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Adolph Roenigk and George W. Martin correspondence

Adolph Roenigk and George W. Martin correspondence
Creator: Roenigk, Adolph, 1847-1938
Date: October 10, 1904-January 24, 1908
In this correspondence with George W. Martin of the Kansas State Historical Society, Adolph Roenigk addresses issues related to the Pawnee Indians. In the letter dated October 10, 1904, Roenigk explains that "a Battle between the Potowatomie and the Pawnee Indians was fought here [Lincoln, Kansas] in 1863." According to Roenigk, between 14 and 16 Native Indians were killed during the fighting. Similarly, Roenigk's letter of October 24, 1906, concerns violence between Kansans and Native Indians during the late 1860s when a man named Solomon Humbarger and Solomon's brother were attacked by Native Indians. After killing one of their chiefs Roenigk states that Humbarger was shot in the thigh with an arrow.


Affidavit of John Smith

Affidavit of John Smith
Creator: United States. Congress. Senate
Date: January 15, 1865
This affidavit given by John Smith, an interpreter for the United States military, was presented to the military commission investigating the massacre of Cheyenne Indians at Sand Creek, Colorado, in 1864. Smith's account focuses primary on the events prior to the massacre, including the attitudes of the Cheyenne leaders One Eye and Black Kettle. The affidavit is part of a larger report containing evidence obtained at this hearing, titled Report of the Secretary of War, Communicating, In compliance with a resolution of the Senate of February 4, 1867, a copy of the evidence taken at Denver and Fort Lyon, Colorado Territory, by a military commission, ordered to inquire into the Sand Creek massacre, November, 1864.


Battle of the Washita

Battle of the Washita
Creator: Taylor, James E., 1839-1901
Date: 1969
An illustration portraying General George Armstrong Custer's surprise attack on the Southern Cheyenne camp along the Washita River on November 27, 1868. This illustration was published in the July 1969 issue of Golden West Magazine - True Stories of the Old West, page 30. Funds for digitization provided by Mr. Steve Peckel in memory of William Chalfant.


Colonel John M. Chivington to Major General S. R. Curtis

Colonel John M. Chivington to Major General S. R. Curtis
Creator: United States. Congress. Senate
Date: December 16, 1864
This copy of a letter by Colonel John Chivington, commander of the 1st Colorado Cavalry, was included in the report of a military commission called to investigate the Sand Creek massacre in Colorado Territory. In the letter, Chivington describes his pursuit of "hostile" Indians and his actions at Sand Creek. According to Chivington, he took no prisoners, leaving between five and six hundred Indians "dead upon the field." He also captured around 550 ponies and horses, as well as other Indian property. This letter is included in a larger published report, titled Report of the Secretary of War, Communicating, in compliance with a resolution of the Senate of February 4, 1867, a copy of the evidence taken at Denver and Fort Lyon, Colorado Territory, by a military commission, ordered to inquire into the Sand Creek massacre, November, 1864.


Custer's command shooting down worthless horses

Custer's command shooting down worthless horses
Creator: Davis, Theodore R.
Date: January 16, 1869
An illustration of General George Armstrong Custer's men shooting horses after the Battle of the Washita which occurred on November 27, 1868. This illustration was published in Harper's Weekly on January 16, 1869. Funds for digitization provided by Mr. Steve Peckel in memory of William Chalfant.


Indian slaughter

Indian slaughter
Creator: Manhattan Independent
Date: December 13, 1864
This short article published in the Manhattan Independent discusses the Sand Creek massacre, which took place in Colorado Territory on November 29, 1864. During this massacre the Cheyenne people, led by Black Kettle, were almost completely annihilated. The article also includes a short letter that Colonel John M. Chivington sent to Major General S. G. Curtis detailing the events of the massacre.


Seventh U. S. Cavalry charging into Black Kettle's village at daylight

Seventh U. S. Cavalry charging into Black Kettle's village at daylight
Creator: Harpers Weekly
Date: December 19, 1868
A clipping from the December 19, 1868 issue of Harper's Weekly that portrays General George Armstrong Custer's 7th U. S. Cavalry charging into Black Kettle's Southern Cheyenne Indian village on November 27, 1868. Funds for digitization provided by Mr. Steve Peckel in memory of William Chalfant.


Testimony of Captain Silas S. Soule

Testimony of Captain Silas S. Soule
Creator: United States. Congress. Senate
Date: February 15, 1865-February 21, 1865
This testimony was given by Silas Soule, captain of the 1st Colorado Cavalry, Company D, who was called before the military commission investigating the massacre of Cheyenne Indians at Sand Creek, Colorado, in 1864. Soule gives a detailed description of the attitude and movements of the Cheyenne Indians and the Colorado cavalry forces prior to the conflict, as well as a summary of the actual events that occurred on Sand Creek. Although this commission was not a military trial, the format of taking witness testimony was similar. Colonel John Chivington, commander of the 1st Colorado, was allowed to cross-examine the witnesses called by the commission. The testimony is part of a larger report containing evidence obtained at this hearing, titled Report of the Secretary of War, Communicating, In compliance with a resolution of the Senate of February 4, 1867, a copy of the evidence taken at Denver and Fort Lyon, Colorado Territory, by a military commission, ordered to inquire into the Sand Creek massacre, November, 1864.


Testimony of Henry H. Hewitt

Testimony of Henry H. Hewitt
Creator: United States. Congress. Senate
Date: May 9, 1865
This testimony was given by a second lieutenant in the 3rd Colorado Cavalry, Henry Hewitt, before the military commission investigating the massacre of Cheyenne Indians at Sand Creek, Colorado, in 1864. His testimony focuses on his own role in the military campaign against the Cheyenne, including his seizure of Indian ponies and mules. Hewitt was introduced as a witness on behalf on Colonel Chivington, commander of the 1st Colorado Cavalry, whose actions were under investigation. Although this commission was not a criminal trial, the format of taking witness's testimony was similar?the commission was allowed to cross examine the witnesses called by the Colonel Chivington. The testimony is part of a larger report containing evidence obtained at this hearing, titled Report of the Secretary of War, Communicating, In compliance with a resolution of the Senate of February 4, 1867, a copy of the evidence taken at Denver and Fort Lyon, Colorado Territory, by a military commission, ordered to inquire into the Sand Creek massacre, November, 1864.


Testimony of Major Edward W. Wynkoop

Testimony of Major Edward W. Wynkoop
Creator: United States. Congress. Senate
Date: March 20, 1865-March 24, 1865
This testimony was given by Edward Wynkoop, a major in the 1st Colorado Cavalry, who was called before the military commission investigating the massacre of Cheyenne Indians at Sand Creek, Colorado, in 1864. Wynkoop gives a detailed description of his personal interactions with the Cheyenne, Indian depredations allegedly committed in the area, and the events that occurred along Sand Creek. Although this commission was not a criminal trial, the format of taking witness's testimony was similar?Colonel Chivington, commander of the 1st Colorado, was allowed to cross-examine the witnesses called by the commission. The testimony is part of a larger report containing evidence obtained at this hearing, titled Report of the Secretary of War, Communicating, In compliance with a resolution of the Senate of February 4, 1867, a copy of the evidence taken at Denver and Fort Lyon, Colorado Territory, by a military commission, ordered to inquire into the Sand Creek massacre, November, 1864. This report also includes transcriptions of documents called as evidence.


The Peace Commission. Indian talks

The Peace Commission. Indian talks
Creator: Daily Missouri Democrat (St. Louis)
Date: October 23, 1867
This article, written by a special correspondent for the Daily Missouri Democrat, describes the meeting of U. S. commissioners and Indian chiefs at Medicine Lodge Creek in 1867. The article includes a transcription of the proceedings. Before the council meeting began, Commissioner Taylor distributed gifts to the tribes who were represented, and all the U. S. delegates expressed their desire for peace. Some of the Indian delegates, particularly Chief Black Kettle of the Cheyenne, doubted the intentions of the federal government. The article also states that the commissioners looked into the causes of the war, attributing some blame to the massacre at Sand Creek in 1864.


Showing 1 - 11

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