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Andrew H. Reeder to John A. Haldeman

Andrew H. Reeder to John A. Haldeman
Creator: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: October 06, 1855
In this letter to John A. Haldeman, Andrew H. Reeder informs Haldeman that he has been told that "a new assessment of $5 per share to pay for a Wyandot float of 640 acres has been laid on the town of Tecumseh."


Andrew H. Reeder to John A. Haldeman

Andrew H. Reeder to John A. Haldeman
Creator: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: August 11, 1856
In this letter to John A. Haldeman, Andrew H. Reeder discusses the "sacking of Lawrence," the loss of papers related to the sale on lands that once belonged to Indians, and the use of Haldeman as his agent for his lots in Leavenworth, Kansas. As Reeder's letter indicates, the transition of Indian lands into the hands of white settlers was often quite difficult and added to tension levels in Kansas in the wake of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854.


Andrew J. Mead to John A. Haldeman

Andrew J. Mead to John A. Haldeman
Date: July 12, 1856
In this letter to John A. Haldeman, Andrew J. Mead asks if he knows of a portion of the Wyandotte Float that was available for sale. The Wyandotte Floats were originally set aside for the Wyandotte Tribe. However, the flexible nature of the Floats allowed them to be more easily transferred to white settlers once the U.S. Government decided to remove Native Indians from the newly created territories of Kansas and Nebraska.


Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Company depot, Guthrie, Oklahoma

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Company depot, Guthrie, Oklahoma
Creator: Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway Company
Date: April 14, 1889
This black and white photograph shows the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Company depot at Guthrie, Oklahoma. In front of the depot, U.S. soldiers have gathered to prevent "sooners" from leaving the train to seek land for settlement in the Indian territory.


Boomer Camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas

Boomer Camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas
Creator: Mitchell & DeGroff
Date: Between 1886 and 1889
This sepia colored photograph shows a group of "boomers" near the banks of the Walnut River in Arkansas City, Kansas. The "boomers" were white settlers who were attempting to settle in the Indian Territory of Oklahoma. Some of the "boomers" would camp near the Kansas and Oklahoma border waiting to enter the territory to claim land that had not been assigned to Indian tribes. Many of the settlers believed that the unassigned land was in the public domain under the Homestead Act of 1862. The land was some of the last that had been set aside for the settlement of Native American tribes after they had been removed from their ancestral lands.


Boomer Camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas

Boomer Camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas
Date: Between 1886 and 1889
This sepia colored photograph shows a "boomer" camp on the banks of the Walnut River in Arkansas City, Kansas. The "boomers" were white settlers who were attempting to settle in the Indian Territory of Oklahoma, which was the last area of the nation set aside for Native American tribes. Some of the "boomers" would camp near the Kansas and Oklahoma border waiting to enter the territory to claim land that had not been assigned to Indian Tribes. Many of the settlers believed that the unassigned land was in the public domain under the Homestead Act of 1862.


Boomer Camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas

Boomer Camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas
Creator: Mitchell & DeGroff
Date: Between 1886 and 1889
This sepia colored photograph shows a couple of "boomers" on the banks of the Walnut River in Arkansas City, Kansas. The "boomers" were white settlers who were attempting to settle in the Indian Territory of Oklahoma. Some of the "boomers would camp near the Kansas and Oklahoma border waiting to enter the territory to claim land that had not been assigned to Indian Tribes. Many of the settlers believed that the unassigned land was in the public domain under the Homestead Act of 1862. The land in question was some of the last land in the United States that had been set aside for Native American tribes, many of which had been removed from their ancestral lands.


Boomer camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas

Boomer camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas
Creator: Mitchell & DeGroff
Date: Between 1886 and 1889
This sepia colored photograph shows a "Boomer" camp on the banks of the Walnut River in Arkansas City, Kansas. The "Boomers" were white settlers who were attempting to settle in the Indian Territory of Oklahoma. Some of the "Boomers" would camp near the Kansas Oklahoma border waiting to enter the territory to claim land that had not been assigned to Indian Tribes and was believed to be in the public domain under the Homestead Act of 1862. The land in question was some of the last few sections of lands set aside by the U.S. Government for the Native American tribes who had been removed from their ancestral lands in other parts of the U.S.


Boomer camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas

Boomer camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas
Date: Between 1886 and 1889
This black and white photograph shows a "Boomer" camp on the banks of the Walnut River in Arkansas City, Kansas. The "Boomers" were white settlers who were attempting to settle in the Indian Territory of Oklahoma. Some of the "Boomers" would camp near the Kansas Oklahoma border waiting to enter the territory to claim land that had not been assigned to Indian Tribes and was believed to be in the public domain under the Homestead Act of 1862. The land in question was some of the last land set aside for the settlement of Native American tribes who had been removed from their lands in other parts of the U.S.


Crossing the Plains, the journal of Harriett Bidwell Shaw

Crossing the Plains, the journal of Harriett Bidwell Shaw
Creator: Shaw, Harriet Bidwell
Date: 1851
Harriett Bidwell Shaw started a journal in September 18,1851, when she and her husband, Reverend James Milton Shaw traveled in a wagon train via the Santa Fe Trail to New Mexico. Harriett was the only woman to accompany the wagon train. She documented their daily activities, the weather conditions, hardships on the trail, encounters with Indians, and buffalo hunting. When the Shaws passed through Kansas they stayed at Shawnee Baptist Mission, Council Grove, and Pawnee Rock and stopped near Fort Mackey on the Arkansas river. They reached Santa Fe on November 14, 1851, where the journal ends. The Shaws eventually went to Albuquerque and then Socorro to establish Baptist missions among the Spanish people. In sum, Shaws journal presents a remarkable picture of the difficulties and rewards of travel to the American West prior to the American Civil War.


David L. Payne expedition

David L. Payne expedition
Creator: Wickmiller, C.P. & Osburn, W.H.
Date: February 1883
This sepia colored photograph shows a group of settlers know as "boomers" who were crossing into the Indian Territory of Oklahoma from Kansas. The group lead by David L. Payne were attempting to claim land for settlement that had not been assigned to Indian tribes. Their efforts were not successful when the settlers were arrested by U.S.troops and escorted back to the Kansas border and released. The land that the "boomers" were attempting to settle had been set aside for Native Americans tribes after they had been removed from ancestral lands elsewhere in the U.S. Therefore, the U.S. Government's actions to prevent the "boomers" from moving onto Native American land helped preserve what little land remained for the nation's indigenous population.


David L. Payne expedition

David L. Payne expedition
Creator: Wickmiller, C.P. & Osburn, W.H.
Date: February 1883
This sepia colored photograph shows a group of settlers know as "boomers" crossing into the Indian Territory of Oklahoma from Kansas. The group lead by David L. Payne were attempting to claim land for settlement that had not been assigned to Indian tribes. Their efforts were not successful when the settlers were arrested by U.S. troops and escorted back to the Kansas border and released. The land that Payne and his party were attempting to settle had been set aside by the U.S. Government for Native American tribes that had already been removed from ancestral lands elsewhere in the nation. Therefore, the U.S. Government helped protect and preserve the lands of the nation's dwindling indigenous population.


George W. Clarke to General James William Denver letters

George W. Clarke to General James William Denver letters
Creator: Clarke, George W.
Date: April 18, 1858-April 19, 1858
In these two letters to General James W. Denver, Governor of the Territory of Kansas, George W. Clarke addresses injustices done to him. Clarke explains that a company controlled by George A. Crawford had begun to claim land that had been declared as off limits for settlement by the General Land Office of the United States.


Greenwood Town Association

Greenwood Town Association
Creator: Brewster, W.L.
Date: May 05, 1856
This item dates from the early territorial period of Kansas, and it indicates that one share of the town property belonging to the Greenwood Town Association was transferred to A.G. Otis. Once a part of the lands set aside for the settlement of Indians, Greenwood was established by white settlers shortly after the creation of the Kansas and Nebraska territories in 1854.


H.J. Alvord, departmental claim agent, Washington, D.C.

H.J. Alvord, departmental claim agent, Washington, D.C.
Creator: Alvord, H.J.
Date: 1870
This business card from attorney H.J. Alvord indicates that he was well-versed in dealing with Indian depredation claims. These were predominantly claims filed by Euro-Americans living in the West against Native Americans for crimes they allegedly committed in the years following the American Civil War.


Kansas Land Survey Plats

Kansas Land Survey Plats
Date: Bulk 1857-1861
These eighteen land survey plat maps show townships 18 through 23 south, ranges 23 through 25, east of the 6th principal meridian. The U.S. Surveyor General began surveying Kansas after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. Plat maps were created at that time to document the surveys. The plats show public lands within the territory divided by range, township and section. Townships were measured in six mile increments starting from the Kansas-Nebraska border. Ranges were numbered in six mile increments east and west from the Six Prime Meridian, which crosses through present day Wichita, Kansas. This system is still the basis for legal land description in the state.


Kansas land survey plats

Kansas land survey plats
Creator: U.S. Surveyor General of Kansas and Nebraska
Date: 1857-1861
Six land survey plat maps showing townships 11 through 15 south, range 16 east. The U.S. Surveyor General began surveying Kansas after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. Plat maps were created at that time to document the surveys. The plats show public lands within the territory divided by range, township and section. Townships were measured in six mile increments starting from the Kansas-Nebraska border. Ranges were numbered in six mile increments east and west from the Sixth Prime Meridian, which crosses through present day Wichita, Kansas. This system is still the basis for legal land description in the state. The Kansas Historical Society acquired a collection of these original plats previously held by the Kansas Secretary of State. The National Archives and the Bureau of Land Management also hold copies of the plats. Kansas land surveyors are the most frequent users of these maps. They use them to verify section corners when surveying land.


Land Survey Plats and Tract Books, Township 9 South, Range 111 West

Land Survey Plats and Tract Books, Township 9 South, Range 111 West
Date: 1860
Hand-colored plat map of Kansas from original surveys for Township 9 South, Range 111 West. This plat map shows significant geographical landmarks such as rivers and other waterways, as well as man-made features such as roads and trails, boundaries of Native American reservations, and other landmarks. See series 194481 for microfilmed copies of original plat maps from 1854-1884.


Map of Eastern Kansas

Map of Eastern Kansas
Creator: Jewett, J.P. & Company
Date: 1856
A map of Eastern Kansas by E.B. Whitman and A.D. Searl, General Land Agents, Lawrence, Kansas. The map illustrates a portion of Eastern Kansas which depicts trading posts, post offices, missions, government forts, Indian villages, roads, trails and Indian boundaries. The Indian boundaries that are featured included: the Kickappo, Pottawatomie, Kansa, Sax and Fox, Shawnee, Miami, Ottawa, Chippewa, Peoria, Kaskaskia, Iowa, Delaware, Wyandotte, Piankashaw, and the Wea. The map includes illustrations of the Eldridge House in Lawrence and the Constitution Hall in Topeka. The land discussed above was originally given to Native Americans following the passage of the Indian Removal Act in 1830.


Orville Hickman Browning to the Commissioner of the General Land Office

Orville Hickman Browning to the Commissioner of the General Land Office
Creator: Browning, Orville Hickman, 1806-1881
Date: August 16, 1867
In this letter to the Commissioner of the General Land Office, Orville H. Browning discussed the Osage Catholic Mission lands in Kansas. Specifically, Browning addresses under what conditions the land in the area was to be allotted.


Survey plat map, Township 10 South, Range 8 East

Survey plat map, Township 10 South, Range 8 East
Date: January 24, 1860
This plat surveyed by the U.S. Surveyor General of Kansas and Nebraska shows Township 10 South, Range 8 East of the 6th Principal Meridian in the Kansas Territory. The map also illustrates the meanders of the Big Blue River and the Kansas River.


Thomas A. Hendricks to John A. Haldeman

Thomas A. Hendricks to John A. Haldeman
Creator: Hendricks, Thomas A. (Thomas Andrews), 1819-1885
Date: January 16, 1856
In this letter to John A. Haldeman, Thomas A. Hendricks of the General Land Office informs Haldeman that all Native Indian lands that were being vacated in Nebraska and Kansas were "subject to the operation of the Preemption Act" that was passed on September 4, 1841. Hendricks is trying to clarify the complex issue of the transition of the land previously set aside for Native Indians in the recently created Kansas and Nebraska territories.


To all whom it may concern, Wyandott Reservations west of the Missouri River

To all whom it may concern, Wyandott Reservations west of the Missouri River
Creator: Lykins, Johnston, 1800?-1876
Date: September 01, 1855
In this item, a copy of the original, Johnston Lykins issues notice that the Department of Interior is moving to protect the "rights of the Wyandott Indians reserves, their heirs or legal Representatives, as intended by the 14th article of the treaty of March 17, 1842, and also the location of the same as intended by the 9th article of the treaty of January 31st. 1855."


Township 11 South, Range 15 East, plat maps

Township 11 South, Range 15 East, plat maps
Date: January 06, 1866
The U.S. Surveyor General began surveying Kansas after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. Plat maps were created at that time to document the surveys. The plats show public lands within the territory divided by range, township and section. Townships were measured in six mile increments starting from the Kansas-Nebraska border. Ranges were numbered in six mile increments east and west from the Sixth Prime Meridian, which crosses through present day Wichita, Kansas. This system is still the basis for legal land description in the state. The Kansas Historical Society acquired a collection of these original plats previously held by the Kansas Secretary of State. The National Archives and the Bureau of Land Management also hold copies of the plats. These two maps show the east and west sides of township 11 south, range 15 east. On the east side, the Kansa "Half Breed" lots are on the north bank of the Kansas River; the west map shows part of the Pottawattomie Reservation, including the Pottawattomie Baptist Mission in the northwest quarter of section 32, which is still standing today on the grounds of the Kansas Historical Society. The town of Indianola, which later became part of North Topeka, is shown on the east portion of the maps.


Township No. 42 south of range XXV east of the 6, principal meridian

Township No. 42 south of range XXV east of the 6, principal meridian
Date: Between 1850 and 1860
A plat map showing township 42, range 25, east of the 6th principal meridian. The U.S. Surveyor General began surveying Kansas after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. Plat maps were created at that time to document the surveys. The plats show public lands within the territory divided by range, township and section. Townships were measured in six mile increments starting from the Kansas-Nebraska border. Ranges were numbered in six mile increments east and west from the Sixth Prime Meridian, which crosses through present day Wichita, Kansas. This system is still the basis for legal land description in the state.


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