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Curriculum - 7th Grade Standards - Kansas History Standards - 1860s to 1870s (Benchmark 3) - Fed. Gov. and Indian lands (Indicator 1) - Military presence on the Plains

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Affidavit of John Smith

Affidavit of John Smith
Creator: United States. Congress. Senate
Date: January 15, 1865
This affidavit given by John Smith, an interpreter for the United States military, was presented to the military commission investigating the massacre of Cheyenne Indians at Sand Creek, Colorado, in 1864. Smith's account focuses primary on the events prior to the massacre, including the attitudes of the Cheyenne leaders One Eye and Black Kettle. The affidavit is part of a larger report containing evidence obtained at this hearing, titled Report of the Secretary of War, Communicating, In compliance with a resolution of the Senate of February 4, 1867, a copy of the evidence taken at Denver and Fort Lyon, Colorado Territory, by a military commission, ordered to inquire into the Sand Creek massacre, November, 1864.


A memory of old Fort Harker

A memory of old Fort Harker
Creator: The Club Member
Date: February 1908
This reminiscence by Mrs. Henry Inman, published in The Club Member, describes her experiences as a Kansas pioneer. She moved to Fort Harker in January 1868 after a difficult journey in severe winter weather. She details various aspects of frontier life, including the U.S. military's conflicts with Native Americans and the daily struggle for survival. She also mentions how she met "Mother" Bickerdyke, and that her husband served in the Seventh Cavalry under General George Armstrong Custer.


Burning the Cheyenne village near Fort Larned, Kansas

Burning the Cheyenne village near Fort Larned, Kansas
Creator: Davis, Theodore R.
Date: April 19, 1867
This illustration portrays soldiers under the command of General Winfield S. Hancock burning a Cheyenne village on Pawnee Fork, thirty miles west of Fort Larned. The illustration was drawn by Theodore Davis and published in Harpers Weekly, April 19, 1867.


Captain Lewis Hanback's final report

Captain Lewis Hanback's final report
Creator: Hanback, Lewis
Date: 1875
This document is Captain Lewis Hanback's final report of an 1875 investigation into a conflict between Captain Ricker's company of state militia and a band of Osage Indians that occurred in 1874. The Osage Indians had filed a complaint with the Department of the Interior, claiming that the U. S. military had attacked a peaceful Indian encampment and stolen their horses and other property. Captain Lewis Hanback was ordered to take down testimonies and determine the circumstances surrounding the conflict. This final report summarizes these testimonies and includes a short history of Barbour County where the altercation took place.


Colonel John M. Chivington to Major General S. R. Curtis

Colonel John M. Chivington to Major General S. R. Curtis
Creator: United States. Congress. Senate
Date: December 16, 1864
This copy of a letter by Colonel John Chivington, commander of the 1st Colorado Cavalry, was included in the report of a military commission called to investigate the Sand Creek massacre in Colorado Territory. In the letter, Chivington describes his pursuit of "hostile" Indians and his actions at Sand Creek. According to Chivington, he took no prisoners, leaving between five and six hundred Indians "dead upon the field." He also captured around 550 ponies and horses, as well as other Indian property. This letter is included in a larger published report, titled Report of the Secretary of War, Communicating, in compliance with a resolution of the Senate of February 4, 1867, a copy of the evidence taken at Denver and Fort Lyon, Colorado Territory, by a military commission, ordered to inquire into the Sand Creek massacre, November, 1864.


"From the Plains," New York Times

"From the Plains," New York Times
Creator: New York Times Company
Date: October 19, 1867
This brief article concerns the impending treaty negotiations between various Indian tribes and the U. S. government, which would eventually be signed at Medicine Lodge Creek, Barber County. The article mentions that, in case no peace treaties are signed, the military will protect settlers by stationing more soldiers on the plains and by hastening the completion of more railroads. These railroads would ensure that game animals, essential to the livelihood of the Indian tribes, would be wiped out.


History of the 19th Kansas Cavalry--Indian War of 1868-69

History of the 19th Kansas Cavalry--Indian War of 1868-69
Creator: Jenness, George B.
Date: 1869
This history of the 19th Kansas, written by the commander of Company F, George B. Jenness, is mainly composed of extracts from his diary. It includes details about where each company was raised, the names of the officers, organization and implementation of orders, the rigors of army life, and troop movements. Jenness' history also includes information about Samuel J. Crawford, the governor of Kansas, who resigned his position to assume command of the regiment on November 5, 1868. The document contains a copy of a letter from General Philip H. Sheridan to Governor Crawford about the need for calling up troops. Information on Native Americans, including interactions between troops and Native Americans, is also contained within this item. Jenness mentions captive chief including Satanta.


Indian slaughter

Indian slaughter
Creator: Manhattan Independent
Date: December 13, 1864
This short article published in the Manhattan Independent discusses the Sand Creek massacre, which took place in Colorado Territory on November 29, 1864. During this massacre the Cheyenne people, led by Black Kettle, were almost completely annihilated. The article also includes a short letter that Colonel John M. Chivington sent to Major General S. G. Curtis detailing the events of the massacre.


John Evans to Major S. G. Colley

John Evans to Major S. G. Colley
Creator: Evans, John
Date: September 29, 1864
John Evans, the governor of Colorado Territory and former Superintendent of Indian Affairs, wrote this letter to S. G. Colley, an Indian agent. Evans discusses how he has not made a treaty with the Cheyenne or Arapaho Indians because he does not want to impede the military operations against hostile tribes, arguing that the Arapaho and Cheyenne should make peace with the military, and not with Indian agents. Copied from The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies.


Map of Kansas, with parts of neighboring states and territories

Map of Kansas, with parts of neighboring states and territories
Creator: Hunnius, Ado, 1842-1923
Date: 1870
This map was drawn by Ado Hunnius at the request of Major General J. M. Schofield. It was compiled under the direction of 1st Lieutenant Henry Jackson of the 7th U.S. Cavalry in March 1870. It includes the location of forts in Kansas, southern Nebraska, eastern Colorado, and northern portions of Indian Territory (Oklahoma), as well as noting natural features (rivers, hills, etc.), trails, and Indian reservations.


Medical history of the 19th Regiment, Kansas Cavalry Volunteers

Medical history of the 19th Regiment, Kansas Cavalry Volunteers
Creator: Bailey, Mahlon
Date: 1869
Mahlon Bailey, the regimental surgeon, recorded this medical history of the 19th Kansas Cavalry. This history includes information on the hasty physicals given to new recruits, wounds received in battle, and other medical problems encountered on the trail, as well as general information about the day-to-day activities of the soldiers. Located at the end of the report is a chart detailing the medical problems of the regiment, including the number of cases of dysentery, gonorrhea, pneumonia, ulcers, burns, and sprains (among many others). At the end of these charts, Bailey expresses his appreciation to the commanders of the regiment, thanking them for following his medical advice and showing concern for the health of their soldiers.


Memorandum of trip from Topeka, Kansas, to the Indian Country

Memorandum of trip from Topeka, Kansas, to the Indian Country
Creator: Johnson, Gustaf, 1826-1886
Date: 1868
These excerpts from Gus Johnson's journal record his experiences as a member of the 19th Kansas Cavalry, Company G. The entries are dated from November 12, 1868 to November 26, 1868. Johnson records the movements and activities of his company in addition to the local wildlife (particularly bison), the weather, and the landscape. Johnson's company also had some skirmishes with Indians.


Philip H. Sheridan to Samuel J. Crawford

Philip H. Sheridan to Samuel J. Crawford
Creator: Sheridan, Philip Henry, 1831-1888
Date: September 26, 1868
This confidential letter was written by General Philip Henry Sheridan, a Civil War veteran who led a series of campaigns against Native Americans on the western frontier. In this letter he informs Kansas governor Samuel Crawford of the locations and positions of military units on the frontier. Sheridan also expresses his desire to destroy the Indians' villages and horses and bring these tribes into submission. Sheridan was well-known for his ruthless pursuit of Native Americans and lack of concern for the welfare of non-combatants.


Philip Henry Sheridan to Governor Samuel Johnson Crawford

Philip Henry Sheridan to Governor Samuel Johnson Crawford
Creator: Sheridan, Philip Henry, 1831-1888
Date: October 8, 1868
General Philip Henry Sheridan, a veteran of the Civil War, wrote this telegram to the Governor of Kansas to inform him of the current state of affairs in western Kansas. General William B. Hazen had informed Sheridan that their efforts to secure peace with the Kiowa and Comanche tribes was unsuccessful, and that Crawford should muster a cavalry regiment to assist in the military's efforts to place these tribes on reservations. This regiment was the 19th Kansas Cavalry, consisting of five companies.


Proclamation Activating the 19th Kansas Volunteer Regiment

Proclamation Activating the 19th Kansas Volunteer Regiment
Creator: Crawford, S. J. (Samuel Johnson), 1835-1913
Date: September 14, 1868
This proclamation, signed by Governor Samuel J. Crawford in 1868, activated the 19th Kansas Volunteer Regiment. This regiment was created specifically to fight in any impending conflicts between native tribes and the U.S. government. According to this proclamation, the 19th Kansas would be composed of five companies of cavalry (80 to 100 each) serving for a period of three months.


S. R. Curtis to John M. Chivington

S. R. Curtis to John M. Chivington
Creator: Curtis, Samuel Ryan, 1805-1866
Date: September 28, 1864
Major General Samuel R. Curtis, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, addressed this letter to Colonel John M. Chivington, ordering him to round up the "bad Indians" and to secure hostages. He is opposed to peace and wishes to "chastise" the natives. Copied from The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies.


T. Moonlight to S. F. Tappan

T. Moonlight to S. F. Tappan
Creator: United States. Congress. Senate
Date: February 12, 1865
This letter, written by T. Moonlight, Colonel of the 11th Kansas Cavalry, states that the purpose of this military investigation, among other things, was to ascertain if Colonel John Chivington, commander of the 1st Colorado Cavalry, had followed the "recognized rules of civilized warfare." These hearings, which were not a formal military trial, were held in Denver beginning on February 9, 1865. The massacre of Cheyenne Indians at Sand Creek, Colorado Territory, had occurred in November 1864. The letter is part of a larger report containing evidence obtained at this hearing, titled Report of the Secretary of War, Communicating, In compliance with a resolution of the Senate of February 4, 1867, a copy of the evidence taken at Denver and Fort Lyon, Colorado Territory, by a military commission, ordered to inquire into the Sand Creek massacre, November, 1864.


Territory of Kansas and Indian Territory

Territory of Kansas and Indian Territory
Creator: Johnston, Alexander Keith, 1804-1871
Date: 1857
This map, drawn by Henry Rogers and Alexander Keith Johnston in 1857, details Kansas Territory and Indian Territory. Kansas Territory included portions of what would become eastern Colorado. Indian Territory later became Oklahoma. The map traces the route of the Santa Fe Trail, proposed routes for the Pacific Railway, and identifies military forts. The maps also provides information on geographical features.


Testimony of Captain Silas S. Soule

Testimony of Captain Silas S. Soule
Creator: United States. Congress. Senate
Date: February 15, 1865-February 21, 1865
This testimony was given by Silas Soule, captain of the 1st Colorado Cavalry, Company D, who was called before the military commission investigating the massacre of Cheyenne Indians at Sand Creek, Colorado, in 1864. Soule gives a detailed description of the attitude and movements of the Cheyenne Indians and the Colorado cavalry forces prior to the conflict, as well as a summary of the actual events that occurred on Sand Creek. Although this commission was not a military trial, the format of taking witness testimony was similar. Colonel John Chivington, commander of the 1st Colorado, was allowed to cross-examine the witnesses called by the commission. The testimony is part of a larger report containing evidence obtained at this hearing, titled Report of the Secretary of War, Communicating, In compliance with a resolution of the Senate of February 4, 1867, a copy of the evidence taken at Denver and Fort Lyon, Colorado Territory, by a military commission, ordered to inquire into the Sand Creek massacre, November, 1864.


Testimony of Henry H. Hewitt

Testimony of Henry H. Hewitt
Creator: United States. Congress. Senate
Date: May 9, 1865
This testimony was given by a second lieutenant in the 3rd Colorado Cavalry, Henry Hewitt, before the military commission investigating the massacre of Cheyenne Indians at Sand Creek, Colorado, in 1864. His testimony focuses on his own role in the military campaign against the Cheyenne, including his seizure of Indian ponies and mules. Hewitt was introduced as a witness on behalf on Colonel Chivington, commander of the 1st Colorado Cavalry, whose actions were under investigation. Although this commission was not a criminal trial, the format of taking witness's testimony was similar?the commission was allowed to cross examine the witnesses called by the Colonel Chivington. The testimony is part of a larger report containing evidence obtained at this hearing, titled Report of the Secretary of War, Communicating, In compliance with a resolution of the Senate of February 4, 1867, a copy of the evidence taken at Denver and Fort Lyon, Colorado Territory, by a military commission, ordered to inquire into the Sand Creek massacre, November, 1864.


Testimony of Lieutenant James D. Cannon

Testimony of Lieutenant James D. Cannon
Creator: United States. Congress. Senate
Date: March 27, 1865-March 29, 1865
This testimony was given by James Cannon, a lieutenant in the New Mexico Volunteers, who was called before the military commission investigating the massacre of Cheyenne Indians at Sand Creek, Colorado, in 1864. This excerpt focuses primary on the events that occurred along Sand Creek. Although this commission was not a criminal trial, the format of taking witness's testimony was similar?Colonel Chivington, commander of the 1st Colorado, was allowed to cross-examine the witnesses called by the commission. The testimony is part of a larger report containing evidence obtained at this hearing, titled Report of the Secretary of War, Communicating, In compliance with a resolution of the Senate of February 4, 1867, a copy of the evidence taken at Denver and Fort Lyon, Colorado Territory, by a military commission, ordered to inquire into the Sand Creek massacre, November, 1864.


Testimony of Major Edward W. Wynkoop

Testimony of Major Edward W. Wynkoop
Creator: United States. Congress. Senate
Date: March 20, 1865-March 24, 1865
This testimony was given by Edward Wynkoop, a major in the 1st Colorado Cavalry, who was called before the military commission investigating the massacre of Cheyenne Indians at Sand Creek, Colorado, in 1864. Wynkoop gives a detailed description of his personal interactions with the Cheyenne, Indian depredations allegedly committed in the area, and the events that occurred along Sand Creek. Although this commission was not a criminal trial, the format of taking witness's testimony was similar?Colonel Chivington, commander of the 1st Colorado, was allowed to cross-examine the witnesses called by the commission. The testimony is part of a larger report containing evidence obtained at this hearing, titled Report of the Secretary of War, Communicating, In compliance with a resolution of the Senate of February 4, 1867, a copy of the evidence taken at Denver and Fort Lyon, Colorado Territory, by a military commission, ordered to inquire into the Sand Creek massacre, November, 1864. This report also includes transcriptions of documents called as evidence.


Testimony of Samuel Ashcraft

Testimony of Samuel Ashcraft
Creator: United States. Congress. Senate
Date: May 6, 1865
This testimony, given by an Indian trader named Samuel Ashcraft, was taken before the military commission investigating the massacre of Cheyenne Indians, at Sand Creek, Colorado Territory, in November 1864. His testimony focuses on the Cheyenne's attitude toward ending their war with the U.S. military, not on the specific events of the massacre. Ashcraft was introduced as a witness on behalf of Colonel John Chivington, commander of the 1st Colorado Cavalry, whose actions were under investigation. Although this commission was not a criminal trial, the format of taking witness testimony was similar--the commission was allowed to cross-examine the witnesses called by Colonel Chivington. The testimony is part of a larger report containing evidence obtained at this hearing, titled Report of the Secretary of War, Communicating, In compliance with a resolution of the Senate of February 4, 1867, a copy of the evidence taken at Denver and Fort Lyon, Colorado Territory, by a military commission, ordered to inquire into the Sand Creek massacre, November, 1864.


"The Latest Indian Feat," Topeka Tribune

"The Latest Indian Feat," Topeka Tribune
Creator: Topeka Tribune
Date: August 16, 1867
This article is a reprint of an editorial from the St. Louis Democrat that expresses concern over the military's inability to protect travel routes through Kansas. To resolve this problem, the editorial's author (who is unnamed) proposes that mounted troops are needed to pursue the Indians and force them onto reservations. Furthermore, he argues that giving presents, making annuity payments, and signing treaties with the Indians has broken down the U. S. government's authority over these tribes.


The Peace Commission. Indian talks

The Peace Commission. Indian talks
Creator: Daily Missouri Democrat (St. Louis)
Date: October 23, 1867
This article, written by a special correspondent for the Daily Missouri Democrat, describes the meeting of U. S. commissioners and Indian chiefs at Medicine Lodge Creek in 1867. The article includes a transcription of the proceedings. Before the council meeting began, Commissioner Taylor distributed gifts to the tribes who were represented, and all the U. S. delegates expressed their desire for peace. Some of the Indian delegates, particularly Chief Black Kettle of the Cheyenne, doubted the intentions of the federal government. The article also states that the commissioners looked into the causes of the war, attributing some blame to the massacre at Sand Creek in 1864.


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