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Curriculum - 7th Grade Standards - Kansas History Standards - Prehistory to 1854 (Benchmark 1) - Indian Removal Act (Indicator 4) - Delaware

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Delaware Indians to T. Hartley Crawford

Delaware Indians to T. Hartley Crawford
Creator: Delaware Indians
Date: January 6, 1840
This is a copy of a letter that Isaac McCoy sent on behalf of the Delaware Indians. McCoy was a missionary in Indian Territory (present-day Kansas), and Crawford was Commissioner of Indian Affairs. In the letter, the Delaware asked for government patents that would prove their ownership of their new lands in Indian Territory. Apparently, some of their lands had also been claimed by Kansa Indians. The Delaware refer in this letter to a treaty signed on September 24, 1829, and express their desire to be permanently settled in this new territory. However, the Delaware did not enjoy a permanent home in Kansas--treaties in 1854 and 1860 diminished Delaware lands and, in 1867, the Delaware were moved to present-day Oklahoma.


Eastman's map of Kansas and Nebraska territories showing the location of the Indian reserves according to the treaties of 1854

Eastman's map of Kansas and Nebraska territories showing the location of the Indian reserves according to the treaties of 1854
Date: Between 1854 and 1856
This map shows the locations of the new or reduced lands of Indian tribes according to the treaties of 1854. With the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, the former Indian Territory was opened to white settlement, and the government looked for ways to relocate the native tribes who had made their homes in Kansas. To create more land for white settlement, George Manypenny, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, negotiated treaties with Indian tribes that ceded much of the Indians' lands to the government. This land could then be sold to white emigrants. Naturally, these events helped to exacerbate existing tensions between settlers and Native Americans, contributing to the Indian Wars that occupied the U.S. Army during and after the American Civil War.


Indian farm in Delaware Reservation, Kansas. 311 miles west of St. Louis Mo.

Indian farm in Delaware Reservation, Kansas. 311 miles west of St. Louis Mo.
Creator: Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882
Date: 1867
This stereograph was taken by Alexander Gardner in 1867. It depicts an Indian farm located on the Delaware Indian Reservation in Kansas (approximately 311 miles west of St. Louis, Missouri). The Alexander Gardner Collection contains 170 photographs taken along the Union Pacific Railway, Eastern Division. It covers a geographic area stretching from Wyandotte (in present-day Kansas City) to west of Hays, Kansas. The image was taken from Alexander Gardner's series, "Across the Continent on the Union Pacific Railway, Eastern Division."


Lands of the Delaware Indians (Trust Lands) in the Territory of Kansas

Lands of the Delaware Indians (Trust Lands) in the Territory of Kansas
Date: November 17, 1856
This map depicts the lands belonging to the Delaware Indians that were put up for sale in 1856. Attached to the map are three supporting documents. The first is an excerpt from the U.S. treaty with the Delaware Indians, dated 1854, which explains that the Delaware lands, once surveyed, would be sold at public auction. Indian Territory became Kansas Territory after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, and white settlers flooded into the area. The next document is a proclamation by President Franklin Pierce that outlines the terms of sale, dated 1856. The third and final document describes the geography and resources of the Delaware land and gives more details regarding the price.


Map of Indian lands in Kansas

Map of Indian lands in Kansas
Creator: McCoy, Isaac, 1784-1846
Date: 1830-1836
This map represents all the surveys of Indian lands completed by missionary Isaac McCoy between the years 1830 and 1836. McCoy, a missionary to the Ottawa and Pottawatomie tribes in Michigan, was convinced that Indians should be moved to new lands west of the Mississippi River. He took some Indian delegates on exploring missions in addition to his work as surveyor, missionary, and teacher. The map was redrawn by H. J. Adams.


Names and numbers of Indian tribes which must have possessions in the Indian Territory

Names and numbers of Indian tribes which must have possessions in the Indian Territory
Creator: McCoy, Isaac, 1784-1846
Date: November 1, 1832
Isaac McCoy, a Baptist missionary and surveyor, compiled this list of Indian tribes and their estimated populations. McCoy advocated Indian removal to western lands because he believed that the white man's influence on natives was corrupting. On this chart he listed about 45 tribes from all over the eastern United States. Only some of these tribes were relocated to Indian Territory (present-day Kansas). "Do" is an abbreviation for "ditto."


Richard W. Cummins to William Clark

Richard W. Cummins to William Clark
Creator: Cummins, Richard W.
Date: April 2, 1831
This letter, written by Richard Cummins, an agent to the Shawnee Indians, updated Superintendent of Indian Affairs William Clark on the Delaware Indians who had recently relocated in Kansas (then called Indian Territory). The Delaware had moved to Kansas in the late fall and early winter of the previous year and, due to lack of provisions, were in "a suffering condition." Many of their horses had died and so Cummins gave them some provisions to ease their suffering. The Delaware chiefs wanted the provisions guaranteed them by their treaty with the U. S. government, which they had been told was not yet ratified. They argued that it must have been ratified, because after they signed the treaty white settlers immediately took possession of the Delaware lands east of the Mississippi. In addition, Cummins mentions the Wea Indians (one of the New York Indian tribes), who were also suffering after the harsh winter.


Richard W. Cummins to William Clark

Richard W. Cummins to William Clark
Creator: Cummins, Richard W.
Date: December 3, 1830
Richard Cummins, an agent to the Shawnee Indians, wrote this letter to the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, William Clark. According to Cummins, the Delaware Indians who were relocating to Kansas had just passed his agency in Missouri. The leaders of the Delaware tribe had requested provisions from Cummins' agency, but Cummins had not issued any provisions because the treaty between the Delaware and the U. S. government had not been ratified. The Delaware were sorely lacking in provisions and argued that they had been promised these provisions as soon as they reached Indian Territory (present-day Kansas).


William Brindle to Thomas Hendricks

William Brindle to Thomas Hendricks
Creator: Brindle, William
Date: February 13, 1857
In this letter William Brindle, receiver of the Lecompton Land Office, informed his associate Thomas Hendricks that the Delaware Indian lands that had been put up for public sale in 1856 had sold. The Delaware had owned some of the prime timber land in Kansas Territory, and as a result all sections of the Delaware lands were sold to white settlers.


William Clark to John H. Eaton

William Clark to John H. Eaton
Creator: Clark, William, 1770-1838
Date: February 22, 1830
In this letter, Superintendent of Indian Affairs William Clark wrote to John Eaton, Secretary of War, concerning the removal of the Delaware and Kickapoo tribes to lands west of the Mississippi River. Both tribes were anxious to settle in Indian Territory (present-day Kansas) and to receive their annuity payments from the government. This letter also describes where the Kickapoo and Delaware would eventually settle in Kansas.


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