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Curriculum - 7th Grade Standards - Kansas History Standards - Prehistory to 1854 (Benchmark 1) - Indian Removal Act (Indicator 4) - Reasons for removal

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Ottawa Indians to President John Quincy Adams

Ottawa Indians to President John Quincy Adams
Creator: Ottawa Indians
Date: February 17, 1829
This letter to President John Quincy Adams was written by seven Ottawa Indians, including two who had completed a surveying trip with missionary Isaac McCoy. These Ottawas, who had been offered lands west of the Mississippi, appeared to be pleased with the new lands in Indian Territory and wished to move there alongside McCoy and another missionary named Johnston Lykins. The letter was written from Fort Wayne, Indiana, but these Ottawas had originally resided in Michigan. The seven Indians who dictated this letter signed their mark to the bottom of the document.


Richard W. Cummins to William Clark

Richard W. Cummins to William Clark
Creator: Cummins, Richard W.
Date: January 9, 1832
Richard Cummins, an agent to the Shawnee Indians, wrote this letter to the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, William Clark. Cummins informed Clark that the Kickapoo Indians, under the leadership of Chief Patsachehoy, were prepared to move from Missouri to Indian Territory (present-day Kansas). The Kickapoo had given several reasons for why they supported removal, including the fact that white settlers were encroaching on Kickapoo Territory and selling the Indians large quantities of whiskey.


Statement of Lands Purchased from Indian Tribes

Statement of Lands Purchased from Indian Tribes
Creator: United States. Congress. House
Date: 1838-1839
This chart outlining Indian land cessions is composed of three columns containing the year of cession, acres acquired, and the amounts to be paid for these lands. According to the bottom of the chart, the total acres acquired by the United States totaled 419,429,446 and the total cost was $81,672,824.81. The chart covers the period between 1795 and 1838. It was published in the U.S. serial set as part of series 347, document 147, titled "Indians Removed to West Mississippi from 1789."


William Clark to John H. Eaton

William Clark to John H. Eaton
Creator: Clark, William, 1770-1838
Date: May 20, 1829
This letter contains a copy of a petition from Illinois settlers who were displeased that the Sac and Fox tribes, who ceded their lands in 1804 and 1816, had not moved to their new lands west of the Mississippi River. The settlers admitted that most of the Fox tribe and some of the Sacs had indeed relocated to Indian Territory (present-day Kansas), but a large group at Rock River (led by the warrior Black Hawk) refused to leave. These white settlers feared that tension between these natives and their white neighbors would lead to conflict, and that the government should force this group at Rock River to move west with the rest of their tribe.


William Clark to John H. Eaton

William Clark to John H. Eaton
Creator: Clark, William, 1770-1838
Date: February 22, 1830
In this letter, Superintendent of Indian Affairs William Clark wrote to John Eaton, Secretary of War, concerning the removal of the Delaware and Kickapoo tribes to lands west of the Mississippi River. Both tribes were anxious to settle in Indian Territory (present-day Kansas) and to receive their annuity payments from the government. This letter also describes where the Kickapoo and Delaware would eventually settle in Kansas.


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