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An Appeal from Arickaree

An Appeal from Arickaree
Creator: Howes, Cecil, 1880-1950
Date: 1940-1950
This item, written by Kansas City Star editor Charles Cecil Howes, concerns the Battle of Arickaree that took place in Kansas in 1868. Howes does not address any of the controversy surrounding the event but he does provide a solid account of the accepted facts of the combat that took place between U.S. Army soldiers, led by General George A. Forsyth (a Colonel at the time), and Indian warriors led by Cheyenne War Chief Roman Nose. This item also includes some excerpts from General Forsyth's "Thrilling Days of Army Life," which had not yet been published at the time Howes' article was printed.


Andrew H. Reeder to John A. Haldeman

Andrew H. Reeder to John A. Haldeman
Creator: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: August 11, 1856
In this letter to John A. Haldeman, Andrew H. Reeder discusses the "sacking of Lawrence," the loss of papers related to the sale on lands that once belonged to Indians, and the use of Haldeman as his agent for his lots in Leavenworth, Kansas. As Reeder's letter indicates, the transition of Indian lands into the hands of white settlers was often quite difficult and added to tension levels in Kansas in the wake of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854.


Andrew H. Reeder to John A. Haldeman

Andrew H. Reeder to John A. Haldeman
Creator: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: October 06, 1855
In this letter to John A. Haldeman, Andrew H. Reeder informs Haldeman that he has been told that "a new assessment of $5 per share to pay for a Wyandot float of 640 acres has been laid on the town of Tecumseh."


Andrew J. Mead to John A. Haldeman

Andrew J. Mead to John A. Haldeman
Date: July 12, 1856
In this letter to John A. Haldeman, Andrew J. Mead asks if he knows of a portion of the Wyandotte Float that was available for sale. The Wyandotte Floats were originally set aside for the Wyandotte Tribe. However, the flexible nature of the Floats allowed them to be more easily transferred to white settlers once the U.S. Government decided to remove Native Indians from the newly created territories of Kansas and Nebraska.


Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Company depot, Guthrie, Oklahoma

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Company depot, Guthrie, Oklahoma
Creator: Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway Company
Date: April 14, 1889
This black and white photograph shows the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Company depot at Guthrie, Oklahoma. In front of the depot, U.S. soldiers have gathered to prevent "sooners" from leaving the train to seek land for settlement in the Indian territory.


B.F. Johnson to General James William Denver

B.F. Johnson to General James William Denver
Creator: Johnson, Benjamin F.
Date: January 23, 1858
In this letter to General James W. Denver, B.F. Johnson asks Denver if the New York Indians had made a treaty with the United States Government. Johnson also asks Denver if the land set aside for the New York Indians near Fort Scott, Kansas, was open "for settlement either by Preemption or in any other way." Johnson is writing from Wyandotte City, Kansas Territory.


B.F. Robinson to General James William Denver

B.F. Robinson to General James William Denver
Creator: Robinson, B.F.
Date: March 15, 1858
In this letter to General James W. Denver, Indian Agent B.F. Robinson addresses the subject of the ferry near Lawrence, Kansas. Robinson explains that "the question presents itself whether or not the Delawares under the late treaty with the United States returned the right of the ferry up from their side."


Boomer Camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas

Boomer Camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas
Creator: Mitchell & DeGroff
Date: 1889
This sepia colored photograph shows a "boomer" camp on the banks of the Walnut River in Arkansas City, Kansas. The "boomers" were white settlers who were attempting to settle in the Indian Territory of Oklahoma. Some of the "boomers" would camp near the Kansas and Oklahoma border waiting to enter the territory to claim land that had not been assigned to Indian Tribes. Many of the settlers believed that the unassigned land was in the public domain under the Homestead Act of 1862, despite the fact that the lands were assigned for the settlement of Native Americans.


Boomer Camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas

Boomer Camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas
Date: Between 1886 and 1889
This sepia colored photograph shows a "boomer" camp on the banks of the Walnut River in Arkansas City, Kansas. The "boomers" were white settlers who were attempting to settle in the Indian Territory of Oklahoma, which was the last area of the nation set aside for Native American tribes. Some of the "boomers" would camp near the Kansas and Oklahoma border waiting to enter the territory to claim land that had not been assigned to Indian Tribes. Many of the settlers believed that the unassigned land was in the public domain under the Homestead Act of 1862.


Boomer Camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas

Boomer Camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas
Creator: Mitchell & DeGroff
Date: Between 1886 and 1889
This sepia colored photograph shows a group of "boomers" near the banks of the Walnut River in Arkansas City, Kansas. The "boomers" were white settlers who were attempting to settle in the Indian Territory of Oklahoma. Some of the "boomers" would camp near the Kansas and Oklahoma border waiting to enter the territory to claim land that had not been assigned to Indian tribes. Many of the settlers believed that the unassigned land was in the public domain under the Homestead Act of 1862. The land was some of the last that had been set aside for the settlement of Native American tribes after they had been removed from their ancestral lands.


Boomer Camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas

Boomer Camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas
Creator: Mitchell & DeGroff
Date: Between 1886 and 1889
This sepia colored photograph shows a couple of "boomers" on the banks of the Walnut River in Arkansas City, Kansas. The "boomers" were white settlers who were attempting to settle in the Indian Territory of Oklahoma. Some of the "boomers would camp near the Kansas and Oklahoma border waiting to enter the territory to claim land that had not been assigned to Indian Tribes. Many of the settlers believed that the unassigned land was in the public domain under the Homestead Act of 1862. The land in question was some of the last land in the United States that had been set aside for Native American tribes, many of which had been removed from their ancestral lands.


Boomer camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas

Boomer camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas
Date: Between 1886 and 1889
This black and white photograph shows a "Boomer" camp on the banks of the Walnut River in Arkansas City, Kansas. The "Boomers" were white settlers who were attempting to settle in the Indian Territory of Oklahoma. Some of the "Boomers" would camp near the Kansas Oklahoma border waiting to enter the territory to claim land that had not been assigned to Indian Tribes and was believed to be in the public domain under the Homestead Act of 1862. The land in question was some of the last land set aside for the settlement of Native American tribes who had been removed from their lands in other parts of the U.S.


Boomer camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas

Boomer camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas
Creator: Mitchell & DeGroff
Date: Between 1886 and 1889
This sepia colored photograph shows a "Boomer" camp on the banks of the Walnut River in Arkansas City, Kansas. The "Boomers" were white settlers who were attempting to settle in the Indian Territory of Oklahoma. Some of the "Boomers" would camp near the Kansas Oklahoma border waiting to enter the territory to claim land that had not been assigned to Indian Tribes and was believed to be in the public domain under the Homestead Act of 1862. The land in question was some of the last few sections of lands set aside by the U.S. Government for the Native American tribes who had been removed from their ancestral lands in other parts of the U.S.


Buffalo hides in Dodge City, Kansas

Buffalo hides in Dodge City, Kansas
Date: April 4, 1874
This photograph, taken in Dodge City, Ford County, Kansas, shows a large pile of buffalo hides obtained from hunting expeditions in western Kansas. It is estimated that the pile contains around 40,000 hides. Charles Rath, who purchased the hides, is seated on the pile. The men in the background are operating a hide baling machine. Dodge City was located on the Santa Fe Trail. During the period in which these hides were gathered, American hunters decimated the bison heards in the West, leaving Native American tribes without one of their primary sources for food, clothing, and tools.


Carl "Ado" Hunnius diary

Carl "Ado" Hunnius diary
Creator: Hunnius, Ado, 1842-1923
Date: January 10 - 24, 1876
Carl J. A. "Ado" Hunnius kept this diary while visiting the Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes in Indian Territory. The diary contains detailed information about the trip and sketches (drawn illustrations) of some of the things he saw during the course of his travels. A complete transcription is available by clicking on Text Version below.


Carl Julius Adolph Hunnius diary

Carl Julius Adolph Hunnius diary
Creator: Hunnius, Ado, 1842-1923
Date: March 30, 1867-October 9, 1867
This diary, written by Carl Julius Adolph Hunnius, contains entries from his time serving under Major General Winfield Scott Hancock on his expedition to pacify the plains Indians shortly after the end of the American Civil War. Details include transportation used, types of food eaten, weather, forging activities, medical care, encounters with hostile warriors, and many other details of a soldiers' life during the period.


Charles E. Mix to James William Denver

Charles E. Mix to James William Denver
Creator: Mix, Charles E.
Date: October 07, 1858
In this letter to James William Denver, Bureau of Indian Affairs Commissioner Charles E. Mix addresses the issue of Native American lands in the Kansas Territory. Mix explains to Denver that he would like him to "determine whether those portions of the aforesaid Blocks were designed for the use and benefit of the lotholders in said city [Leavenworth]."


Charles R. Green to George W. Martin

Charles R. Green to George W. Martin
Creator: Green, Charles R.
Date: June 20, 1910
In this letter to George W. Martin, Charles R. Green addresses information related to the Sac and Fox tribe. Green, proprietor of Green's Library and Museum in Olathe, Kansas, explains that he interviewed a missionary named Samuel Black, who once served as a missionary for the Sac and Fox. Green explains that Black assisted in recruiting African American men to fight in Company K, 1st U.S. Colored Troops.


Charles Tucker's residence, Delaware District, Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory

Charles Tucker's residence, Delaware District, Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory
Creator: Cornatzer, Samuel M.
Date: April 10, 1876
This item concerns the legal heirs of the estate of Wah-na-se. In council, the Shawnee leaders decided that the land owned by Wah-na-se would be given to her sole heir, Mary Rodgers. The item is signed by Head Chief Charles Tucker, Assistant Chief Dudley Tucker, and Shawnee "Councillors" James Kyser, Hiram Johnson, and Charles Tucker, Jr.


Crossing the Plains, the journal of Harriett Bidwell Shaw

Crossing the Plains, the journal of Harriett Bidwell Shaw
Creator: Shaw, Harriet Bidwell
Date: 1851
Harriett Bidwell Shaw started a journal in September 18,1851, when she and her husband, Reverend James Milton Shaw traveled in a wagon train via the Santa Fe Trail to New Mexico. Harriett was the only woman to accompany the wagon train. She documented their daily activities, the weather conditions, hardships on the trail, encounters with Indians, and buffalo hunting. When the Shaws passed through Kansas they stayed at Shawnee Baptist Mission, Council Grove, and Pawnee Rock and stopped near Fort Mackey on the Arkansas river. They reached Santa Fe on November 14, 1851, where the journal ends. The Shaws eventually went to Albuquerque and then Socorro to establish Baptist missions among the Spanish people. In sum, Shaws journal presents a remarkable picture of the difficulties and rewards of travel to the American West prior to the American Civil War.


David L. Payne expedition

David L. Payne expedition
Creator: Wickmiller, C.P. & Osburn, W.H.
Date: February 1883
This sepia colored photograph shows a group of settlers know as "boomers" crossing into the Indian Territory of Oklahoma from Kansas. The group lead by David L. Payne were attempting to claim land for settlement that had not been assigned to Indian tribes. Their efforts were not successful when the settlers were arrested by U.S. troops and escorted back to the Kansas border and released. The land that Payne and his party were attempting to settle had been set aside by the U.S. Government for Native American tribes that had already been removed from ancestral lands elsewhere in the nation. Therefore, the U.S. Government helped protect and preserve the lands of the nation's dwindling indigenous population.


David L. Payne expedition

David L. Payne expedition
Creator: Wickmiller, C.P. & Osburn, W.H.
Date: February 1883
This sepia colored photograph shows a group of settlers know as "boomers" who were crossing into the Indian Territory of Oklahoma from Kansas. The group lead by David L. Payne were attempting to claim land for settlement that had not been assigned to Indian tribes. Their efforts were not successful when the settlers were arrested by U.S.troops and escorted back to the Kansas border and released. The land that the "boomers" were attempting to settle had been set aside for Native Americans tribes after they had been removed from ancestral lands elsewhere in the U.S. Therefore, the U.S. Government's actions to prevent the "boomers" from moving onto Native American land helped preserve what little land remained for the nation's indigenous population.


Die Indianer der Vereinigten Staaten

Die Indianer der Vereinigten Staaten
Creator: Hunnius, Ado, 1842-1923
Date: 1870-1900
This item contains an article on the Indians of the United States written by Carl Julius Adolph Hunnius. Known as Ado to his friends and colleagues, Hunnius was a Civil War veteran, Indian Wars veteran, artist, writer, and long time resident of Kansas. The article, printed entirely in German, contains information compiled by Hunnius on the Native American tribes in the United States. Details include the branch of the tribe (Stamm), place of residence (Wohnsitz), county, and the total number of men, women and children (Manner, Weiber, und Kinder) for each tribe. The information provided in the article was taken from the offical reports of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. The article also mentions that there were a total of 100,000 civilized Indians, 135,000 half-civilized Indians, and 81,000 "Wild" Indians.


E.C. Thayer to Dr. J.W. McIntosh correspondence

E.C. Thayer to Dr. J.W. McIntosh correspondence
Creator: Thayer, E.C.
Date: January 18, 1896
In this letter to Dr. J.W. McIntosh, E.C.Thayer discusses the character of James Murie, Pawnee breastworks, and tensions and conflicts betweeen the Pawnees, Omahas, and Sioux.


Ezra A. Hayt to H.C. Linn

Ezra A. Hayt to H.C. Linn
Creator: Hayt, Ezra A.
Date: December 10, 1878
In this item, U.S. Commissioner of Indian Affairs explains to U.S. Indian Agent H.C. Linn that the U.S. Secretary of the Interior has approved the purchase of school and shop supplies on the "open market."


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