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8,000 students affected, state officials see no trouble adjusting schools to new rule

8,000 students affected, state officials see no trouble adjusting schools to new rule
Creator: Topeka Journal
Date: May 17, 1954
This article discusses how the state of Kansas will work to conform to the ruling made in the Brown v. Board of Education decision on May 17, 1954. The U.S. Supreme Court had ruled that the segregation of schools based on race was unconstitutional. Many cities in Kansas, including Topeka, Atchison, Salina, Wichita, and Pittsburg were already working to integrate their schools. Topeka had an estimated 625 African American students who would be affected by the court's ruling, and the article lists the numbers for other cities and towns in the state.


A.S. Wilson to Henry J. Allen

A.S. Wilson to Henry J. Allen
Creator: Kansas. Governor (1919-1923 : Allen)
Date: January 24, 1919
A.S. Wilson, an attorney in Galena, Kansas, writes to Governor Henry J. Allen to indicate his interest in a law that would allow second class cities to separate the schools based on "white and colored children." He included a petition with signatures with the letter.


Alvin and Lucinda Todd family in Topeka, Kansas

Alvin and Lucinda Todd family in Topeka, Kansas
Date: 1946
A photograph of the Todd family (left to right) Alvin, Nancy and Lucinda, taken in Topeka, Kansas. Lucinda Todd was a participant in the Brown vs Topeka Board of Education landmark U.S. Supreme Court case to desegregate schools. She was also the secretary of the Topeka NAACP which brought the Legal Defense Fund to Topeka.


Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Company depot, Deer Creek, Oklahoma

Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Company depot, Deer Creek, Oklahoma
Creator: Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway Company
Date: May 20, 1931
This photograph shows the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Company depot at Deer Creek, Oklahoma. The depot built in 1898, measured 24'x42'.


Buford Brodbeck interview, WWII oral history, Kinsley, Kansas

Buford Brodbeck interview, WWII oral history, Kinsley, Kansas
Creator: Brodbeck, Buford
Date: December 08, 2009
This interview with Buford Brodbeck is part of an oral history project entitled "Patchwork of Dependency: The Effects of WWII on Edwards County, Kansas" conducted by the Kinsley Public Library. The project was supported by a Kansas Humanities Council Heritage Grant. Buford talks of his family, education, military career, and places of employment.


C. M. Moates to Governor Edward Hoch

C. M. Moates to Governor Edward Hoch
Creator: Moates, C. M.
Date: February 21, 1905
C. M. Moates, M.D. of Leavenworth (Leavenworth County) writes Governor Edward W. Hoch of Topeka (Shawnee County) concerning the segregation of Kansas City (Kans.) High School. Moates requests the Governor veto a bill recently passed by the Kansas Legislature which would segregate the school by building a separate building for black children. The letter reminds the Governor of the Republican Party's traditional stand for Negro rights, cites the dominance of the Republican Party in Kansas, and charges the Kansas Republican Party as behaving like Democrats. The letter notes that the Democratic dominated legislature in Arkansas was considering similar legislation. The letter also cites the efforts of John Brown and Daniel Reed Anthony to make Kansas a free state. Moates claims at some point the Republic Party will need Negro votes and that this law will drive Negroes from the party. He also claims high school segregation will incite trouble between the races. Governor Hoch signed the bill on February 22, 1905. See K. L. Browne to Governor Edward Hoch, February 18, 1905.


Carmen Rodriguez interview, Kinsley, Kansas

Carmen Rodriguez interview, Kinsley, Kansas
Creator: Rodriguez, Carmen Rustica (Molina)
Date: April 18, 2011
This transcript of an interview with Carmen Rodriguez is part of an oral history project entitled "Patterns of Change, Edwards County, Kansas 1950-1970" conducted by the Kinsley Public Library. The project was supported by a Kansas Humanities Council Heritage Grant. Rodriguez talks of her family, education, and her memories of the Edwards County community.


Charles E. Bledsoe to the NAACP Legal Department

Charles E. Bledsoe to the NAACP Legal Department
Creator: Bledsoe, Charles E.
Date: September 5, 1950
In the letter, Charles E. Bledsoe, attorney for the Topeka Chapter of the NAACP, outlines the general nature of Topeka's situation as influenced by local laws. In particular, Bledsoe refers to the Kansas Permissive Law of 1879 that allowed individual school districts to segregate schools if they so desired. However, the law did not mandate school segregation in Kansas. The response to this letter is Kansas Memory item #213410.


Charles I. Baston interview

Charles I. Baston interview
Creator: Baston, Charles I.
Date: May 14, 1992
Charles Baston was born in Lee's Summit, Missouri, on April 24, 1917. He attended grade school and junior high school while still living in Lee's Summit, and after junior high he moved to Topeka to attend the Kansas Vocational Technical School. He moved to Topeka permanently after his World War II discharge. Baston was a member of the executive committee of the local chapter of the NAACP during the Brown v. Board hearings. Much of his interview deals with the NAACPs role in finding plaintiffs in the Brown case, the problem with busing students to segregated schools, and other individuals who were instrumental to the success of this suit. Towards the end of the interview he also talks about how the Brown decision has not reached its full potential because of the racial prejudices that still exist today. Jean VanDelinder conducted the interview. The Brown v. Board oral history project was funded by Hallmark Cards Inc., the Shawnee County Historical Society, the Brown Foundation for Educational Excellence, Equity, and Research, the National Park Service, and the Kansas Humanities Council. Parts of the interview may be difficult to hear due to the quality of the original recording.


Chris Hansen interview

Chris Hansen interview
Creator: Hansen, Chris
Date: October 5, 1992
Chris Hansen was an attorney with the American Civil Liberties Union, starting in 1973. In 1984, after the Brown v. Board desegregation case was reopened, Hansen served on the legal team working on this case. The ACLU was representing 17 children and their parents who claimed that the Topeka USD501 district had not fully complied with the 1954 U.S. Supreme Court decision declaring segregated schools unconstitutional. The case went before the Federal District Court in October 1986, and four years later after an appeal, the court ruled in favor of the petitioners, stating that Topeka Public Schools had not fully complied with the court decision to desegregate. Hansen's interview discusses his involvement in the case, the plaintiffs (including Linda Brown Smith) and his experiences in Topeka. The interview was conducted by Jean VanDelinder. The Brown v. Board oral history project was funded by Hallmark Cards Inc., the Shawnee County Historical Society, the Brown Foundation for Educational Excellence, Equity, and Research, the National Park Service, and the Kansas Humanities Council.


Christina Jackson interview

Christina Jackson interview
Creator: Jackson, Christina
Date: September 20, 1991
Christina Jackson was born on August 15, 1926, in Topeka, Kansas, to Georgia and Jess Edwards. In this interview, Jackson speaks about her experiences at the segregated Washington Elementary School and then at the integrated East Topeka Junior High and Topeka High School. According to Jackson, Washington had very strict teachers who emphasized the importance of learning about African American history. Her children attended Monroe School and, after desegregation, moved to State Street School, which had formerly been a school for white children only. Her children recalled that the faculty at State Street worked hard to integrate the black students, who were for the most part accepted by their peers. It was not until her children entered Holliday Junior High that they struggled with racial discrimination and derogatory comments. Jackson also discusses her work experiences and involvement in social clubs and volunteer organizations. This interview was conducted by Jean VanDelinder and Ralph Crowder. The Brown v. Board oral history project was funded by Hallmark Cards Inc., the Shawnee County Historical Society, the Brown Foundation for Educational Excellence, Equity, and Research, the National Park Service and the Kansas Humanities Council. Parts of the interview may be difficult to hear due to the quality of the original recording.


Citizens Committee on Civil Rights: The People, Fight Back

Citizens Committee on Civil Rights: The People, Fight Back
Date: 1948
This 1948 leaflet was created by the Citizens Committee on Civil Rights and used in conjunction with a citywide petition later rejected by the Topeka Board of Education. The Citizens Committee on Civil Rights was a group headquartered at the home of Lucinda Todd. The leaflet, circulated around Topeka's black community, requested funds to support the effort. Mrs. Todd and Mrs. Dan Sawyer walked the streets of Topeka to get the petition signed by almost every black household.


Coming Walter White

Coming Walter White
Date: 1949
This flyer announces the upcoming visit of NAACP executive secretary Walter White to Topeka on Tuesday, April 26, 8:15 p.m., Memorial Hall, 10th and Jackson. Under his leadership, the NAACP established the Legal Defense Fund, which helped fight segregation and disenfranchisement throughout the U.S.


Discrimination persists, Smith says

Discrimination persists, Smith says
Creator: Knudsen, Gwyn
Date: October 15, 1986
This article in the Topeka Capital-Journal focuses on Linda Brown Smith who, along with her father Oliver Brown, were plaintiffs in the landmark civil rights case Brown v. Board of Education. Linda Smith had recently testified in a federal court about her experiences attended segregated schools in Topeka, including the Monroe school. Smith was called to the stand as a witness in a re-hearing of the Brown v. Board case to determine whether or not there were still some elements of institutional racial segregation in the Topeka school system. Smith, a plaintiff in the re-opened case, believed that racial discrimination still existed in the schools.


Donna Newsom interview, Lewis, Kansas

Donna Newsom interview, Lewis, Kansas
Creator: Newsom, Donna Rae (Scott)
Date: February 26, 2011
This is a transcript of an interview with Donna Newsom. It was part of an oral history project entitled "Patterns of Change, Edwards County, Kansas 1950-1970" conducted by the Kinsley Public Library. The project was supported by a Kansas Humanities Council Heritage Grant. Newsom talks of her family, education, and her memories of the Edwards County community.


Douglas School in Topeka, Kansas

Douglas School in Topeka, Kansas
Date: May, 1902
A view of Douglas School, which was attended by African American students, located on Polk Street between 3rd and 4th Streets inTopeka, Kansas. The photograph was submitted to the Kansas Supreme Court as exhibit A in the case of William Reynolds vs. The Board of Education of the City of Topeka of the State of Kansas.


Douglas School in Topeka, Kansas

Douglas School in Topeka, Kansas
Date: May 1902
A view of Douglas School, which was attended by African American students, located on Polk Street between 3rd and 4th Streets in Topeka, Kansas. The photograph was submitted to the Kansas Supreme Court as exhibit A in William Reynolds vs The Board of Education of the City of Topeka of the State of Kansas.


Elisha J. Scott

Elisha J. Scott
Date: Between 1950 and 1959
Elisha J. Scott, 1890-1963, was raised in Topeka's Tennesseetown. As a youth, he possessed a strong drive and a quick wit, which attracted the eye of prominent Topeka minister Charles M. Sheldon. With financial support from Sheldon and his own abilities to succeed, Scott earned his law degree from Washburn College in 1916. During his long career as an attorney, he argued many civil rights and school segregation cases throughout Kansas and the Midwest. Two of Scott's sons, John and Charles, joined him in his law firm of Scott, Scott, Scott, and Jackson. Together they helped to prosecute, at the local level, the landmark civil rights case of Brown v. Topeka Board of Education.


Five of state's first-class cities end school segregation

Five of state's first-class cities end school segregation
Creator: Topeka Capital
Date: December 4, 1955
This article describes how Kansas schools had begun?and in some cases completed?the process of desegregation after the Supreme Court case Brown v. Board declared that segregated educational facilities were unconstitutional. Lawrence, Salina, and Atchison had completed integration, while Wichita, Kansas City, and Topeka were still in the process of implementing their plans. In some cases the integration plans were attacked; for instance, in Topeka, students were allowed to continue attending their old school through the sixth grade, a move that some believed was simply reinforcing segregation. Prior to the Brown decision in 1954, only cities with populations over 15,000 ("first-class" cities) were allowed to have segregated grade schools, and some towns, like Pittsburg, had abolished segregated schools before the Brown case.


Fort Worth Union depot, Fort Worth, Texas

Fort Worth Union depot, Fort Worth, Texas
Creator: Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway Company
Date: 1932
A photograph of the Fort Worth Union Depot in Fort Worth, Texas. Built in 1900, it was use by the following railroads: Gulf Colorado & Santa Fe, Texas & New Orleans, St. Louis Southwestern, and Fort Worth and Denver City.


Fred Rausch Jr. interview

Fred Rausch Jr. interview
Creator: Rausch, Fred
Date: October 12, 1994
Fred Rausch, Jr. grew up in East Topeka and attended Parkdale Elementary School, Lincoln Junior High, and East Topeka Junior High. Rausch was elected to the Topeka School Board in 1957, shortly after the Brown v. Board Supreme Court decision that declared segregated educational facilities unconstitutional. He was partially responsible for the integration of teachers. When the school board attempted to place African American teachers in positions at formerly white schools they encountered harsh opposition from both white and black parents. He recalls that this furor died down after a few years. Rausch also discusses how the school districts were rearranged so that children attended a grade school that was no more than six blocks from their home, although he vehemently maintains that the school board never gerrymandered districts for racial purposes. While he admits that, sociologically, integration may have improved students' feelings of self-worth, he is not convinced that integration has improved students' learning abilities and overall education. Rausch left the Topeka Board of Education two years before the Brown case was reopened in 1979. Cheryl Brown Henderson conducted the interview. The Brown v. Board oral history project was funded by Hallmark Cards Inc., the Shawnee County Historical Society, the Brown Foundation for Educational Excellence, Equity, and Research, the National Park Service and the Kansas Humanities Council. Parts of the interview may be difficult to hear due to the quality of the original recording.


Governor Henry J. Allen, correspondence files, box 18

Governor Henry J. Allen, correspondence files, box 18
Creator: Kansas. Governor (1919-1923 : Allen)
Date: 1919-1923
These folders contain the correspondence of Governor Allen on a variety of topics. In the first letter Secretary John P. Shillady, of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, argues against the segregation of Kansas schools. Other letters relate to issues facing veterans of World War I, such as bonuses, delayed mail, demobilization, discharge records, the release of the 89th Division, and employment for discharged soldiers.


Gulf Colorado & Santa Fe Railway Company depot, Copeville, Texas

Gulf Colorado & Santa Fe Railway Company depot, Copeville, Texas
Creator: Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway Company
Date: February 26, 1931
This black and white photograph shows the Gulf Colorado & Santa Fe Railway Company depot at Copeville, Texas. The depot was built in 1887. Visible in the photograph is a sign for a segregated waiting room.


Gulf Colorado & Santa Fe Railway Company depot, Godley, Texas

Gulf Colorado & Santa Fe Railway Company depot, Godley, Texas
Creator: Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway Company
Date: February 1931
This black and white photograph shows the Gulf Colorado & Santa Fe Railway Company depot at Godley, Texas. The depot was built in 1887. Visible in the photograph is a sign for a segregated waiting room.


Gulf Colorado & Santa Fe Railway Company depot, Justin, Texas

Gulf Colorado & Santa Fe Railway Company depot, Justin, Texas
Creator: Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway Company
Date: 1931
This black and white photograph shows the Gulf Colorado & Santa Fe Railway Company depot at Justin, Texas. The depot had segregated waiting rooms for blacks and whites. The building, built in 1912, measured 24'x113'.


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