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Curriculum - 11th Grade Standards - Kansas History Standards - 1930-1945 (US_Benchmark 2) - Race and ethnic relations (Indicator 7)

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A.L. Foster to the manager of Kelly's Hotel in Iola, Kansas

A.L. Foster to the manager of Kelly's Hotel in Iola, Kansas
Creator: Foster, A.L.
Date: March 09, 1945
In this letter, from A.L. Foster of the Chicago Urban League to the manager of Kelly's Hotel in Iola, Kansas, details Foster's experiences at the hotel in the winter of 1945. Foster, a passenger on a bus from Ft. Scott to Wichita, was asked to sit in the rear section of the restaurant solely because he was an African American.


Arthur Capper to John N. Johnson

Arthur Capper to John N. Johnson
Creator: Capper, Arthur, 1865-1951
Date: September 13, 1947
In this letter to John H. Johnson, editor of the Negro Digest, Senator Arthur Capper of Kansas addresses the fact that African Americans living in Washington D.C. had "no voice in the Federal Government." According to Capper, African Americans in D.C. were "deprived of this right simply because a certain element is prejudiced against them, and does not want them to enjoy the rights that are given whites and colored in other states."


Arthur Capper to Milton Tabor

Arthur Capper to Milton Tabor
Creator: Capper, Arthur, 1865-1951
Date: February 22, 1947
In this letter, Senator Capper responds to an earlier letter sent to him by Milton Tabor, the managing editor of The Topeka Daily Capital. In response to Tabor's comments regarding the rising racial tensions in Topeka, Capper argues that "we must protect these groups who are quite often discriminated against." Furthermore, Capper explains that Washington D.C. had many similar problems because "there is a strong prejudice among the whites here against the Negroes." He also mentions prohibition efforts and the American Red Cross.


Avis Atkinson and Governor Andrew Schoeppel coresspondence

Avis Atkinson and Governor Andrew Schoeppel coresspondence
Creator: Kansas. Governor (1943-1947 : Schoeppel)
Date: February 12-16, 1943
This correspondence deals with the possibility of moving Japanese Americans to Kansas to serve as laborers during World War II. In the letter to Governor Schoeppel, Avis Atkinson of Fall River, Kansas, urges the Governor to do everything in his power to keep the U.S. government from allowing Japanese Americans to work in Kansas because "Once a Jap Always a Jap." Governor Schoeppel's reply is cordial but reinforces the fact that, if the federal government so desires, he will comply with their wishes and house Japanese Americans and/or Japanese prisoners of war.


Benjamin O. Weaver to Governor Andrew Schoeppel

Benjamin O. Weaver to Governor Andrew Schoeppel
Date: September 01, 1943
In this letter to Governor Schoeppel, Kansas House of Representatives member Benjamin O. Weaver explains that many of his constituents in Kiowa County, Kansas, are opposed to the use of Japanese Americans as laborers in the state. Included with the letter is a petition signed by numerous Kiowa County residents which states that they are against releasing the Japanese Americans because they "think it dangerous to the war effort." A searchable, full-text version of this letter is available by clicking "Text Version" below.


Coral Bell to Governor Andrew Schoeppel

Coral Bell to Governor Andrew Schoeppel
Creator: Bell, Coral
Date: October 4, 1944
This letter from Coral Bell to Governor Schoeppel, concerns the treatment of the African American citizens of Ellis, Kansas. Bell explains that the Victory Café in Ellis has a sign in the front window that states "We Cater to White Trade Only" and questions is this the type of freedom he fought for while serving in the U.S. military.


E.H. Lindley to Governor Walter Huxman

E.H. Lindley to Governor Walter Huxman
Creator: Lindley, E.H.
Date: July 11, 1938
In this letter to Governor Huxman, University of Kansas Chancellor E.H. Lindley informs Huxman that a group of African Americans visited his office and complained that the university's medical school had never allowed an African American to graduate. Chancellor Lindley suggests to Huxman that the matter must be investigated because "our schools must be and remain open to all classes of citizens."


Elmer Jackson to Harold Stauffer

Elmer Jackson to Harold Stauffer
Creator: Jackson, Elmer C. (Elmer Carter), 1912-
Date: November 21, 1945
This letter, from Elmer Jackson of the Kansas branch of the N.A.A.C.P. to Harold Stauffer, Chairman of the Kansas Board of Regents, details the difficulties faced by African American students at the Kansas State Teachers College in Emporia.


Emerald Moon to Governor Walter Huxman

Emerald Moon to Governor Walter Huxman
Creator: Moon, Emerald L.
Date: August 2, 1938
Kansas State School of Medicine student Emerald L. Moon thanks Governor Walter Huxman for "the attention and action he gave to the "unjust prejudice against members of my race." A complete transcription is available by clicking "Text Version" below.


Frank Black and Governor Andrew Schoeppel coresspondence

Frank Black and Governor Andrew Schoeppel coresspondence
Date: April 07, 1943-April 14, 1943
This correspondence addresses the possibility of bringing Japanese Americans to Kansas as laborers. In the first item, from The Topeka Building and Construction Trades Council, Frank Black, Secretary-Treasurer of the Council, argues that Japanese Americans laborers should not be brought to Kansas because of their "uncanny, treacherous, and barbarian instinct." Furthermore, Black contends that men such as himself will "never submit to any program which will elevate these barbarians to a point of superiority or even on a par with those who are doing our fighting." The second item, a letter from Mr. Black to Governor Schoeppel, explains that The Topeka Building and Construction Trades Council has sent its concerns to Mr. Leiker, and Kansas's Senators and Representatives in Washington. The final item, dated April 14, 1943, contains Governor Schoeppel's response to Mr. Black. In the letter, Governor Schoeppel explains that the idea to bring Japanese Americans to Kansas was developed by the U.S. Government, not by anyone in Kansas.


Franscisco Moralez to Andrew Schoeppel

Franscisco Moralez to Andrew Schoeppel
Creator: Moralez, Fransico
Date: September 7, 1945
This letter, from Fransico Moralez to Governor Schoeppel, details Moralez's experiences upon returning to Kansas after the end of World War II. Despite being a Mexican American U.S. Army veteran, Moralez faced a great deal of difficulty when attempting to readjust to civilian life due to the racism and discrimination that continued to exist at the end of the war.


Governor Andrew Schoeppel and C. Fosberg Hughes coresspondence

Governor Andrew Schoeppel and C. Fosberg Hughes coresspondence
Date: June 07, 1944-June 16, 1944
This correspondence between Governor Schoeppel and Minister C. Fosberg Hughes of the Plymouth Congregational Church in Lawrence, Kansas, concerns the possibility of using Japanese Americans as laborers in Kansas. In his correspondence with Governor Schoeppel, Hughes argues that many people have misinterpreted Schoeppel's position toward Japanese Americans in Kansas. In fact, Hughes contends that Schoeppel's statement "has been used unfairly by the American Legion crowd in town to whip up public sentiment against the resettlement of these families." In his reply to Hughes, Governor Schoeppel clarifies his position and states that, as Governor of Kansas, he must also take the objections of the people of the state into account because "those objections should be seriously taken into consideration and the evacuees kept out of those areas, first because of the safety of the Japanese themselves and second because it would only create turmoil and discord in the communities." After reading Schoeppel's lengthy reply, Hughes responds by stating that he is aware of the argument against sending Japanese Americans to Kansas. However, he argues that "too often the community mind is set by a very small vocal minority." Therefore, Hughes asks Governor Schoeppel to do what he can to make sure that Kansan's do not shift their "responsibility for American citizens from one community to another or one state to another."


J. Silas Harris to Arthur Capper

J. Silas Harris to Arthur Capper
Creator: Harris, J. Silas
Date: March 17, 1922
In this letter to Senator Arthur Capper, J. Silas Harris, President of the Negro National Educational Congress, thanks Capper for the letter that he wrote to President Harding on his behalf. Furthermore, Harris thanks Capper for his efforts to help African Americans during a period in which Harris argues that African American citizenship "has simply been a hollow mockery."


Judge William A. Smith to Senator Arthur Capper

Judge William A. Smith to Senator Arthur Capper
Creator: Smith, William A.
Date: January 12, 1942
In this letter to Senator Capper, Judge William A. Smith of the Kansas Supreme Court informs Capper that Miss Majorie Bradshaw of Topeka, Kansas, was offered a job with the Civil Service in Washington D.C. and, when she arrived, was kept from taking the job because they discovered that she was an African American.


L.M. Rymph to Governor Andrew Schoeppel

L.M. Rymph to Governor Andrew Schoeppel
Date: March 29, 2009
In this letter to Governor Andrew Schoeppel, L.M. Rymph, State Superintendent of Congregational Christian Churches, explains that he believes using Japanese Americans as laborers in Kansas "will mean much in maintaining the morale of these people and in keeping them loyal to this their native country." Although he admits to Schoeppel that "this move may not meet with popular community response," Rymph contends that treating the Japanese Americans with respect is extremely important because America "must not just have another racial peon class."


Mary Golden to Governor Andrew Schoeppel

Mary Golden to Governor Andrew Schoeppel
Date: March 31 - April 4, 1943
This correspondence addresses the possibility of moving Japanese Americans to Kansas to serve as laborers. In her letter to Shoeppel, Mrs. Mary Golden of Matfield Green, Kansas, argues that Japanese Americans should not be allowed to work in Kansas because of the way the Japanese military has treated American prisoners of war. In his reply to Mrs. Golden's letter, Governor Schoeppel explains that he is only doing what the federal government asks with regard to the Japanese Americans, and, if required, he will work with the U.S. Government "in utilizing American born Japanese labor on projects or in areas approved by your government, and my government officials." A searchable, full-text version of this letter is available by clicking "Text Version" below.


Mayme Moore and J.E. Farmer to Governor Walter Huxman

Mayme Moore and J.E. Farmer to Governor Walter Huxman
Creator: Moore, Mayme
Date: August 19, 1938
In this letter, Mayme Moore and J.E. Farmer of the Young Democrats Club of Sedgwick County--Colored Division, thank Governor Walter Huxman for his efforts to give African Americans "the advantages that have been heretofore denied us."


McClure coresspondence

McClure coresspondence
Date: February 19, 1943-November 27, 1943
This correspondence between Russell McClure, City Manager of Wichita, and several important individuals in Kansas, including Governor Schoeppel, addresses the problems accompanying the attendance of two Japanese American students at Friends University in Wichita. The primary theme that runs through McClure's letters is that the two Japanese American students will not be treated kindly by the citizens of Wichita due to the strong current of animosity that existed toward Japanese and Japanese Americans.


Milton Tabor to Senator Arthur Capper

Milton Tabor to Senator Arthur Capper
Creator: Tabor, Milton
Date: February 11, 1947
In this letter to Senator Capper, Milton Tabor, managing editor of The Topeka Daily Capital, addresses the on-going race relations problems in Topeka in the years immediately after World War II. In fact, Tabor claims that "many unpleasant incidents have occurred, some of them near-riots, which we have not played up as news because of the danger of a race riot." In addition, Tanor informs Capper, who was the publisher of The Topeka Daily Capital, that the ongoing debate over alcohol was growing contentious and promised to turn into "another knock-down-and-drag-out battle over liquor."


Robey Trader to Governor Andrew Schoeppel

Robey Trader to Governor Andrew Schoeppel
Creator: Trader, Robey
Date: September 01, 1945
This letter, from Robey Trader to Governor Schoeppel, concerns Trader's belief that expanded rights for African Americans in Kansas City, Kansas, might lead to increased racial tensions because, as Trader states, "the Negro has become so overbaring white folks can stand it no longer."


Russell McClure to Governor Andrew Schoeppel

Russell McClure to Governor Andrew Schoeppel
Date: January 11, 1943
In this letter to Governor Schoeppel, Russell E. McClure, City Manager of Wichita, Kansas, explains to Schoeppel that the leadership of the city is against bringing Japanese Americans to Wichita to ease the labor shortage facing the city. In his justification, McClure also cites views of the city's Chief of Police who told him that "it would present many serious problems for the Police Department since he has already had some experience in attempting to protect a few who have tried to located here." As a result, McClure argues that "the temper of the local citizens is such that it would be difficult to handle the situation."


Senator Clyde Reed to Dr. D.L. Stewart

Senator Clyde Reed to Dr. D.L. Stewart
Creator: Reed, Clyde Martin, 1871-1949
Date: October 09, 1943
This letter from Kansas Senator Cylde Reed to Dr. D.L. Stewart concerns the segregation of blood based on race. Reed states, "It may well be true that there is no chemical or physical differences. I think that is conceded. Prejudice, however, sometimes is a more formidable obstacle than facts."


T.W. Bell to Senator Arthur Capper

T.W. Bell to Senator Arthur Capper
Creator: Bell, T.W.
Date: July 6, 1946
In this letter to Senator Capper, T.W. Bell, a lawyer from Leavnworth, Kansas, addresses the treatment of African American soldiers by white officers during World War II. In fact, Bell claims that many Southern officers treated African Americans so harshly that they "can't speak, nor defend themselves from an Open Insult, They Are Perfect Slaves, of the very Worst Type."


Testimony of Reginald A. Johnson

Testimony of Reginald A. Johnson
Creator: Johnson, Reginald A.
Date: 1947
This testimony given by Reginald A. Johnson, Director of Field Services for the National Urban League, addresses the League's effort to help African Americans obtain housing, and its support for the Wagner-Ellender-Taft General Housing Bill. The bill (S 1592) was designed to provide a national housing policy in the aftermath of World War II when housing was scarce, especially for African Americans and other minorities. Because this is a letterpress copy of an original, the text is blurry and can be difficult to read. A transcription is forthcoming.


Thomas Harten to Governor Andrew Schoeppel

Thomas Harten to Governor Andrew Schoeppel
Creator: Harten, Thomas
Date: December 19, 1942
This letter, from Thomas Harten of New York to Kansas Governor Andrew Schoeppel, concerns the commemoration of Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation on the evening of February 10th, 1943, at Carnegie Hall in New York City. Reverend Harten explains to Governor Schoeppel that his support is needed in order for Americans to remember that in times of crisis or conflict "the black man has always been loyal."


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