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Curriculum - 7th Grade Standards - Kansas History Standards - 1860s to 1870s (Benchmark 3) - Fed. Gov. and Indian lands (Indicator 1) - Indian reservations

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Cheyenne prisoners in Dodge City

Cheyenne prisoners in Dodge City
Date: April 30, 1879
This stereograph shows a group of Cheyenne prisoners seated on the Ford County courthouse steps in Dodge City, Kansas. These men had taken part in "the last Indian raid in Kansas," when around 350 Cheyenne, led by Dull Knife, had killed around 40 white settlers in western Kansas. These Indians were fleeing from their reservation in Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma) and heading toward their former lands in the northern Great Plains (Kansas, Nebraska, etc.). Several of these Cheyenne men were apprehended and put on trial for murder. They were eventually acquitted of all charges. The individuals in the image are identified as follows: 1) Wakabish; 2) Maniton; 3) Old Cow; 4) Left Hand; 5) Wild Hog; 6) Old Man; 7) Muskekan; 8) George Reynolds; and 9) Franklin G. Adams.


Indian treaties.  Peace agreed upon with the Comanches and Kiowas

Indian treaties. Peace agreed upon with the Comanches and Kiowas
Creator: New York Times Company
Date: October 25, 1867
This brief article published n the New York Times describes the treaty signed by the Comanche and Kiowa tribes at Medicine Lodge Creek, Barber County, Kansas, in 1867. According to the terms of the treaty, these tribes would relocate to Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma) and in return they would receive provisions and annual annuity payments of $2500. The article also mentions that the treaties with other tribes, including the Cheyenne, Apache, and Arapaho, will be concluded shortly.


Kansas : early routes, old trails, historic sites, landmarks, etc.

Kansas : early routes, old trails, historic sites, landmarks, etc.
Creator: Root, George A. (George Allen), 1867-1949
Date: 1939 December
This map, created by George Allen Root and later reproduced by the Kansas Turnpike Authority, depicts trails, landmarks, and historic sites in the state of Kansas. The original map was compiled by George Allen Root and delineated by W. M. Hutchinson from information obtained from the Kansas State Historical Society.


Map showing Indian reservations in the United States

Map showing Indian reservations in the United States
Creator: Haskell Institute
Date: 1948
This map, created by Haskell Indian Nations University in Lawrence, Kansas, depicts all Indian reservations within the continental United States. It also includes the names of agencies and non-reservation schools. It was originally part of a brochure for the National Parks Service.


Michael W. Sutton to John Pierce St. John

Michael W. Sutton to John Pierce St. John
Creator: Sutton, Michael W.
Date: January 15, 1879
In this brief letter, Michael Sutton, the county attorney of Ford County, Kansas, wrote to Governor St. John regarding warrants for the arrest of the Cheyenne Indians who had been accused of committing depredations against white settlers in western Kansas. This group of Cheyenne, led by Dull Knife, had fled their reservation in Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma) in order to return to their native homeland in the northern Great Plains. Because they had stolen property and killed around 40 settlers in their journey through Kansas, a number of Kansans, including Sutton, argued that these Cheyenne should be arrested and tried in Kansas courts. Sutton wrote in the letter of his concern for the safety of frontier settlements and his desire to prevent a similar situation from occurring in the future. Six of these Indians, including Wild Hog, Run Fast, Frizzly Head, Young Man, Old Man, and Crow would be charged with murder in June, 1879, and for a time Sutton served as the prosecuting attorney in their case. They would eventually be acquitted of all charges.


Philip Henry Sheridan to Governor Samuel Johnson Crawford

Philip Henry Sheridan to Governor Samuel Johnson Crawford
Creator: Sheridan, Philip Henry, 1831-1888
Date: October 8, 1868
General Philip Henry Sheridan, a veteran of the Civil War, wrote this telegram to the Governor of Kansas to inform him of the current state of affairs in western Kansas. General William B. Hazen had informed Sheridan that their efforts to secure peace with the Kiowa and Comanche tribes was unsuccessful, and that Crawford should muster a cavalry regiment to assist in the military's efforts to place these tribes on reservations. This regiment was the 19th Kansas Cavalry, consisting of five companies.


Pictures drawn by Wild Hog and other Cheyenne Indians

Pictures drawn by Wild Hog and other Cheyenne Indians
Creator: Wild Hog, Cheyenne chief
Date: About May 1879
This small notebook contains drawings by Northern Cheyenne Indians who were confined in jail in Dodge City (Ford County) in 1879. The State of Kansas was trying the six Indians (Wild Hog, Run Fast, Frizzly Head, Young Man, Old Man, and Crow) for murders committed the previous year. In September 1878, chiefs Dull Knife and Little Wolf left Indian Territory with some 300 Cheyenne bound for their homeland north of Kansas. Atrocities committed during the band's trek through the state prompted a severe response from authorities, culminating in a standoff in Nebraska. The so-called "Dull Knife Raid" of 1878 proved the last major conflict between whites and Indians in Kansas. These drawings are often called ledger art. Dora A. Clayton of Denver, Colorado, donated this notebook to the Kansas Historical Society in 1939. Her husband, James Clayton, was clerk of the Indian Claims Commission created by the Kansas legislature in 1879 to investigate the losses resulting from the 1878 raid. The drawings appear upside down in the original beginning with pages 28-29 to the end. We rotated the images of these pages 180 degrees to make viewing easier.


The captive Cheyennes

The captive Cheyennes
Creator: Lawrence Standard
Date: October 9, 1879
This article provides a first-hand account of Cheyenne history in the words of Wild Hog, a Cheyenne who along with about 350 other members of his tribe fled his reservation in Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma) hoping to return to his native lands in the northern Great Plains. While crossing western Kansas, Wild Hog and other Cheyenne warriors killed about forty white settlers. This event was known as the last Indian raid in Kansas. Wild Hog and five other prisoners, including Young Man, Old Man, Run Fast, Frizzly Head, and Crow, were charged with first-degree murder but were eventually acquitted of all charges.


"The Latest Indian Feat," Topeka Tribune

"The Latest Indian Feat," Topeka Tribune
Creator: Topeka Tribune
Date: August 16, 1867
This article is a reprint of an editorial from the St. Louis Democrat that expresses concern over the military's inability to protect travel routes through Kansas. To resolve this problem, the editorial's author (who is unnamed) proposes that mounted troops are needed to pursue the Indians and force them onto reservations. Furthermore, he argues that giving presents, making annuity payments, and signing treaties with the Indians has broken down the U. S. government's authority over these tribes.


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