be
checkmated. The principal of the latter school is the lev. Kr* Johnston,

ah© was elected last fall as Delegate to Congress through the Influence
of the pro-slavery party. He is a willing tool in the bands of Atchison."
Ixoerpt frasi letter In The Commonwealth, June 19, 1854, by

W. G. Kephart.

June 22» "SHAWNEE MISSION— Is three wiles fro® Westport, Missouri,

one ails frost the State line, and about eight alias from the month of the
Kansas river. Bare is ©a Indian mission labor school, under the- direction
salal.y of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. The buildings of the
institution were erected in 1850, and consist of three brisk houses HO
feet long and two stories high, and aeeowsodating about one hundred
scholars, and that is the auaber usually attending. It is under the
superintendence of the Bev* Thomas Johnson, who was the first Methodist
missionary in Kansas."

"Kansas**, New York Tribune. June 22,  1854.

June 29. School closed for vacation.

R. C. Meek to J. Meeker, June 3, 1854. Meeker Correspondence, v. 7.

July 5. w0n the sailing of the 5th I crossed the lino and eaterad
the Territory upon the great saesterm thoroughfare, .passing the Shawnee
Manual-Labor School. . * whore, «letrea years before I had felt ayaelf at
hoaa for some days at a cherished institution of our Church, surrounded


[Page 243]



by brethren whose loyalty to ©canine Wesleyan Methodism had, up te that
tfa*t aewr been tiaee-ticned. Oreat changes bad passed apoa It sine®. It
wa» still a fionrlshing place, beerlag the appearance of wealth sad
pecuniary success. But Its destla&tioa was no longer the mm.   I passed
It mm a stranger.

"flits establishment baa ©f lata years gained notoriety under tb® aaae
of tb* •Methodist Mission,* or perhaps acre frequently "Johnson's Mission.**
Being aa appendage of Mission Conference at tb© tine of tha separation is
184S, it was carried into tb© coathsra organization* notwithstanding Ita
position ia free territory, north of tb* thsa acknowledged Halt of slavery,
and ia tba sldsi of Indian tribes esoosg who* slavery -was alsost entirely
unknown, from tba boar of separation forsssrd it bea&fis a stronghold of
pro-slavery laflttaaee. Ita situation, just at tbe eatraae* of Xa&s&s
territory, on tbe noat public roato, gave it prominence aas witb tbe aid
of a few allied pl&eea jast over the line, it was able la a great nsasure,
to eoMBaaad "tbe gates" of tbe Territory ia this direction ♦ • *

Oircraaetaases of daty called n* frequently to tbe place taring tbe
ease ton. of tbe Legislature, and the residence of the Governor aad pablle
officers there for tb© year following; "but I never »et aa act of recognition
from its clerical conductor. g*| ay experience was, so far as I learned,
identical in this partienlar witb that of all others who regained fiaa ia
their adherence to tbe Methodist Episcopal Church.*

W. H. Goode, Outposts of Zion,  pp. 249» 250.


[Page 244]



July 14  *!e arrived aera about a week ago, for the jsurpoae of

settling la Kansas and contributing our mite to prevent slavery cursing
the fairest part of creation. We have aa4>a sb* short trip over into the
Indian country, and satisfied ourselves that a. asm can got alsaost jwt
sock a bo*© aa he pleases. I nevar saw rlobar leM la «y life; aad it
appears lao3taa.uatibia, fe saw aaoag the Shawnee Indians some of the boot
fanes we aver saw la oar lives, The only drawback la this slavery question.
Missourians have already flQcked to this Territory ty hundreds; ssaay slaves
are already la the Territory. 2vea at the Methodist Mission they are
heathenizing the black: ia order to Christianize the red u»fi.'f

Extract fro® letter of S. N.  Wood written fro* Independence, Mo.

The Daily Commonwealth, Boston, July 14, 1854, reprint froa the

Cincinnati Columbian*

Washington City, July 14, 1854.

July 14. Thomas Johnson writes:

"Sir: *m anoayaous doaaasat has been put .into «y hands this saoralag,
headed ♦Masons why the treaty recently concluded with the Shawnee Indians
should not be ratified by the Senate;' and I presume a copy has been far-
aisled to ®mry Senator.

Now, as I am frequeatl f uUudaa to ia that deepest, I beg the privi-
lege of correcting saaa of the statements whiea it. contains:

1st. With regard to the $100,000 for «Sae?,tianml purposes. Ton will
aea, b>* turning to the treaty itself, tfeftt tb* educational fwnde are left
in the Bands of the Executive, end can be -appropriated Just as well to
the Baptist or the Quakers as they can to the Methodist, and I have ia-
fonaed the Secretary of the Interior that we shell not be dissatisfied
if he should choose to do so, for ear neighbors are very anxious that we
should get clear of the Indian school as soon as possible, aad open our


[Page 245]



institution for the reception of white children. Bat even should those
who 1st® charge of them  funds wsploy thea at our school, thai would not
show say favoritism, for I. suppose they will ©spicy the school funds for
the Delawares and Miamies with the Baptist mission, and also a pert of
the Pottawatomie school fund; while the Catholics have half the Pottawatomie
aai all the Osage and Quapaw school. funds, sat than the Presbyterians
hare the use of the funds of the lowas,.Omahas, etc. It has been the wise
policy of the government heretofore to employ its educational funds among
all the benevolent soelatlas operating in the Indian country, but aot
to encourage rival institutions In amy of the similar tribes of Indians*
I will farther add, that I understand the friend Quakers do aot want any
of the funds of the government, they having samples about using thea.

2d. With regard to ay helag present at the negotiation of the treaty,
I ha*© only to say that both the Delaware and Shawnee delegations requested
the Commissioner to pewslt as> to he present, as T had lived a long tise
aneng thea, and understood the Shawnee language, and could aid thea in a
proper understandInf of the business on hand. But there was no partiality
in this, for a few days afterwards other tribes eawe on, and a Baptist
missionary eaae with thea and was present, and aided thaw all the tiae in
mhiag their treaties. /

3d. And now} «ith regard to parti nitty in Wttdag Mission property
T will stat^, that the Methodist society have a mission station among the
3hawnses, that is worth as wash as the Baptist mission, raid I did not ask
to have it secured In the treaty at all, while the Baptist mission was
provided for: the fact is, they are both no thin? but log-houses, and I did
not think it of sufficient value to eaataer the treaty with it. But as ws
have valuable improvements at our manual labor school, which had cost us
sears than twenty-five thousand dollars, which was built at the request of


[Page 246]



tbe government, for other tribes as *eil as the Shawnees, X thought it was

right that we abonld secure a clear title, so that when it was not needed
far a& Indian school, it could be usea as a boarding-school for tbe whites.
I accordingly asked tbe Shawnees to grant us the reservation, ami they did
so* sad I told them «e did aot want it gratis, so M agreed on such & con-
sideration to be puid as #e thought was fair auu right. But if the Senate
sbould tbiak proper to place this resei'vation on the sasie terms as that
of tbe Baptist and Quaker missions, we save no objections; or should they
think it best to have tbe land valued at each or tbe stations, and let tbe
respective societies take theat at valuation, we sball aot object, or any
other plan tbe Senate say tbiak proper to adopt, provided either tbe improve-
Beats or their value be secured to tbe several benevolent societies*

4th. as for my getting rich suddenly, I have oaiy to say that I com-
menced life very poor, and have bmn, successful in gathering son© property,
though aot very much, and if it were necessary should have no objection to
make out a schedule, shoving how X came possessed of what X h&vs. Bit
X very much doubt whether the gentleman who est forth the rtitwiwnfr la
quest ion would .be billing to do tbe same, if X m, not mistaken in the
source from whence it originated.

In conclusion, I feel that X owe as apology for having troubled you,
or for having noticed a document to which the author am* even ashamed to
affix his signature, and especially after having examined it, and finding
that every aeeiioa in it contained a most outrageous falsehood*

I have the honor to be yours,
KttH great respect,
Thomas Johnson''
Indian Pamphlets, v. 4, K. S. H. S.


[Page 247]



Aug. 6,    "We passed tae Km of the Bev, Thomas Johnson, the present
Atchison pro-slavery delays to in Congress.   ijis boose is be&utifully situated
and surrounded by extensive grounds, sfcieli •i^r-eer well cultivated*    The

wilderness here already bagiae to 'blossoa a* » rose,* It is slave label?,
howsver, upon wMeh he depends, for, is ooea violation of the law of l&SG,
lie has for years owned and worked « large Beaker of negroes."

Letter froa Kansas ft Wakarusa, Aug. 6, eigaed Charlston.

The Boston Journal, .Aug. 26» 1834* Webb's Scrap Book, v. 1, p». 102.

Aug. 17.   "Slavery toes actually exist In this Territory,   ir. Johnsoa,

a Methodist Missionary to the Shawnee Indians and who is bow a delegate to
Washington holds mm as hie property,   its Is asking aa attempt to christian-
ise the Indian by heathenizing the negro*"

letter from Kansas by J. T. Dated Aug. 17, 1854 fro» Mount Oread,
Kansas Territory.   The Dally Commonwealth, Boston, Sep. 4, 1854

Aug. 27.   Report of Thomas Johnson:

Sirt    la aofa^liaaee with your instructions, T respectfully subssit the

following report of this institution under ny charge:

The past year, taking la view the iatareat of the institution generally,
tee baea one of mm than ordinary interest*   The nuaber of children la
attendance through the past year has bean large, and I think that the
Indians have begun to see the ioportanee of keeping their children to
school imrm than tbay foraerly did.

The hsaltn of tha school has boon remarkably good, taking in consideration
tha prevalsaee of the cholera that has been through our vicinity, passing
all around us ana leaving us uaharBed, for -which we would render our grateful
aeisaowiedgewaiats to Hira who has -power both to give and take life.

The number of Shawnee children ia attendance for the past year is 49;


[Page 248]



number of Delawares, 19; matter of Wyandotts, 14; number of Ottawas, 23;
total 105.

All of which is respectfully submitted:

Thos. Johnson, Superintendent.

Ind. W. Col. Ch. S.S. Child. P.

Fort L. M. L. School, T. Johnson.3   15  3   1    1   100  100
Annual Report of Board of Missions, Methodist Episcopal Church,
South, Copied fro* reports in Nashville, Tenn. Copy in MSS, Dept.,
K. S. H. S. Also found in Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs,

Aug. 28. "We lodged at Meth. Mission. Hare much conversation with
Th. Johnson, about Indian treaties, schools, surveys, Nebraska & Kansas
Territories ■*«*

Meeker Journal, v. 2, p. 346

August 31. lev* Meeker writes to Rev. S. Peek:

Dear Brother-*- The tine has arrived when I feel It to be ay duty to

address you definitely relative to our brother F. Barker and the Shawanoe

Station. While attending the Delaware annual seating at Br. Pratt** on

Friday, Saturday, Sunday aad Monday last, I learned that the Shawanoe Agent

and lev. Thos. Johnson of the Shawanoe Meth. Mission, had, a few days

previous, sailed a Council of the Shawanoes—and that, at the said Council,

said fa-fweeeaee-ef
both the Agent aad Mr. Johnson 4»feaaed-the-ia*4aas that the Com. of lad.

Aff*rs had declared in their presence that Mr. Barker could not, and should

not, remain in the Indian country, &c.— On Monday evening X called on Mr.

Johnson to inquire relative to this ssatter--who informed a*—that Mr. Barker*s

which letters he says were forwarded to you by the Commissioner,
letters to the Commissioner aad Gen. Cass  contained several very glaring

falsehoods,—that consequently, the Com. of Ind. Aff'rs, the Sec. of
Interior, the Senate Committee and the Senate, received Mr. B's. doings


[Page 249]



as an Insult to the Ind. Department—that only the respect felt for the
Baptist Society prevented harsh measure® being taken—that the Con. declared
in his presence that Mr. B. could not, and should not remain In the Xnd,
country—that he (Johnson) intends to hold Mr. B. responsible for every
false assertion and insinuation B. had made against hist & the Meth. Mission; &e«

You have doubtless seen, before now, the Shawanoe Treaty, together with
their agreement to the Senate amendments, in which they apply all of their
education fund at the Meth. Mission, and barely permit the Baptist to teach
their children.

The above named Thomas Johnson has been the most prominent nan in the
Shawanoe Meth. Mission nearly all the tins for about 25 years past, and is
no® the superintendent of all the Methodist stamsoth concern here. Be has
taken special pains for two or three years past to accomodate several
Agents It their families with hoses, &c. in his splendid brick mansions. Be
suit Col. Manypenny at the Missouri landing last fall, took hie in his own
carriage to his has*—carried him to various places in the Ind. country-
rendered every possible information and assistance to him, and all other
government officers. Be was the candidate, and received a majority of the
Indian votes, through the influence of Agents, at the sham election, for
*Nebraska Delegate to Congress*. took his Credentials from 'Provisional
Governor Walker,* a Wyandotte—remained at Washington during the whole
session of Congress—was the only knowing reference man in Washington during
all the Nebraska and Ind. Treaty excitements—continued to be the obedient

servant of the heads of department, and of Congressman* Be informs me that

or rather, recommended,
almost every item in every Ind Treaty that was sad®, was dictated  by him—

that he has invited Gov. Reeder, and Secretary, &o. to make their temporary

homes with him—that the Kansas Legislature will probably meet this winter


a* his Mission buildings—that he is to furnish the Surveyor-generals outfit.


[Page 250]



end direct hla where to run Ms first lines. The Shawanoe Agent and the
Shawano* principal Chief, «ad-«43^*te«ps~e# fear© joined with his In his
deadly hatred to our brother Barker.

Kow, my dear brother, in consideration of the above facts, (together
with others 1 could same, hut will not now) 1 give It as my individual
opinion that the better we? would he, as soon as possible, to discontinue
all labors at the Shawanoe Station,

Meeker Correspondence, K. S. H. S.

August 31. Meeker writes; "lilts the first draft of a letter to the
Ex. Ocas, relative to their dropping the Shawnee Station. "The suaaser is
ended,* Hever knew one so dry. There seems to be a general cry throughout
the V,  S. on aceouat of the prolonged dry season. Cora and potato crops
have alaoat everywhere felled. Very aaay farmers, it Is said, baring not
enough of anything to feed their stock, ere trying to sell, all for the
same reason, fear to purchase. The weather has been extremely ware for
some six weeks, the mureury rising above blood heat alaoat every day.
Several days It has risen to 106, once to HO, On today It is 104.*
Meeker Journal, 347 »

Sep. ?. "Sake preparation® to start on to-morrow with ay daughter

Emeline and tea Ottawa children who ell return to school for ten months.*
Sep. 8. *Start at 4 A.M. and arrive at 9 P.M. at ay soa-in-law*s,
having brought tea Ottawa children to the Math. Shawnee Mission School in
ay wagon."

Sep. 10.                                                      Kansas, Sept. 10, 1854.

*0ne of the most determined bitter and unprincipled enemies to Freedom


[Page 251]



in Kansas Is the Rev. Thomas Johnson, superintendent of a Methodist mission
in this territory. I think It important that the people of the last,
especially those who Intend to emigrate hither, should become acquainted
with this man—his history end character. Something may depend upon being
forewarned in regard to the prominent persons with whom they may haws to
deal in this territory.

mB@r.  Thomas Johnson is e Methodist minister of the church South. He
earns into this territory about twenty years ago, poor in the world's goods,
hot rich spiritually, as is supposed. His ostensible object was to preach the
Gospel of Jesus Christ to the benighted Indian,—to impart to him a portion
of that spiritual wealth, in which he so jaueb abounded, but of which the
unfortunate heathen was destitute, fe shall see how generous and self-
denying the wgood preacher" was in thus depriving himself of the comforts
of society,—ia thus exposing himself and his family to the cruelties of
the merciless savage*

*Johnson is a Methodist minister and a missionary, once so poor that
he had not money enough to get Into the territory decently, now worth more
than sixty thousand dollars, acquired upon the field of his labors of lots.
Shut will the Methodist of the country say to this? It Is a matter of
universal acknowledgement, that no class of persons ia the world more
thoroughly exemplify those principles of self-denial and of disinterested
benevolence taught in the Bible, than Methodist ministers. They are almost
invariably poor. They consider riches incompatible with a true preparation
for the work of the ministry. Tet here Is one of their number, who has
made a splendid fortune, sad. that, too is the vinyard of his Master. Peter,
a true disciple and well-beloved of his £or&, said, *Silver and gold have I
none.* Is the .Rev Thomas Johnson lifee Peter? Or do our minds naturally
recur to another individual, notorious In history, sumamed Iscariot, who


[Page 252]



said hie principles* his cause and himself for thirty pieces of silver,

and who finally went, ami hanged himself»

But I wish not to prejudge. The mere fact gf getting sioaey is no

evidence of want of principle, though, in a Methodist missionary minister,

it is rather a auspicious circumstance* But the manner of acquisition

is highly important in determining character* We will look at Hi*. Johnson*s

manner, and judge whether we are warranted in drawing a parallel between

him and Isaariot aforesaid* One of his methods is this, as I have been

credible informed. Ha has had control of eertain Indian school funds,

amounting in the whole to many thousand dollars* Bis contract with the

government has been that, for teaching and supporting each .scholar for a

year, ha was to receive fifty dollars. How it so happens that ha has a

few influential friends among the Indians, who, generally, however, dislike

him on account of his disposition to grasp and overreach. How he has ia~

gratiated himself into the affection of those few, it is not for ae to say,

hut it is well known that they have often received gifts from Johnson*

consisting of wagons, flour, Ac. By the efforts of these few friends or

their tools, Johnson's school, at the beginning of the term year, is very

fall* He draws pay for every one present the first ^D.y,  and it always

happens that after the first few days, the school diminishes wonderfully

in nuahars. So restraint is exercised over those children who wish to go,

and some who wish to stay and learn arc abused to such a degree that they

are ohliged to go. Sometimes the inspector visits the school,—then the

runners arc put into requisition and the school is full—to he thinned when

the inspector turns his hack, ifhat a noble exemplification Is this of

Christian and missionary love. Johnsan hat the control of the Delaware

school fund for some years, and it is supposed that he mads a good dsal

of money out of it.  At any rate, he told a Delaware chief, that if he


[Page 253]



(the chief) would get him. control of that fund again, he would give him a
thousand dollars and support him for life. The Delawares heard of this
offer, and they told their chief that if he accepted it, they would shoot
hisi dead*

Thus you see the He*. Thomas Johnson upon the theater of his missionary
labors, laying up for himself treasures, whether of this world or the next,
you can jud^e fro* the manner which you also see. But this is not ail.
'*• SsrereM Thomas Johnson, minister of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, who
has doubtless more than once preached from the text, 'Do unto others as
you would have others do ant© you,* is a slaveholder,—a trafficker la
human flesh—huys and sells men, worsen and children with all the appurtenances
thereto belonging. As near as 1 can learn, he who was delegated to preach
the Gospel in Kansas, was the first to carry slavery there. At any rats, he
held slaves in Kansas la violation of the Missouri compromise, thus showing
that he regards neither the laws of God nor the laws of ana. Slavery Is
one of the sources of his wealth. Be has one slave that nets him $1,000
per year. He has a few at the mission, and others let out in different
parts of the country. He ones bought a family of slaves, promising them
the privilege of working oat their freedom. He worked them a long time,
sad them sold them, making money out of the operation, besides the profits
accruing from their labor.

But this is not all,—Johnson is not only a slaveholder,—he is worse
than that. If there is a detestable creature la the world, it Is one who
is thoroughly pro-slavery in his feelings, yet represents himself to the
friends of freedom as anti-slavery. The Reverend Thomas Johnson is just
one of that kind. Ee was la Washington all enter, especially busy daring
the discussion sad passage of the Kansas bill,—was a friend to that bill,
and did much in effecting its passage. While la Washington, he wrote to


[Page 254]



sobhs on® In the territory, ttsat he should certainly accomplish Ms purposes»~
one of which was to drive every abolitionist frees the country. At the same
time, he has told the friends of freedom, that he hoped the territory would
he free, and that he would do all he could to make it free. He has written
to slavery man that Kansas would wake five glorious slave states,--at the
save time he has expressed his strong desire that freedom shall he established

the true secret of this contemptible doughfaeedness is—an Intense
amhition which the "good preacher** has of gaining political preferment, and
to that ma& he is even now laying his schemes.

Sack is the Reverend Thomas, a man who, I have reason to believe, is
exerting a powerful influence in this territory. Be Is already boasting of
his power. I have no doubt he Is In league with Senator Atchison of
Missouri, and that they are both doing all they can to curse this fair land
with slavery.

"Johnson has inrited Gov. Reeder, the newly appointed governor of the
territory, to take up his quarters at his mission, and it is thought by
may that the governor will not only accede to this invitation, but will
also yield to Johnson*s suggestions in regard to the government of the
territory. I have yet to believe that Gov Reeder will submit to the
dictation of any man, especially of such a nan as Thomas Johnson, and 1
know that he could not possible initiate his territorial proceedings with
a more unpopular act, than by fixing his abode at Johnson*a mission. Such
an act would be suicidal. It would give an appearance of truth to the
report already in circulation that Johnson intends to be the real governor
of this territory. To the rule of such a man, the people will never submit
of their own accord. It is possible that Gov Reeder, coming from the noble
state of Pennsylvania, aspires to the honor of ruling a land which is to


[Page 255]



bo cursed with human slavery? pose he wish to drive away the anti-slavery
sen who have now settled here,—to forbid the introduction of free institutions
and all the blessings that flow from them? I cannot believe that of Got
Reeder* If, ©a the other hand, he wishes to see this territory rapidly
settled by intelligent sen end refined women; if he takes pride in being
the governor of e MOML SfM* E, abounding everywhere ia glorious evidences
of thrift, prosperity and happiness; if he has the noble ambition of doing
something in behalf of human freedom, let him eschew the counsels of such
sen as Atchison and Johnson, let him, at the earliest moment, give assurance,
that so far as he is concerned, every citizen of the United States, coming
from whet quarter he amy, shall receive a hearty welcome.


Daily Republican. Springfield, Mass. Sep. 20, 1854. Webb’s

Scrap Book, v. 1, pp. 130, 131..

Sep. 15. "Appearance of the first newspaper in Kansas, the Leavenworth
Herald. It was printed under an elm tree, on the Levee, near the corner

of Cherokee street. It was a Pro-Slavery paper.*
Wilder, Annals of Kansas, p. 49.

Oct. 23* The intolerant and prescriptive spirit of slavery, has
recently manifested Itself in two masked eases* The first is the case of
Rev. Or. Still, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, who had a flourishing
and prosperous mission among the Shawnee Indiana; but because he believed
and taught the doctrines of the Declaration of Independence, the doctrines
of humanity, and of the Bible, is reference to the rights of his fellow
men he was proscribed by the slaveocracy, and, at the instigation and by
the management of his Rev. brother in Christ—the intolerant, sensual,
slaveholdlng missionary to the same tribe of Indians—the Rev. Mr. Johnson


[Page 256]



of the same Methodist Episcopal Church, of whom I spoke la my first letter—

tiw Mission of .Dr. Still was not reeofcaised at the coaelusioa of the treaty,
aad la consequence he was nade & trespasser upoa their lands, aad was obliged
to break up his mission, sacrifice all his property except |8G0 which a
brother, more Christian thaa the former, though oae of the ret men of the
forest, ®ave him for that which, had he willed to do so, he could have
takea without compensation—aad to leave the country. He has aow Bade a
"claim" a few miles fro® us, aad is Interest lag himself la the establishment
of a collage under the control of the M. E. Church North as they termed,
but which term he repudiates, as it implies a voluntary division of the
church north and south, Instead of which he considers the southern portloa

The Dally Sentinel. Milwaukee, Nov. 4, 1854, Webb Scrap Book, v.2, p.3.

Nov* 2« Thomas Johnson to J. Meeker;

•I returned this evening froa Fort Leavenworth h was glad to find a
letter from yen—

I have requested Bro. Meeks to cadesvor to comply with the request of
the Ottawas aoneemteg their children-
's for the Hysss w© shall not be able to make any additions please
tefl about 250 sordss struck off as you may think bset—

Th# governor & his Cabinet passed here ©boat two weeks ago & went ap
to Union Town h thence to Council nrov® & I am told expected to go to Fort
Riley, & thence to Fort Leavenworth— The last time I heard from him he
spoke of ordering an election as soon as he returned to Fort Leavenworth,
thourcb it is not certain thait he would at present do ■mr* than owler an
election for a Delegate to Congress & leave the Legislature fro a future
time— Should the Legislature be called together it is uncertain where it


[Page 257]



Will bo fee-Hi*    X bs^a offered t$» governor o&e of our StiiMisga provided
fea caa <So no better but £teay mm sossiuua at MM MM city of Leavenworth

for hiw to hold it there- so it is oaoartaia whore it will be bald sad ala©

uaaertain whether it will be held at all this uiatar

T3je Surveyor ipsepai ta ft* Fort Leavenworth ft he propoaea to rua tba

3&ae line fca*«ea» the Ts.ro ferriboriaa this viator & then run ft guide

I   rt&isa lino across the Two Territories £■, and also correotion lines fro*

that saridi&a to the Stat© lias in the aoathe of Hfcrafe ft 3p?i& 4 then start

about twelve or fifteea Surveyors to Townshiping & Sectionizing about &t*

first of May—

1 kte board aotbiag about Treaties sise® I sew you--

I was sorry to hear of your afflieti8B?-~bope you will sooa ba well—

We are all well here

Yours truly

Thos Johnson

Nov* 10,    Proel&ssation freai Governor Reeder for tb* eleett&a of a
delegate to Oon&reas m tba -29th of November.

Andreas, v. 1, p. 87.

Nov. 24. Executive office aoved to the bouse of Thomas Johnson at
the Shawnee Miaeloa.

Ix. Minutea, K. H. C., v. 3, p. 236.

Nov, 25. Thomas Johnson writes to J. Meeker:

Tours of the :23rd hes com to hm&.  . I have concluded to tale the
three children that Pooler brought anS you way sead four Kore should %tm
right kind be offered but the Teaefeere wish Wolf's children to be included
la that nusaber should tfeey desire to come—

The Governor and other officers of the government have tafcaa up


[Page 258]



Quarters with us fay the minter—fttasirtSiB waen ire shall feat* a Legislature—

Election for delegate to CtaftgpMi on next Wednesday the 29th.    1 want /oa
to do your best to have Seasral IMfcfleid el&oted.   So farther as*-*—
I ift$* soon to laara that you have entirely recovered your health.

Toura Affiy

Thos— Johnson—

Nov. 25.   Thomas Johnson, Cyprian Choteau, and Davis Thayer are
appointed judges of election la the Seventeenth Election Diet.
Ex. Minutes, K. H. C. v. 3, p, 236,

Nov. 29»   "flsnrti election of Delegate to Congress.1*

Wilder, op, cit.

Dec. 5.    J, W• Whitfield, the $»r0-siavery candidate, is declared
duly elected delegate to Congress by the Governor end receives a certificate
of election.



Dec 16.    Mr* John 0. Wattles writes to fas Syracuse Chronicle as


"About two ye«ra s$s I visit**! ghn Methodist Missionary Station aaeong

the .Indiana of that country.    It is under 13m ffhftjegn of Mr. Johnson, the
priacij>Al Missionary* sad loot:     :elve or fourteen aileu south of the

village of Kansas, cm the Missouri, at the mouth of the Kansas River, and

m sis Hilaa from Hw Missouri line.    It is beautifully gituuted, sad. has
around It a fertile, delightful country.    Duefc, a religious establiahaeat sight
flail he *j$0Q$ti to ©sort a powerful influence for good: but .it say he
doubted whether the evil to vAiah it gives shelter i» not greater than the


[Page 259]



good. The chief of the tribe, oa whose land the mission is located, was
then a slaveholder* and the work on his large and fine farm was all done
by slaves. The work on the mission farm and in the mission household was
also mainly done by slaves. It is, however, to the credit of the Indians
that this practise of their chief was not approved by many of them, and was
the cause of a division headed by the chief's brother, and sustained by a
large portion of the tribe, and by the surrounding tribes or fragments of
nations, who took the name of the Freedom Party, the Kansas nation belonged
to this freedom movement. I visited at the same time the Friend's Mission,
several miles westward, and not far from the great California routs* X
found it organized on the Anti Slavery principle, and suffering much from
the opprobrium of Abolitionism. They, however, seemed to have more the
confidence of the Indians. Their school was larger than that of the other
mission, and their First Day meeting was more fully attended. I learned from
the Indians themselves that the idea of Slavery mas repugnant to their
feelings, and that they wanted no religion that made slave-holding right.
In consequence of the feeling of opposition to this practice, as sustained
by the Methodist Mission, the dissatisfied portion of the Indians refused
to patronize their school, or to any great extent attend their meetings;
and the large and commodious buildings, erected at great expense, and cal-
culated to accommodate large numbers, were completely useless and empty.
These things I learned from conversation and personal observation, lost
of them X gathered from the son of Mr. Johnson—the latter gentleman being
absent at the time, having gone South, as the son informed us, with a drove
of slaves.

N. Y. Daily Tribune. Dec. 16, 1854, Webb Scrap Book, v. 2, p. 60.

*In 1854, lev. Mr, Meek was the appointed preacher and the head teacher.
Every Sabbath regular service was held by him in the school room, the north


[Page 260]



roam of the east building* Mr. Meek preaching 1b English and an Indian
(nan* forgotten) interpreting. Almost always in attendance upon these
services were the parents of mm of the pupils and, not infrequently,
after the serson soas one or sore would arise in the congregation and
testify, perhaps an after class meeting.

"Br. and Mrs. Meek: and her niece Miss Wilson, occupied rooms in this
saas building* Mrs. Meek, assisted by her niece, had oversight of the .
girls and taught them now to keep their rooms in order, how to sew, knit,

Belle Greene, "Life at Shawnee Mission," Missouri Valley Hist.

Soc., v. 1, p. 457.

1854. Manual labor courses are discontinued and only classical or
literary courses are given.

Parrish, The Rise of Methodism in Kansas, p. 20


[Page 261]




Jan. 5.                   Kanzas.— Letter from Mrs. C. I. H. Nichols.

Battleboro, January 5.

"But Just while the item is in my thoughts, allow me a word in reference
to slavery in the Shawnee mission. X see it asserted and copied from the
Christian Age, that the Shawnee missionaries hold slaves. There are four
mission stations among the Shawnees: the Methodist Churchsouth has two,
the Baptist one and the Quakers one. The two latter and one of the Methodist—
Dr. Still—are anti-slavery and actively so. The Rev. T. Johnson of the
Methodist church, is a large slaveholder and cultivated 600 acres of the
finest lands in the Shawnee reservation. When this man went into the
territory, a "humble missionary of the cross," it is said that himself and
wife, with all their worldly goods, rode in, not on "a colt the foal of an
ass," but on an ox, a single ox, which slaveholding has matched at length,
humanity bearing the other end of the yoke, that this divine may till his
broad acres and fare sumptuously. By the way, when he got elected by the
Indians, their delegate to Congress, he procured an absolute title to the
acres he had enclosed as the mission farm, and beautifully is it fenced in
and kept.

"The government at the same time, and it is said by the Influence of
the Rev. Johnson, withdrew its aid from the other missions, they being
obnoxious to the government and its pet delegate. It is to this mission
station Gov Reader has retreated from the "rudeness" of Leavenworth influences.
He is in the vicinity of the Yankees, at least, and that may be a consideration
with him. The mission station is on the direct road to Lawrence, which is
some S8 or 30 miles farther west."

Dally Republican, Springfield, Jan. 8, 1855, Webb Scrapp Book,
v. 2, p. 138.


[Page 262]



Jan. 12. Jotham Meeker, Baptist missionary to the Ottawas, dies.
Meeker Journal, p. 367.

Feb. 9. Letter to the Editor of the Herald of Freedom.

"la regard to the four missions among the Shawnees, I wish to say a
word. The slavery questioa has for some tine been a hone of contention
among them. lev. Thomas Johnson, of the Methodist Church South, is, of
course, a pro-slavery man. Be is sore—-he holds slaves. A preacher of
a free gospel to the degraded Indian, he at the same time keeps la a still
deeper degradation those of another rase ...

"By the treaty of 1854 I see that all the Indian school fund is put
Into the hands of the Methodist Mission South, and the Baptists aad the
Friend*s Mission are thus thrown upon their own resources for support,
except in so far as they are allowed to farm a certain number of acres so
long as they keep up the school ...

"But in reference to Mr* Johnson aad his mission, things are very dif-
ferent. The fee-simple of a large tract of the heat land lying within two
Elles of Westport, is thrown into his hands for a mere nominal sum, and
$10,000 is to he paid him for keeping open a school ten years, nominally
for certain children, when there is no prospect that the children contem-
plated will ever attend. These, and some other features of the treaty,
show a decided preference in some powers to that mission. Whether it he
the treaty-making power, or whether it he soma power hehiad the throne, or
whether it he owing to the intrigue and finesse of the Church South, and
Mr. Johnson at its head, I do not know. But enough Is known to justify
the opinion very generally entertained hy some in this Territory, that there
has not been that encouragement shown to the Baptists and Friend's Mission
that has heea to that of the Methodist South, lech of the three have been
established for a long time, and they have done signal service to the cause


[Page 263]



of humanity In civilizing the sons of the forest. They have labored long
for this great object, and each of them should have received at the hand
of our government equal support and encouragement, irrespective of their
views on the question of slavery."

"The Shawnee treaty,* The Herald of Freedom. Feb. 10, 1855.

March 1. wAnd» by an agreement between the Commissioner of Indian
Affairs on behalf of the Shawnee Indians and the said Missionary Society,
entered Into on the first day of March, in the year of our Lord, one
thousand tight-hundred and Fifty five, the said Missionary Society stipulates
to receive into fort Leavenworth Manual Labor School, thenceforth to be
known as and styled the Shawnee Manual Labor School, not exceeding eighty
children of the Shawnee Tribe, between the ages of Seven and Seventeen
years, and any number of children of Tribes having no sehool fund, which
the Department of the Interior sight determine to have taught at said sehool;
—and to give them instruction, board, clothing, and care In the Manner
set forth in said agreement to which, reference Is here made for greater
certainty:—la consideration whereof, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs,
in behalf of the Shawnees, stipulates among other things, to credit the
said Missionary Society, with One thousand Dollars a year of the said Ten
thousand dollars;—the Bepartiieat to have the privilege of annulling said
contract, at any time when, in its opinion, the interest of the Indian
require it, the Indians in such case, not to incur responsibility for any
damages resulting to the Society therefrom, and the unliquidated balance
of the ten thousand Dollars, then, to be adjusted between the parties upon
principles of right and equity;—-*

Agreement between the Missionary Society and Thomas Johnson,

Apr. 26, 1856. Photostat copy in MSS, Dept. K. S. H. S.


[Page 264]



March 8. "Governor Header issues a proclamation for as election,

March 30, of thirteen Eambera of the Council aad twenty-six members of the


Wilder, op. alt, p. 58.

March 30. lleetloa for Legislative mashers held, fh© voting place ia

the Seventeenth Mstrlet is the Shawnee Methodist Church. Cyprian Chateau,
C. B. Donaldson, amd Charles Boles are the Judges.
Ex. Minutes, K. H. C., v, 3, p. 256.

*The Missourians began to coma la early ia toe morning, sobw 500 or
600 of them ia wagons aad carriages, aad on horseback, eader the lead of
Samuel J". Jones, thea postmaster of Westport, Missouri; Claiborn F. Jackson
aad Mr. Steeley, of Independence, Missouri. They were armed with double-
barreled guns, rifles, bowie-knives, aad pistols, aad had flags hoisted.
They held sort of aa Informal electioa off at one side, at first for governor
of Kansas Territory, aad shortly afterwards announced Thomas Johnson, of
Shawnee Mission, elected governor."

Report of Special Committee appointed to investigate the troubles
ia the Territory of Kansas. House Reports. 1st & 2nd sess.,
34th Cong., Vol. 2, No, 200, p. 14.

April 16. Governor Reeder "declares Hev. Thomas Johnson and Edward
Chapman to be duly sleeted members of Council from the First Council District,
and Alexander S* Johnson dnly elected member of the House of Representatives
from the First Representative District.*
&• Minutes, op. cit. p. 274.


[Page 265]



May 26. Letter to the N. Y. Tribune from s person signed "Stranger*
at "Johnson*s Mission.*

This is the headquarters of tbe pro-slavery party ia Kansas, and tint
Rev. Mr. Johnson Is one of its Isadora. But tbe residence of tbe government
officers has also bees bare for the. past wiater an* tbis has drawn hither
sen of all shades of polotics.

"The ulssion is ia tbs sidst of tbat beautiful rolling prairie country
which so abounds ia Kansas, with no advantage over tbs eastsrn part of tba
Territory except a spring which bare comes to tbe sarfaee. . . fbe sub-
stantial brisk buildings, shaded by trees, aad the wall-f©used fields present
aa aspect really inspiring to the weary immlgraata . . .

•I arrived last evening. Mr. Johnson aecowtooatas at reasonable charges
all wayfarers who coaej aad I was speedily arsbered by aa active gray-haired
negro, who acts tbe major done of tbe establlshmeat, into a long dining-room,
dimly lighted with lamps, and through tbe whole length of which ran two
tables with the plates arranged for breakfast— fhe weird aspect of tae
tarbased slave, and the character of the room whose extremes tbe feeble light
of tbe leaps failed to penetrate, brought to ay Hind tbe whimsical description
of old romances, where tbe stranger knight is welcomed with mysterious
formalities to the great ball of some feudal castle and regaled at its board
without knowing whether to class its baron aaong friends or foes . . .

"This morning after a aost refreshing stroll, I attended the service
held every Sunday in tbe Chapel. We. Johnson officiated in person—a thing


[Page 266]



not usual with htm of lata years, for, like other political ecclesiastics
who are pecuniarily able, he finds it sore agreeable to hire a substitute.
le is a large, well-looking sb, of grave deportment and speech, with a
temperaent rather phlagjaatle, and a square, practical cast of countenance
that guarantees his fidelity to the matter-of-fact details of business,
but gives no promise whatever of creative intellect, or the high, generous
impulses of imagination.

"The audience was composed mainly of resident officials, the white
asembsrs of the household, and about fifty Indian youths and children who
compose the school, and some of whom I understand to be orphans. Their
dress was tidy and neat, and some of the older girls had intelligent faees.
One of the most significant facts about them is their color—not a dosen
of them being full blooded Indians, and many having light hair, and skin
almost white*

"'As to the personal and religious character of Mr. Johnson, as the
world goes, I know nothing against it. His demeanor is gentlemanly, and but
for the constant reflection that his religious profession of saving souls
is stultified ten times daily by his practical championship of a systematic
destruction of soul and body, I could believe that he has for eighteen
years occupied his border position out of conscientious instead of mercenary

the government survey proceeds but slowly ...

\       The Kansas Herald of Freedom. July 21, 1835*

June 27„ *The Executive Office is removed from the Shawnee Manual Labor
School, for the purpose of establishing it at the town of Pawnee.*
EX. Minutes, K. S. H. S. v. 3, p. 278.


[Page 266a)




June 7.   Ie««ivs4 of Thomas Johnson Seven Hundred Dollars in fall

psysieat for a Ifsgro Oirl muasd Harriet of Black ccmplaxioB aged about
fourteen years, t&s abovs described Negro girl I warrant sowibJ ia bodd?
ttxid fcind « Slavs for Ufa and free froa all claims   St. Louis, Mo. June 7th

B. M. Lynch

Origin*! mmmerip* in Shawnee Mission museum.


[Page 267]



July 2. The Territorial Legislature meets at Pawnee, as ordered by the
governor. Those* Johnson is elected President of the Cornell.
Council Journal, 1855, p. 5.

*fir# Stringfellow, the most nitre, advocate of pro-slavery propagandis*
la the West, at the Instance of the friends WP the Administration, was
elected te the Speakership of the House of Representatives; and the Bev.
Tom Johnson, of Shawnee Mission, who enjoys the unenviable notoriety of
having fIret Introduced negro slavery Into Kansas proper—long before the
Territory «as opened—was elected by the sane Influence President of the
Council.. It is said that his eons are provided for, also."
James Redpath, The Roving Editor, p. 335 »

July 12. *The Executive office is again established at Shawnee Manual
Labor School.*

!*• Minutes, oa. clt. 278.

July 16. The Legislature reassembles at Shawnee Manual Labor School.
Council Journal., 1855, p. 27.

" 0a Wednesday last [July 18] we took a flying trip to Shawnee Mission,
where th« Kansas Legislature are in session, le had the pleasure of asset Lag
Many of the eitisens of Kansas both In an official and private capacity. The
Kickapoo Delegation looked well, and aee&ad to be fully iMbued by a feeling
of justice and industry toward their constituents, le beoase acquainted
with members fro» different petitions of tfce Territory, and found them
gentlemanly and courteous. Kansas has cause to he proud of issr first
Legislature. There is as much talent to he found in this body as in the
G-easral Assemblies of swny of the States. le hava every reason to believe
that this assembly of the pro-slavery party of Kansas will enact wholesome


[Page 268]



and judicious laws.

" So better or &ore desirable piece than Shawnee could bare been chosen,
at present, for the session of the Legislature, Every necessary convenience
is at hand. There are three spacious brick buildings, which are used for
Baking laws, eating, sleeping &o« Mr. Johnson understands entertaining his
guests, and the accoaaiodatiaas are as good as could be expected, where such
a large number of persons are in attendance.

"On Thursday afternoon, as there was not a great deal going on in either
House, except reading Bills, we availed ourself of the opportunity to visit
Westport, Mo., which is about three miles fr©» the Mission, Westport seeas
to be a place of considerable importance; is increasing in si&e aad doing
& snug business. Jyeoag the Government officials we had the pleasure of
meeting in Shawnee wars lion. D. Woodson, Judge Ellmore, Col. Isaacs, and
8ov. Reeder. Judge Ellmore is an intelligent aan, and bears a noble and
ooMBaadiag deportseat. Secretary Woodson is an acceptable officer, discharges
his duties faithfully and impartially, and is respected by all who know hi».
Co*. Reeder  is a dignified, courteous, good looking personage, stands six
feet in his patent leathers, flourishes a fancy aastache, a tasteful pair
of whiskers, a sharp eye, an intelligent countaaaaea, a fine head, and withal
seat in his personal appearance. But with all his fins looks ha is the
istost obnoxious aan in Kansas, and well he say be so considered, for we
never saw or hoard of a Mipt obstinate being in oux- life. He should have
resigned the Gubernatorial ohair long since, ana retired to private life
in Easton. lie is unquestionably an unhappy creature; his features are
haggard, and. doubtless foals bis une«slaess of soul. He sits in his office
nearly ail the time, leaning back upon his dignity.

"The crops throughout Shawnee country are in a flourishing condition,
and every prospect of a heavy yield. Bov. Thomas Johnson has eleven hundred

acres under fence, of which six hundred acres are in cultivation.*


[Page 269]



Allen B. Hazzard, Editor of paper.

Kansas Pioneer, Kickapoo City, K. T.   July 25, 1855, P. P. Wilcox's

Scrap Book, p* 27.

July 29. Cyrus Holliday writes to his wife:

**©ey before yesterday (Friday) I spent at the Shawnee Mission with
the Governor end in visiting the psendo Territorial Legislature— The
governor and the Assembly are at perfect loggerheads. The Got. does not
recognise tfces as a legal body, vetoes all their hills, and pays no respeet
whatever to then— ^here this will ell end I or no other aan can dare to
prodlot. The Governor says that when he left his family he told his wife
just how things stood and that it was probable she sight never see hl»
again—That sill five sons idea of how he regards things— Ton irost not
argue fros this that there Is any iseaediate danger— I think not ia fast-
end things have now assumed sueh a shape that they will attach Seeder before
they do the citizens."

Holliday Letters, MSS. Dept., K. S. H. S.

July 30. The first session of the Supreme Court Rests at Shawnee
Manual Labor School.

Wilder, Annals of Kansas, p. 69.

Aug.. 8. "The Legislature:, in Joist session, votes to establish the
permanent seat of governasnt at Lecompton.*

Kansas Legislators at Dinner.
Aug. 15.                                                            Westport, Wednesday Aug. 15 1855.

« Westport is a thriving, bustling, and, at present, ituddy little eity,
four miles froa Kansas City, one »ile fro» the boundary line which separates

the Territory from the State, and two ailes and a half froa the Shawnee


[Page 270]



Methodist Mission. It© population, I believe, is about 800. It support*
a Methodist and a Union Church, two large hotels, several bar-rooms, (no
booksellers* stores) and a -seakly newspaper, which changed into a daily at
the eaaasacaasnt of the Legislative session, aad is no* published tri-weekly.

froa the usual appearance of Westport, I should judge that a brisk business
is regularly transacted hare.

"the legislators boarc either at Westport or at the Mission. At the
Mission about ©me half of the* are aesoaaa&ated night and day* The others

sleep, breakfast mat take sapper hers, some of the» retaraing daily for

dinner also.

"Three, soaetimes four stages, ply between last port and the Mission

three or four tins* a day. A stage also rune regularly from Kansas Oity to

Westport, and ©eoaaioaally visits the Mission.

"the far® to the mission is twenty-five cents a trip; to return at noon

for dinner, therefore, easts fifty ©ents. The saw* sin is charged for dinner

at the Mission. Theses who prefer dining *very weir* in preference to dining

"plainly,* return to Westport at noon; those who prefer their ease to the
gratification of their palates, hid cfi@as good speed hut rsaaia at their posts.
Of course I always reaain. I think, as the Indians r&rj truthfully ressark,
wit is better to sit than to ride*w

"Shortly after twelve o*oloak—generally a few Mantes after tha House
adjourns—-the first dinner hell, rings. Dinner hells in this eeetSoa, I say
state, or® huge affairs—they are hang at the top of the house—an<! their
sound la heard at least a nils- off. fis soon as honorable seaborn hear tha
hell ring, there is a sodden stampede fro* the ^Manual labor school" to Mr.
Johnson's house, in which the diaing-room, kitchen aad lounging room is
situated. The distance between the imo buildings Is about two hundred yards.
As soon as our Solons rwach it, they proceed to the front door and sit oa


[Page 271]



foms and chairs under the verandah, discussing bills* (not bill* of fare,
but legislative documents,) past, present and to eosa, BawsT>®p#r criticises
on members* conduct, political rwrs aad territorial Interest*, till the
second bell rings.—They then bee lege the door of tbe dining-room, and
generally manage to play off practical jokes until the "dinner bom" sounds
and tb* door is throws open. The members ere very gallant.— *MtfM way for the
ladies, gentlemen,** is a ,rjwe ishien has often opened a file in the ranks of
the dining-room door besiegers, to enable the wig who uttered it to walk
into the foremost row with the greatest ease. Cuttteg out letters in the
printed "Notice* pasted on the door—jacking left hand table reed left hand
tale, rates for dinner, rets for the sasse seal, fee., Is aaother popular
dining-room door amuseaent. I won*t mention the ennning fox-and- crow custom
of praising soao sod est m«m*s "persona! pulcriturs*—f.f be happens to be
wry near the door—eo immoderately that he is at last forced to retire to
the- hiadsest racks to "hide his blueh«s»* I won't mention it, 1 say, because
it as obviously stolen froi; &ecep as many of the Statutes passed at the
Mission are "cribbed*" from the Missouri Sods, and I wish to notice original
features only.

ttlhea the- dining room door opens, there is a rush—hut unto what shall
1 liken it? The {seating of mighty waters, to use the refined phraseology of
Young America, is certainly *'no circumstance.w The first interview of long
separated lovers fails to convey an idea of it, "Itself alone can be its

"The dining room I® a long, lofty, dingy apartment, at the farther end
of which {one smells on entering it,} the kitchen is situated. Two parallel
tables support, the fare, and Coras a support to the consumers of it. The
left Mad table is appropriated to the—1 can't say gpats. because fres
aoilars in Kansas are so designated, so 1 sill merely say the sembers of
both Houses, Judges, the Governor, (they cell him only "Squire* now,) and


[Page 272]



the yosag ladies who may be out there visit lag the legislature, &&d the

wives of she various "Courts*' aad other sobs of Blackstone. The right haad

table is appropriated by outsiders ia general—officers, distiaguislsed

stranger®, reporters, printers, sal of tea clergymen.

"At the head of the left feaad table sits (Jov. Reeder; but, siace his

last severable veto, be seldom enters until nearly all the others feeve left.

At the heed of our table sits the President of tae Council, oar host the Rev.

Mr* Johnson. Mm sooa as ell ere seated, he gives a *t&«mpw with tae handle

of a knife oa the table. Silence ensues. A  grace is then asked ay himself.

"Sow coses tae tag of war." iaives sad forks ply, aad corn-cake, »ilk,

breads oi' various sorts disappear wits a rapidity unparalleled, except by

tae deai«aas of the 19th century.

» Our fere is g&od, but aiaple, aad toujour* la »enae. It eoBSlsts of
1tquors. butter, sweet ailk aad pure water ia unlimited quantities.— "Solids;"
Cora-bread, wheat-bread, boiled or roast beef, aad boiled haa. Vegetables;
Potata—t tMM&MP) boiled cabbages, euenaibers, (uot sure oi this item bat
think Pve seen them,) boiled eora, belled corn-beads. Piesi Sosyrtiaes a
piece of blackberry pie ©at geasraiiy none. Aids to Oo-aaagfeptlon: Onager,
Wo batter or wiaa allowed, ..buddings; Soae.  Extras: Grace before weal.

" After dinner, meters again return to their resdesvous at tae froat
door, but I lave observed that their conversation is'iavariably less eager
and the differences ia their opinion less, obvious to tae listener, after
want Mr. Breckendoff's house-keeper called *the aoaa-aeal,"* than before it.
ta a short tias they ...roeaed to the legislative oha»ber--whleh is a dingy
sqaare school room, with five windows at one side aad four windows at tae
other. A raised platform om which ihs speaker sits, supplies the place of
the window oa am  side. The dasi< at which the ataabars sit are the ordinary
desks used at ©owtoa schools ia aoaM sectioas of oar enantry—in Missouri
for ought I know to the contrary.


[Page 273]



" I fcsgaa this letter to occupy one hoar I hardly feaew how to dispose

of. It ie tialshed mM. uj paper is. la say next extra letter I will give you

a brief description of the personal appearances and habits of the proainsat

members of tb® Bouse of Representatives."

J'. R. Redpath

Daily Democrat. St. Louis, Aug. 23, 1855, "Webb Scrap book,"

v. 5, p. 66.

**Shewne» Mission was one of oar Many national experiments in civilizing
Indian tribes* fbis philanthropic institution, nourished by tbe federal
treasury, was presided over by lev. Thomas Johnson. The tows of Westport,
which could boast of a post-office, lay only four allies to the eastward,
oa the Missouri side of tbe State lia©» and was a noted pro-slavery strong-
hold. There were several large brick building* at tbe mission capable of
aeeoamodatiag tbe Legislature with balls aad lodging-rooms; its nearness
to sa established post-office,, aad its contiguity to Missouri pro-slavery
sentiment were elements probably not lost sight of* Mr. Johnson Ao bad
formerly beea a Missouri slaveholder, was at tbe March election efcosaa a
member of the Territorial Council, which in due time »de bias its presiding
officer; aad tbe bogas Legislature at ftbamaoe Mission wss therefor© la a cer-
tain sense under its own "viae aad fig tree."

Nicolay, Hay, Abraham Lincoln, A History., v. 1, p. 415.

August 16. "Governor Reeder info rata the Legislative Assembly that
bis functions as Governor of tbe territory were terminated.M
Ix. Mia. oa. olt. p. 278.

Aug. 17. Johnson County is organized aad nmssa: for ■tv« Thomas Johnson.
Council Journal 173. Kansas .Hist. Coll., v. 7. p.  473.

Aug. 30. Tbe Legislature adjourns.
House Journal, 1855, p. 382.


[Page 274]



Chicago, Aug. 31. —"Chief Justice Lecompts gave a dinner at the Shawnee
Mission on the 22nd to the Kanzas Legislature, in return for the honor of
locating the capitol at the town named after him. Judge Elmore was present,
and was toasted enthusiastically. He announced his determination to resist
President Pierce's usurpation of power.

Webb. Scrap Book, v. 5, p. 100, [loose in the book.]

Sep. 3. Governor Shannon arrived at Shawnee manual labor school
accompanied by a large number of citizens from Westport. 0. H. Browne
welcomed him with a brief address.

Correspondence of the St. Louis Republican, "Webb Scrap Book,"

v. 5, p. 174.


[Page 275]



Sep. 8. "He [Governor Shannon] then enters the Territory & locates
himself at the Methodist Mission—the head-quarters of Slavery propogandisja--
he uses no means to communicate with the bona-fide citizens, or to make his
presence officially known. It is afterwards accidentally learned that he
intends visiting Lecompton 11 miles above here to give his official recognition
to it, as the contemplated Capital—not doubting hut that he would take
Lawrence in his way, a Coanittee was appointed to receive him k extend to him
the hospitalities of the town. For some reason his Party saw fit to avoid
the place and pass along a mile k a half distant. Learning that he would
return on Saturday afternoon, knowing that tine would not permit of his
reaching his head-quarters that night, k presuming, in consideration that the
following day was the Sabbath, that he would remain over here, several hundred,
many of them from the vicinity gathered together to welcome him. Toward
evening he arrived—was called upon by the Committee who requested him to he
introduced to the citizens which he declined—he was asked to address them,
which he would not, 4 even tho* solicited would not exchange the ordinary
courtesies of civilised society.— (living as the only reason that Mr. Johnson
was the Capt. Commander, or Director of the Party, k that he was desirous of
going as far as Franklin that night. The Committee promised to detain him
but a few minutes, & to see that he was duly expedited on his way—this
however did not suit k he left with sealed lips, not deigning to recognize
the citizens at all; thereupon some of the insulted and irritated ones, upon
the spur of the moment, manifested their indignation by a volly of groans It
hisses. Bis Excellency did intimate that he might perhaps make a visit here
in Oct. On what oeoasln do you think? On that of going up to Lecompton to
attend a sale of City Lots! 1 . . . The Gov. k his companions proceeded on to
Franklin, the enormous distance of about three miles. It there stopped. This
is a noted ramhole, (containing perhaps a dozen houses), started by an individ-
ual whose interests seemed to require that he should confirm the inebriate


[Page 276]



la his course, and eoavert as may sober sen into drunkards as possible.
The following lay being (Sunday, rcnaaber} under the charge, & Is tbe keeping
of that nan of God, |f| the Rev. Mr. Johasoa, the governor renewed bis
Journey, & la due ties reached ia safety I ^restate the Mission House.*

Thomas Webb to Doctor        . Emigrant Aid Papers, K. H. S.

Sep. 15. Rev. Thomas Johnson accompanies Gov. Shannon to Franklin
and Lawrence.

Herald of Freedom, Sep. 22, 1855.

Sep. 18. Governor Shannon has just returned to this place, {Shawnee
Mission] the temporary seat of Government, having been on a visit to the
permanent seat of Government. He and suite went up to Lecompton last
week, for the purpose of selecting the site for the Capitol buildings.

Correspondence of the Missouri Republican, "Weeb Scrap Book,"

v. 5, p. 243.