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Curriculum - 7th Grade Standards - Kansas History Standards - Prehistory to 1854 (Benchmark 1) - Indian Removal Act (Indicator 4) - Sac and Fox

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Black Hawk, Sauk Indian

Black Hawk, Sauk Indian
Creator: Catlin, George, 1796-1872
Date: 1832
This portrait, painted by the well-known artist George Catlin, depicts the fierce leader of the Sauk and Fox tribe after his arrest in 1832. Black Hawk and some of his tribe had resisted their removal to lands west of the Mississippi River, but the Black Hawk War, as it came to be known, ended in defeat. The original of this portrait is on exhibit at the National Portrait Gallery, which is part of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.


Chronology of the Iowa and Sac and Fox Indians in Doniphan County, Kansas

Chronology of the Iowa and Sac and Fox Indians in Doniphan County, Kansas
Date: 1882
This chronology details major events occurring between 1837-1855 among the Iowa and Sac and Fox Indians who had been relocated to Kansas after the Indian Removal Act of 1830. Topics mentioned within the chronology include warfare among relocated tribes, the arrival of white emigrants, disease, mission buildings, and treaties ceding land to the United States government.


Eastman's map of Kansas and Nebraska territories showing the location of the Indian reserves according to the treaties of 1854

Eastman's map of Kansas and Nebraska territories showing the location of the Indian reserves according to the treaties of 1854
Date: Between 1854 and 1856
This map shows the locations of the new or reduced lands of Indian tribes according to the treaties of 1854. With the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, the former Indian Territory was opened to white settlement, and the government looked for ways to relocate the native tribes who had made their homes in Kansas. To create more land for white settlement, George Manypenny, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, negotiated treaties with Indian tribes that ceded much of the Indians' lands to the government. This land could then be sold to white emigrants. Naturally, these events helped to exacerbate existing tensions between settlers and Native Americans, contributing to the Indian Wars that occupied the U.S. Army during and after the American Civil War.


Group of four Sac and Fox chiefs

Group of four Sac and Fox chiefs
Date: Between 1860 and 1869
This formal photograph, taken in Washington, D.C. during the 1860s, depicts four Sac and Fox chiefs from Kansas. They are dressed in traditional Sac and Fox clothing. The photographer remains unidentified.


Keokuk, a Sac and Fox Chief

Keokuk, a Sac and Fox Chief
Creator: Catlin, George, 1796-1872
Date: 1844
This illustration of Keokuk, a Sac and Fox chief, was drawn by the famed artist George Catlin. Keokuk is wearing traditional Sac and Fox clothing. It originally appeared in George Catlin's book North American Indians, published in 1844.


Keokuk, or "The Watchful Fox"

Keokuk, or "The Watchful Fox"
Date: Between 1816 and 1854
This photograph depicts Keokuk, or "the Watchful Fox," a chief of the Sac and Fox tribe. The Sac and Fox tribes had moved to Kansas (then called Indian Territory) after they had ceded their lands in Illinois to the U. S. government in 1804 and 1816. The photo is undated.


Map of Indian lands in Kansas

Map of Indian lands in Kansas
Creator: McCoy, Isaac, 1784-1846
Date: 1830-1836
This map represents all the surveys of Indian lands completed by missionary Isaac McCoy between the years 1830 and 1836. McCoy, a missionary to the Ottawa and Pottawatomie tribes in Michigan, was convinced that Indians should be moved to new lands west of the Mississippi River. He took some Indian delegates on exploring missions in addition to his work as surveyor, missionary, and teacher. The map was redrawn by H. J. Adams.


Names and numbers of Indian tribes which must have possessions in the Indian Territory

Names and numbers of Indian tribes which must have possessions in the Indian Territory
Creator: McCoy, Isaac, 1784-1846
Date: November 1, 1832
Isaac McCoy, a Baptist missionary and surveyor, compiled this list of Indian tribes and their estimated populations. McCoy advocated Indian removal to western lands because he believed that the white man's influence on natives was corrupting. On this chart he listed about 45 tribes from all over the eastern United States. Only some of these tribes were relocated to Indian Territory (present-day Kansas). "Do" is an abbreviation for "ditto."


William Clark to John H. Eaton

William Clark to John H. Eaton
Creator: Clark, William, 1770-1838
Date: May 20, 1829
This letter contains a copy of a petition from Illinois settlers who were displeased that the Sac and Fox tribes, who ceded their lands in 1804 and 1816, had not moved to their new lands west of the Mississippi River. The settlers admitted that most of the Fox tribe and some of the Sacs had indeed relocated to Indian Territory (present-day Kansas), but a large group at Rock River (led by the warrior Black Hawk) refused to leave. These white settlers feared that tension between these natives and their white neighbors would lead to conflict, and that the government should force this group at Rock River to move west with the rest of their tribe.


William Clark to Lewis Cass

William Clark to Lewis Cass
Creator: Clark, William, 1770-1838
Date: May 1, 1832
This letter by William Clark, the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, was written to the Secretary of War, Lewis Cass. In it, Clark expresses his concern about the Sac and Fox warrior Black Hawk and his followers, who have refused to move from their lands in Illinois to their new homes in Indian Territory (what is present-day Kansas). Clark fears that these natives will attack nearby white settlements. The tribe had ceded their land east of the Mississippi to the U. S. government in 1804 and 1816. This letter refers to the native resistance toward removal that would later be known as Black Hawk's War.


William Clark to Lewis Cass

William Clark to Lewis Cass
Creator: Clark, William, 1770-1838
Date: April 24, 1832
William Clark, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, wrote this letter to the Secretary of War Lewis Cass, informing him that Indian Agent Felix St. Vrain was en route to the camp of Black Hawk's followers to inform Black Hawk that the Sac and Fox must move to their new lands west of the Mississippi (into present-day Kansas). Black Hawk, a warrior of the Sac and Fox, resisted removal after his tribe ceded their land to the U. S. government in 1804 and 1816. The letter also mentions that the Sac and Fox have turned over to the government the members of their tribe that were accused of murdering some Menominee Indians.


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