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Curriculum - 7th Grade Standards - Kansas History Standards - Prehistory to 1854 (Benchmark 1) - Indian Removal Act (Indicator 4) - Kickapoo

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Bark house, Kickapoo Reservation

Bark house, Kickapoo Reservation
Creator: Parkman, Mary
Date: 1935
This photograph, taken in 1935 as part of the New Deal Federal Indian program, depicts a bark house on the Kickapoo Reservation in northeast Kansas. This was the home of Marie Pewamo, who is presumably the woman standing out front. This style of house had been used since the nineteenth century by both the Kickapoo and Pottawatomi tribes.


Council meeting at Kickapoo Agency

Council meeting at Kickapoo Agency
Creator: Baldwin, Royal
Date: 1857
This is a transcribed copy of a conversation between Keotuck and his fellow Potawatomi leaders and their Indian agent, Royal Baldwin. The Potawatomi and Kickapoo had been living on the same lands, and since they had just planted their crops, the Potawatomi were expressing their desire to remain settled on this land. Apparently the United States government had not given the Potawatomi their full annuity payment and had asked them to move, but Keotuck's band protested because they had paid 8,009 dollars to remain with the Kickapoo. The back of the document includes a transcription of the compact joining the Kickapoo and Potawatomi, written in 1851.


Eastman's map of Kansas and Nebraska territories showing the location of the Indian reserves according to the treaties of 1854

Eastman's map of Kansas and Nebraska territories showing the location of the Indian reserves according to the treaties of 1854
Date: Between 1854 and 1856
This map shows the locations of the new or reduced lands of Indian tribes according to the treaties of 1854. With the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, the former Indian Territory was opened to white settlement, and the government looked for ways to relocate the native tribes who had made their homes in Kansas. To create more land for white settlement, George Manypenny, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, negotiated treaties with Indian tribes that ceded much of the Indians' lands to the government. This land could then be sold to white emigrants. Naturally, these events helped to exacerbate existing tensions between settlers and Native Americans, contributing to the Indian Wars that occupied the U.S. Army during and after the American Civil War.


Kennekuk, "The Kickapoo Prophet"

Kennekuk, "The Kickapoo Prophet"
Date: between 1819 and 1845
This portrait by an unidentified artist depicts the Kickapoo chief Kennekuk, who moved with his tribe to Indian Territory (present-day Kansas) in 1832. The Kickapoo tribe had originally claimed land in Illinois, but they ceded this land to the United States in 1819. In the next year they moved to lands in Missouri, where they stayed for twelve years. The reverse of the print refers to Kennekuk as the "Kickapoo Prophet."


Kickapoo Indian Reserve lands

Kickapoo Indian Reserve lands
Creator: Union Pacific Railroad, Central Branch
Date: 1857
This detailed map of the Kickapoo lands in Kansas shows the location of military roads, railroads, settlements, Indian missions, rivers, wooded areas, and cultivated fields. Kickapoo lands straddled Brown, Jackson, and Atchison counties in Northeast Kansas. The map was compiled by Major C.B. Keith for the Central Branch of the Union Pacific Railroad.


Map of Indian lands in Kansas

Map of Indian lands in Kansas
Creator: McCoy, Isaac, 1784-1846
Date: 1830-1836
This map represents all the surveys of Indian lands completed by missionary Isaac McCoy between the years 1830 and 1836. McCoy, a missionary to the Ottawa and Pottawatomie tribes in Michigan, was convinced that Indians should be moved to new lands west of the Mississippi River. He took some Indian delegates on exploring missions in addition to his work as surveyor, missionary, and teacher. The map was redrawn by H. J. Adams.


Names and numbers of Indian tribes which must have possessions in the Indian Territory

Names and numbers of Indian tribes which must have possessions in the Indian Territory
Creator: McCoy, Isaac, 1784-1846
Date: November 1, 1832
Isaac McCoy, a Baptist missionary and surveyor, compiled this list of Indian tribes and their estimated populations. McCoy advocated Indian removal to western lands because he believed that the white man's influence on natives was corrupting. On this chart he listed about 45 tribes from all over the eastern United States. Only some of these tribes were relocated to Indian Territory (present-day Kansas). "Do" is an abbreviation for "ditto."


Richard W. Cummins to William Clark

Richard W. Cummins to William Clark
Creator: Cummins, Richard W.
Date: January 9, 1832
Richard Cummins, an agent to the Shawnee Indians, wrote this letter to the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, William Clark. Cummins informed Clark that the Kickapoo Indians, under the leadership of Chief Patsachehoy, were prepared to move from Missouri to Indian Territory (present-day Kansas). The Kickapoo had given several reasons for why they supported removal, including the fact that white settlers were encroaching on Kickapoo Territory and selling the Indians large quantities of whiskey.


William Clark to John H. Eaton

William Clark to John H. Eaton
Creator: Clark, William, 1770-1838
Date: February 22, 1830
In this letter, Superintendent of Indian Affairs William Clark wrote to John Eaton, Secretary of War, concerning the removal of the Delaware and Kickapoo tribes to lands west of the Mississippi River. Both tribes were anxious to settle in Indian Territory (present-day Kansas) and to receive their annuity payments from the government. This letter also describes where the Kickapoo and Delaware would eventually settle in Kansas.


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