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Apache Chief Deerfoot

Apache Chief Deerfoot
Date: Between 1950s and 1960s
This black and white photograph shows Chief Deerfoot from the Apache Indian Nation seated on his horse


Apache Doll in Cradleboard

Apache Doll in Cradleboard
Date: Between 1900 and 1968
This Apache doll in its cradleboard was donated first to the Highland Mission (now called the Iowa Sac and Fox Mission) and then to the Kansas Historical Society in 1968. The doll has a face drawn with ink and black yarn for hair. She is tucked into the cradleboard with a white velvet blanket. The cradleboard is covered in finely tanned leather and trimmed in sequins and beads of assorted colors and shapes.


Arrow Points from El Cuartelejo, 14SC1

Arrow Points from El Cuartelejo, 14SC1
Date: 1650-1750 CE
Shown are three of the many side notched arrow points that were recovered from the El Cuartelejo site in Scott County. The site, unique in Kansas, is the location of a seven room pueblo occupied by refugees from the Taos and Picuris pueblos in New Mexico in addition to Dismal River aspect groups (Apache). El Cuartelejo, also called the Scott County Pueblo, has been excavated and studied by many archeologists since 1898. These arrow points were recovered during the 1976 Kansas Archeology Training Program. The notches aided in hafting the point to the arrow shaft.


Awls from the El Cuartelejo Site, 14SC1

Awls from the El Cuartelejo Site, 14SC1
Date: 1650-1750 CE
Shown are three of the many bone awls that were recovered from the El Cuartelejo site in Scott County. The site, unique in Kansas, is the location of a seven room pueblo occupied by refugees from the Taos and Picuris pueblos in New Mexico in addition to Dismal River aspect groups (Apache). El Cuartelejo, also called the Scott County Pueblo, has been excavated and studied by many archeologists since 1898. These awls were recovered during the 1976 Kansas Archeology Training Program. Awls were usually made from deer bone and used as a perforating tool in soft material, like hides, and possibly in basket and pottery manufacturing. The awl on the left was made from a whitetail deer ulna and the awl in the center from a deer metapodial. The awl on the right was made from a rib, which, when the tip broke was never used again.


Biface from El Cuartelejo, 14SC1

Biface from El Cuartelejo, 14SC1
Date: 1650-1750 CE
This biface was recovered from the El Cuartelejo site in Scott County. The site, unique in Kansas, is the location of a seven room pueblo occupied by refugees from the Taos and Picuris pueblos in New Mexico in addition to Dismal River aspect groups (Apache). El Cuartelejo, also called the Scott County Pueblo, has been excavated and studied by many archeologists since 1898. This biface was recovered during the 1976 Kansas Archeology Training Program. A biface, like this one, could have been used as a cutting tool or, with more work, turned into a specific tool.


Black-Hawk, Apache Chief

Black-Hawk, Apache Chief
Creator: Soule, William Stinson, 1836-1908
Date: Between 1868 and 1878
This is a stereograph showing Black-Hawk, an Apache Chief. It is number 166 in a series of stereographs taken by William Stinson Soule. On the reverse, is a stereograph showing George Washington's grave at Mt. Vernon, Virginia.


Bone Ornament from El Cuartelejo, 14SC1

Bone Ornament from El Cuartelejo, 14SC1
Date: 1650-1750 CE
Shown is a bone ornament that was recovered from the El Cuartelejo site in Scott County. The site, unique in Kansas, is the location of a seven room pueblo occupied by refugees from the Taos and Picuris pueblos in New Mexico in addition to Dismal River aspect groups (Apache). El Cuartelejo, also called the Scott County Pueblo, has been excavated and studied by many archeologists since 1898. This artifact was recovered during the 1976 Kansas Archeology Training Program. The bone ornament has cut marks visible on each end. It was made from a medium sized animal.


Bone Ornaments from El Cuartelejo, 14SC1

Bone Ornaments from El Cuartelejo, 14SC1
Date: 1650-1750 CE
Shown are five bone ornaments that were recovered from the El Cuartelejo site in Scott County. The site, unique in Kansas, is the location of a seven room pueblo occupied by refugees from the Taos and Picuris pueblos in New Mexico in addition to Dismal River aspect groups (Apache). El Cuartelejo, also called the Scott County Pueblo, has been excavated and studied by many archeologists since 1898. They were recovered during the 1976 Kansas Archeology Training Program. The bones are from a small animal, such as a rabbit. They may have been used as ornaments or intended to be bead blanks. Some of the ends are scored, as though in preparation for snapping off a bead.


Bone Spatulas from El Cuartelejo, 14SC1

Bone Spatulas from El Cuartelejo, 14SC1
Date: 1650-1750 CE
Shown are three bone spatulas that were recovered from the El Cuartelejo site in Scott County. The site, unique in Kansas, is the location of a seven room pueblo occupied by refugees from the Taos and Picuris pueblos in New Mexico in addition to Dismal River aspect groups (Apache). El Cuartelejo, also called the Scott County Pueblo, has been excavated and studied by many archeologists since 1898. The bone spatulas were recovered during the 1976 Kansas Archeology Training Program. Spatula-like tools were used in basketry or pottery manufacture or even food preparation. The largest shown here was made from a bison rib and is heavily worn.


Carved Pipestone Pipe

Carved Pipestone Pipe
Date: Unknown
This pipestone pipe, possibly Apache in origin, was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1959. The soft pipestone enabled the pipe's maker to carve it into its final shape and incise a deep line 3/4 of the way around the stem end of the pipe. Pipes were used during trade negotiations and to mark special occasions.


Ceramic Pipe Fragment from El Cuartelejo, 14SC1

Ceramic Pipe Fragment from El Cuartelejo, 14SC1
Date: 1650-1750 CE
This ceramic pipe fragment was recovered from the El Cuartelejo site in Scott County. The site, unique in Kansas, is the location of a seven room pueblo occupied by refugees from the Taos and Picuris pueblos in New Mexico in addition to Dismal River aspect groups (Apache). El Cuartelejo, also called the Scott County Pueblo, has been excavated and studied by many archeologists since 1898. The pipe was recovered during the 1976 Kansas Archeology Training Program. The fragment possibly represents a mouthpiece for a pipe or a fragment of a tubular style pipe called a "cloud blower."


Corn Cobs from El Cuartelejo, 14SC1

Corn Cobs from El Cuartelejo, 14SC1
Date: 1650-1750 CE
Shown are a few of the burned corn cob fragments that were recovered from the El Cuartelejo site in Scott County. The site, unique in Kansas, is the location of a seven room pueblo occupied by refugees from the Taos and Picuris pueblos in New Mexico in addition to Dismal River aspect groups (Apache). El Cuartelejo, also called the Scott County Pueblo, has been excavated and studied by many archeologists since 1898. These cobs were recovered during the 1976 Kansas Archeology Training Program. The cobs were identified as examples of both 10- and 16-rowed ears of corn. One cob still has burned kernels in place.


Die Indianer der Vereinigten Staaten

Die Indianer der Vereinigten Staaten
Creator: Hunnius, Ado, 1842-1923
Date: 1870-1900
This item contains an article on the Indians of the United States written by Carl Julius Adolph Hunnius. Known as Ado to his friends and colleagues, Hunnius was a Civil War veteran, Indian Wars veteran, artist, writer, and long time resident of Kansas. The article, printed entirely in German, contains information compiled by Hunnius on the Native American tribes in the United States. Details include the branch of the tribe (Stamm), place of residence (Wohnsitz), county, and the total number of men, women and children (Manner, Weiber, und Kinder) for each tribe. The information provided in the article was taken from the offical reports of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. The article also mentions that there were a total of 100,000 civilized Indians, 135,000 half-civilized Indians, and 81,000 "Wild" Indians.


Drilled Bone Ornament from  El Cuartelejo, 14SC1

Drilled Bone Ornament from El Cuartelejo, 14SC1
Date: 1650-1750 CE
This thin modified bone was recovered from the El Cuartelejo site in Scott County. This artifact, possibly an ornament, was recovered during the 1976 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school. The site, unique in Kansas, is the location of a seven room pueblo occupied by refugees from the Taos and Picuris pueblos in New Mexico in addition to Dismal River aspect groups (Apache). El Cuartelejo, also called the Scott County Pueblo, has been excavated and studied by many archeologists since 1898.


Drills from El Cuartelejo, 14SC1

Drills from El Cuartelejo, 14SC1
Date: 1650-1750 CE
Shown are ten of the drills that were recovered from the El Cuartelejo site in Scott County. These drills were recovered during the 1976 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school. Drills were used to bore holes in softer material than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone. The site, unique in Kansas, is the location of a seven room pueblo occupied by refugees from the Taos and Picuris pueblos in New Mexico in addition to Dismal River aspect groups (Apache). El Cuartelejo, also called the Scott County Pueblo, has been excavated and studied by many archeologists since 1898.


Early Excavations at El Cuartelejo, 14SC1

Early Excavations at El Cuartelejo, 14SC1
Date: 1898-1939
Shown are views of early excavations at El Cuartelejo site in Scott County including a view of the 1898 excavation by Williston and Martin of the University of Kansas, a grinding bin inside the pueblo, and the 1939 Smithsonian Institute camp (right center) during their excavations at the site. The site, unique in Kansas, is the location of a seven room pueblo occupied by refugees from the Taos and Picuris pueblos in New Mexico in addition to Dismal River aspect groups (Apache). El Cuartelejo, also called the Scott County Pueblo, has been excavated and studied by many archeologists since 1898.


El Quartelejo Monument Scott County, Kansas

El Quartelejo Monument Scott County, Kansas
Creator: Walker, Russell W.
Date: February 28, 1948
This black and white photograph shows a view of the El Quartelejo Monument in Scott City, Kansas. This site located north of Scott City, Kansas and along Ladder Creek inside the Lake Scott State Park, is the archeological remains of a Indian pueblo. A group of Taos Indians migrated to the region from New Mexico around 1664 to escape Spanish oppression and to live among the Plains Apache Indians. To honor this historical area, a granite marker was erected in 1925 by the Kansas Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution. In 1964, the ruins were recognized as a National Historic Landmark. The ruins are deteriorating and are considered a "at risk" site.


Face Pipe

Face Pipe
Date: 1886
Notes that accompanied this ceramic pipe at the time of its donation alledged that the pipe was bought from the Apache Chief Geronimo on his way to Fort Sill in 1886. There is no other verification for this narrative. The pipe was donated in 1972 to the Kansas Historical Society. It appears to have never been smoked. The molded clay face has been embellished with black and red paint on the bowl and stem. The base of the bowl has been decorated with a swastika, a symbol that has been used in America and elsewhere since prehistoric times. The date "1886" was likely added at a later time.


Group of five Apaches, in Indian Territory

Group of five Apaches, in Indian Territory
Date: Between 1870 and 1877
This cabinet card from the 1870s has a notation identifying the five subjects as Apache, although one other example of the same image refers to them as Kiowa-Apache. It is believed that the image was made in Indian Territory. The cabinet card was an early donation to the Historical Society, with an accession date of March 29, 1878. It has no photographer's imprint, but the accession information attributes it to William P. Bliss. Bliss was a photographer in the 1860s, 1870s and perhaps 1880s who is known to have worked in Kansas, Indian Territory, and New Mexico. Following his discharge from the Army, Bliss opened a photographic business in Topeka in 1864 or 1865. By 1870, he had moved his family to the Wichita area, where he both farmed and worked as a photographer. From there, he went to Indian Territory, first to the Cheyenne Agency at Darlington in late 1874 or early 1875, and soon thereafter to Fort Sill. By 1878 or 1879, Bliss had moved to Santa Fe, New Mexico. Although Bliss's name is associated with this image in two known instances, one other copy of it identifies the photographer as William S. Soule. Soule is well-known for the photographs he made of Southern Plains Indians in the late 1860s and early 1870s. He arrived at Fort Dodge in 1867, moved briefly to Camp Supply a couple of years later, then relocated to Fort Sill, where he remained until returning to Boston in late 1874 or early 1875. Some photographs originally created by Soule were also marketed under the Bliss imprint.


Incised Pipes from El Cuartelejo, 14SC1

Incised Pipes from El Cuartelejo, 14SC1
Date: 1650-1750 CE
Shown are three of the many ceramic pipe fragments that were recovered from the El Cuartelejo site in Scott County. The pipes have been incised, before the they were fired, with horizontal and vertical incised lines. Two of the pipes retain traces of dottle (tobacco residue) within the bowls. The site, unique in Kansas, is the location of a seven room pueblo occupied by refugees from the Taos and Picuris pueblos in New Mexico in addition to Dismal River aspect groups (Apache). El Cuartelejo, also called the Scott County Pueblo, has been excavated and studied by many archeologists since 1898. These pipe fragments were recovered during the 1976 Kansas Archeology Training Program.


Indian lodge at Medicine Creek, Kansas

Indian lodge at Medicine Creek, Kansas
Creator: Howland, J.
Date: October 1867
This illustration portrays Indian dwellings at Medicine Lodge Creek. In October 1867, the United States government signed peace treaties with the Kiowa, Comanche, Apache, Arapaho, and Cheyenne Indians, removing these tribes to reservations. This illustration was published in Harper's Weekly. Funds for digitization provided by Mr. Steve Peckel in memory of William Chalfant.


Indian Territory, with parts of Neighborning States and Territories

Indian Territory, with parts of Neighborning States and Territories
Creator: Hunnius, Ado, 1842-1923
Date: September 1869
This map drawn by Ado Hunnius at the request of Major General J.M. Schofield was compiled under the direction of 1st Lieutenant Henry Jackson, 7th U.S. Cavalry. The chief engineer was Bvt. Major General A.A. Humphreys. The map illustrates the locations of forts, rivers, Indian tribes and reservations in the Indian Territory (Oklahoma). The neighboring states include: southern Kansas, northern Texas, western Missouri, western Arkansas and the territories of New Mexico, and Colorado


Indian treaties.  Peace agreed upon with the Comanches and Kiowas

Indian treaties. Peace agreed upon with the Comanches and Kiowas
Creator: New York Times Company
Date: October 25, 1867
This brief article published n the New York Times describes the treaty signed by the Comanche and Kiowa tribes at Medicine Lodge Creek, Barber County, Kansas, in 1867. According to the terms of the treaty, these tribes would relocate to Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma) and in return they would receive provisions and annual annuity payments of $2500. The article also mentions that the treaties with other tribes, including the Cheyenne, Apache, and Arapaho, will be concluded shortly.


Medicine Lodge pageant

Medicine Lodge pageant
Creator: Howes, Charles C.
Date: 1961
This is a motion picture film of the Medicine Lodge Indian Peace Treaty Pageant which commemorates the great Peace Council of 1867 between the U.S. Government and the Apache, Arapaho, Cheyenne, Comanche, and Kiowa Indians. The Medicine Lodge Peace Treaty re-enactment is staged in a natural amphitheater, near the actual site of the council where the Medicine River and Elm Creek converge near Medicine Lodge, Barber County, Kansas. The film also discusses early explorers, the extermination of the buffalo, the beginning of the cattle industry, and Carry Nation and the temperance movement.


Obsidian Arrow Points from El Cuartelejo, 14SC1

Obsidian Arrow Points from El Cuartelejo, 14SC1
Date: 1650-1750 CE
Shown are two obsidian arrow points that were recovered from the El Cuartelejo site in Scott County. These arrow points were recovered during the 1976 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school. There is no natural source of obsidian in Scott County, so it was likely traded from a volcanic source such as the Yellowstone region of Wyoming or Taos, New Mexico. El Cuartelejo, also called the Scott County Pueblo, has been excavated and studied by many archeologists since 1898. The site, unique in Kansas, is the location of a seven room pueblo occupied by refugees from the Taos and Picuris pueblos in New Mexico in addition to Dismal River aspect groups (Apache).


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