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Curriculum - 7th Grade Standards - Kansas History Standards - Prehistory to 1854 (Benchmark 1) - Indian Removal Act (Indicator 4) - Ottawa

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Jotham Meeker to Rev. Crosby

Jotham Meeker to Rev. Crosby
Creator: Meeker, Jotham, 1804-1855
Date: January 10, 1834
In this letter to Rev. Crosby, of the Baptist Board of Foreign Missions, missionary Jotham Meeker expressed his interest in bringing the Christian gospel to the Ottawa Indians. Meeker was currently stationed at the Shawnee Baptist Mission in Indian Territory (today part of northeast Kansas). He was particularly concerned about their opposition to missionaries. Meeker also wrote about the influx of Indian tribes who were embracing agriculture.


Jotham Meeker to Rev. Lucius Bolles

Jotham Meeker to Rev. Lucius Bolles
Creator: Meeker, Jotham, 1804-1855
Date: October 30, 1834
Jotham Meeker, a missionary to the Ottawa Indians, wrote this letter to his contact on the Baptist Board of Foreign Missions, Reverend Lucius Bolles. From this letter, it appears that the Ottawa had become more interested in Christianity. Furthermore, Meeker wanted an assistant to help in printing evangelical materials; this would allow him to devote more time to religious instruction and language education.


Jotham Meeker to Rev. Lucius Bolles

Jotham Meeker to Rev. Lucius Bolles
Creator: Meeker, Jotham, 1804-1855
Date: February 13, 1839
In this letter, Jotham Meeker, a missionary to the Ottawa Indians, provided a description of his work teaching the Ottawa how to read and write in their own language. According to Meeker, the Ottawa were eager for their children to learn English as well. Meeker's mission was located near present-day Ottawa, Kansas. Reverend Lucius Bolles, the recipient of this letter, was Meeker's contact at the Baptist Board of Foreign Missions.


Jotham Meeker to Rev. Lucius Bolles

Jotham Meeker to Rev. Lucius Bolles
Creator: Meeker, Jotham, 1804-1855
Date: July 8, 1840
In this fascinating letter, Jotham Meeker updated Reverend Lucius Bolles (of the Baptist Board of Foreign Missions) on his missionary efforts among the Ottawa Indians in Kansas Territory. Meeker included excerpts from his journal to describe the turmoil among the Ottawa over Indian conversions to Christianity. On March 13, 1840, Meeker and his fellow missionary David Green, attended a council of the Ottawa and Chippewa that had been called to protest their missionary work. The Ottawa and Chippewa chiefs were concerned about the breakdown of their tribal society, customs, etc... and placed the blame squarely on the missionary's shoulders. The Ottawa Mission was located near present-day Ottawa, Kansas.


Jotham Meeker to Rev. Lucius Bolles

Jotham Meeker to Rev. Lucius Bolles
Creator: Meeker, Jotham, 1804-1855
Date: March 11, 1840
This fascinating letter by Baptist missionary Jotham Meeker describes recent Ottawa converts to Christianity and the Ottawa chief Ottowukkee's passionate stand against further missionary efforts. Apparently, just as Ottowukkee was about to drive the missionaries out of the area, he was struck by a sudden illness. According to Meeker, many of the Ottawa believed his sickness was a sign of God's judgment. Also, Meeker discusses David Green, a native convert who has joined Meeker as a missionary at the Ottawa Mission (near present-day Ottawa, Kansas). The recipient of this letter, Reverend Lucius Bolles, was Meeker's contact on the Baptist Board of Foreign Missions.


Jotham Meeker to Rev. Lucius Bolles

Jotham Meeker to Rev. Lucius Bolles
Creator: Meeker, Jotham, 1804-1855
Date: November 29, 1833
In this letter Jotham Meeker, a Baptist missionary to the Shawnee in Indian Territory, discussed the Ottawa Indians who were residing on Shawnee lands. Meeker spoke to several Ottawa chiefs about spreading the Christian gospel, and he hoped that he could work among them as a missionary. Also, Meeker discussed how the Ottawa may be forced to move once other tribes take possession of land in Indian Territory. He also mentioned the Methodist mission established among the Potawatomi. Reverend Lucius Bolles, the recipient of this letter, was Meeker's contact at the Baptist Board of Foreign Missions.


Map of Indian lands in Kansas

Map of Indian lands in Kansas
Creator: McCoy, Isaac, 1784-1846
Date: 1830-1836
This map represents all the surveys of Indian lands completed by missionary Isaac McCoy between the years 1830 and 1836. McCoy, a missionary to the Ottawa and Pottawatomie tribes in Michigan, was convinced that Indians should be moved to new lands west of the Mississippi River. He took some Indian delegates on exploring missions in addition to his work as surveyor, missionary, and teacher. The map was redrawn by H. J. Adams.


No-tin-no to D. D. Mitchell

No-tin-no to D. D. Mitchell
Creator: No-tin-no
Date: October 4, 1843
No-tin-no, a leader of the Ottawa nation, wrote this letter to the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, D. D. Mitchell, concerning a shipment of farming implements that the government had promised to the tribe. The Ottawa were frustrated by the delay, and No-tin-no stated that if he did not hear back from Mitchell, he would write to the President of the United States himself. The letter was dictated to Jotham Meeker, a missionary and printer at the Ottawa Baptist Mission near present-day Ottawa, Kansas.


Ottawa Indian Mission balance sheet

Ottawa Indian Mission balance sheet
Creator: Meeker, Jotham, 1804-1855
Date: January 11, 1843
This balance sheet, prepared by Baptist missionary Jotham Meeker, outlines the income and expenses of the Ottawa mission during 1842. This mission was located near present-day Ottawa, Kansas. It includes information on expenditures for translations into native languages, native education, interpreters, and the printing office. These funds benefited the Ottawa, Potawatomi, Delaware, and Shawnee Indians residing in Indian Territory.


Ottawa Indians to President John Quincy Adams

Ottawa Indians to President John Quincy Adams
Creator: Ottawa Indians
Date: February 17, 1829
This letter to President John Quincy Adams was written by seven Ottawa Indians, including two who had completed a surveying trip with missionary Isaac McCoy. These Ottawas, who had been offered lands west of the Mississippi, appeared to be pleased with the new lands in Indian Territory and wished to move there alongside McCoy and another missionary named Johnston Lykins. The letter was written from Fort Wayne, Indiana, but these Ottawas had originally resided in Michigan. The seven Indians who dictated this letter signed their mark to the bottom of the document.


Tahlequah Compact and note signed by Ottawa chiefs

Tahlequah Compact and note signed by Ottawa chiefs
Creator: Meeker, Jotham, 1804-1855
Date: 1843
This compact, with an attached note signed by five Ottawa chiefs, was passed in a general council of twenty-one Indian nations held at Tahlequah, Oklahoma. Apparently this compact was a way for emigrant tribes, who were now living in close proximity, to "cultivate just and friendly relations among our several communities." It included eight resolutions regulating the contact between nations; for instance, it condemned the practice of revenge killings and bans alcoholic beverages. The chiefs' closing note explained that the council would reconvene in seventy days to hear if each individual nation had accepted the terms of this compact. The Ottawa chiefs had not yet decided if they would agree to these terms. The compact and note are both in Jotham Meeker's handwriting; Meeker was a Baptist missionary at the Ottawa Mission near present-day Ottawa, Kansas.


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