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Curriculum - 7th Grade Standards - Kansas History Standards - Prehistory to 1854 (Benchmark 1) - Indian Removal Act (Indicator 4) - Shawnee

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Account of provisions and supplies issued to destitute Shawnees

Account of provisions and supplies issued to destitute Shawnees
Creator: Abbott, James Burnett
Date: 1861
This account book belonging to an Indian agent named James Burnett Abbott lists the names of Shawnee Indian heads of household, the number of family members within their household, and the amount of pork, corn, and meal provided by the government to each Shawnee. The Shawnee had emigrated to Kansas after the Indian Removal Act of 1830. Only an excerpt is included here.


A story of the Shawanoes (Shawnee)

A story of the Shawanoes (Shawnee)
Creator: Rayner, John Allen
Date: 1886
This reminiscence by George Bluejacket, a Shawnee (Shawanoe) Indian originally from Ohio, tells the creation story of the Shawnee people as well as the history of his own tribe. Although his story ends before the Shawnee were relocated to Kansas (then called Indian Territory), it appears that he relocated with the rest of his tribe. The reminiscence was recorded by John Allen Rayner, and the first page of the document is an explanatory letter written by Rayner.


Eastman's map of Kansas and Nebraska territories showing the location of the Indian reserves according to the treaties of 1854

Eastman's map of Kansas and Nebraska territories showing the location of the Indian reserves according to the treaties of 1854
Date: Between 1854 and 1856
This map shows the locations of the new or reduced lands of Indian tribes according to the treaties of 1854. With the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, the former Indian Territory was opened to white settlement, and the government looked for ways to relocate the native tribes who had made their homes in Kansas. To create more land for white settlement, George Manypenny, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, negotiated treaties with Indian tribes that ceded much of the Indians' lands to the government. This land could then be sold to white emigrants. Naturally, these events helped to exacerbate existing tensions between settlers and Native Americans, contributing to the Indian Wars that occupied the U.S. Army during and after the American Civil War.


Johnston Lykins' Shawnee verb conjugations

Johnston Lykins' Shawnee verb conjugations
Creator: Lykins, Johnston, 1800?-1876
Date: 1842
In his journal Johnston Lykins, a missionary to the Shawnee Indians in Kansas Territory, jotted down verb conjugations for the Shawnee alphabet he had developed while working at the Shawnee Mission. The notes include both singular and plural forms of the verb "to strike" in English and in Shawnee.


Johnston Lykins Journal Entries

Johnston Lykins Journal Entries
Creator: Lykins, Johnston, 1800?-1876
Date: February 23, 1842-March 5, 1842
Dr. Johnston Lykins, a Baptist missionary to the Shawnee Indians in Indian Territory (present-day Kansas), edited the Shawnee Sun, a newspaper printed in the Shawnee language. In these journal entries from 1842, Lykins wrote about his efforts to teach Shawnee pupils how to read under this alphabet (the Shawnee language had no written system). Lykins also spent some time traveling to visit and treat the sick.


Johnston Lykins journal entry, July 18, 1831

Johnston Lykins journal entry, July 18, 1831
Creator: Lykins, Johnston, 1800?-1876
Date: July 18, 1831
In his journal, Dr. Johnston Lykins, a Baptist missionary to the Shawnee Indians in northeast Kansas, recorded that many of the Shawnee villages were alarmed about an outbreak of smallpox. Lykins offered his assistance by vaccinating the natives.


Johnston Lykins journal entry, October 27, 1832

Johnston Lykins journal entry, October 27, 1832
Creator: Lykins, Johnston, 1800?-1876
Date: October 27, 1832
According to this journal entry, Johnston Lykins and his fellow missionaries at the Shawnee Mission in Indian Territory (now northeast Kansas) had written to the school board requesting permission to provide meals for the students. Their request was denied, and the missionaries feared that their students would no longer attend classes.


Johnston Lykins journal entry, undated

Johnston Lykins journal entry, undated
Creator: Lykins, Johnston, 1800?-1876
Date: Between 1826 and 1842
In this undated journal entry, Johnston Lykins, a Baptist missionary to the Shawnee of northeast Kansas, gives his perspective on how the U.S. government and Indian agents have treated emigrant Indians in Kansas. He also discusses how many of these Indian tribes are suffering from starvation.


Map of Indian lands in Kansas

Map of Indian lands in Kansas
Creator: McCoy, Isaac, 1784-1846
Date: 1830-1836
This map represents all the surveys of Indian lands completed by missionary Isaac McCoy between the years 1830 and 1836. McCoy, a missionary to the Ottawa and Pottawatomie tribes in Michigan, was convinced that Indians should be moved to new lands west of the Mississippi River. He took some Indian delegates on exploring missions in addition to his work as surveyor, missionary, and teacher. The map was redrawn by H. J. Adams.


Names and numbers of Indian tribes which must have possessions in the Indian Territory

Names and numbers of Indian tribes which must have possessions in the Indian Territory
Creator: McCoy, Isaac, 1784-1846
Date: November 1, 1832
Isaac McCoy, a Baptist missionary and surveyor, compiled this list of Indian tribes and their estimated populations. McCoy advocated Indian removal to western lands because he believed that the white man's influence on natives was corrupting. On this chart he listed about 45 tribes from all over the eastern United States. Only some of these tribes were relocated to Indian Territory (present-day Kansas). "Do" is an abbreviation for "ditto."


Reverend Charles Bluejacket

Reverend Charles Bluejacket
Date: Between 1860 and 1879
Charles Bluejacket, a mixed-blood Shawnee Indian, came to Kansas (then called Indian Territory) in 1832. He was a well-respected man among the Shawnee Indians, and he became an ordained Methodist minister in 1859. He moved to new Indian territory in Oklahoma in 1871. This photograph, which depicts Bluejacket in his late thirties or forties, was most likely taken in the 1860s or 1870s.


Shawnee Sun (Siwinowe Kesibwi)

Shawnee Sun (Siwinowe Kesibwi)
Creator: Lykins, Johnston, 1800?-1876
Date: November 1841
This photo static copy of the Shawnee Sun represents the first newspaper printed in Kansas (then known as Indian Territory). The paper was written in the Shawnee alphabet created by Johnston Lykins, a Baptist missionary to the Shawnee Indians. The newspaper lists John Gill Pratt as publisher. The original paper copy of this issue is held by the LaBudde Special Collections Department, Miller Nichols Library, University of Missouri-Kansas City.


Ten-squat-a-way or Tenskwatawa, the Shawnee Prophet

Ten-squat-a-way or Tenskwatawa, the Shawnee Prophet
Creator: Catlin, George, 1796-1872
Date: 1831
Tenskwatawa, whose name means "open door," was a Shawnee Indian from present-day Ohio who fiercely opposed Indian removal. Tenskwatawa was a revered religious figure among the Shawnee, and he advocated a return to Indian customs and preached that performing certain sacred rituals would make the Shawnee impervious to the white man's bullets. He also denounced drunkenness and the drinking of whiskey. He worked to enlist support for his brother Tecumseh's confederacy that would unite Indian tribes to fight against the U. S. government and drive white settlers out of the Old Northwest (present-day Indiana, Illinois, and Ohio). Tecumseh's uprising failed, and Tenskwatawa and other Shawnees were eventually removed to Indian Territory in present-day Kansas. This portrait by famed artist George Catlin was painted during one of Catlin's visits to Kansas in 1831. The portrait shows Tenskwatawa holding a medicine stick and a sacred string of beans; it also shows where he was accidentally blinded by an arrow. The original painting is housed in the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History.


Vocabulary of the Shawanoes (Shawnee)

Vocabulary of the Shawanoes (Shawnee)
Date: Between 1830 and 1855
This vocabulary of the Shawanoe (Shawnee) Indians includes the English word or numeral followed by a phonetic spelling of the Shawnee translation. The chart includes numbers, common nouns such as "man" and "deer," and simple phrases such as "I am very well." The origin of the vocabulary is unknown, but Jotham Meeker, a Baptist missionary in Indian Territory (present-day Kansas) did devise a written language for the Shawnee, which had previously been only a spoken language. The notation on the top of the manuscript reads "H. Howe 1875, p. 590."


Showing 1 - 14

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