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Account of provisions and supplies issued to destitute Shawnees

Account of provisions and supplies issued to destitute Shawnees
Creator: Abbott, James Burnett
Date: 1861
This account book belonging to an Indian agent named James Burnett Abbott lists the names of Shawnee Indian heads of household, the number of family members within their household, and the amount of pork, corn, and meal provided by the government to each Shawnee. The Shawnee had emigrated to Kansas after the Indian Removal Act of 1830. Only an excerpt is included here.


Band of Kansa men

Band of Kansa men
Creator: Baugh, John
Date: 1873
An informal portrait of a group of Kansa men who were photographed on the steps of an unidentified building after their removal to Indian Territory. The men are identified as: Albert Taylor, William Jones, Tony Butler, Roy Monroe, Elmer Franklin, Forest Chouteau, and Jesse Me-ho-ja.


Black Hawk, Sauk Indian

Black Hawk, Sauk Indian
Creator: Catlin, George, 1796-1872
Date: 1832
This portrait, painted by the well-known artist George Catlin, depicts the fierce leader of the Sauk and Fox tribe after his arrest in 1832. Black Hawk and some of his tribe had resisted their removal to lands west of the Mississippi River, but the Black Hawk War, as it came to be known, ended in defeat. The original of this portrait is on exhibit at the National Portrait Gallery, which is part of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.


Charles T. Sherman to Lewis Allen Alderson

Charles T. Sherman to Lewis Allen Alderson
Creator: Sherman, Charles Taylor, 1811-1879
Date: June 20, 1831
In the letter to Lewis Allen Alderson, Charles Taylor Sherman, the oldest brother of General William Tecumseh Sherman and Senator John "The Ohio Icicle", explains to Alderson that he believed that Native Indians owned the best land in the state of Ohio. However, the Indian Removal Act of 1830 was beginning to change that, as it required most Native Indians to move to the newly created Indian Territory that was located west of the Mississippi.


Chronology of the Iowa and Sac and Fox Indians in Doniphan County, Kansas

Chronology of the Iowa and Sac and Fox Indians in Doniphan County, Kansas
Date: 1882
This chronology details major events occurring between 1837-1855 among the Iowa and Sac and Fox Indians who had been relocated to Kansas after the Indian Removal Act of 1830. Topics mentioned within the chronology include warfare among relocated tribes, the arrival of white emigrants, disease, mission buildings, and treaties ceding land to the United States government.


Colonel A.C. Pepper to Robert Simerwell

Colonel A.C. Pepper to Robert Simerwell
Creator: Pepper, Abel C., 1793-1860
Date: April 11, 1833
In this letter to Robert Simerwell, Indian Agent Colonel A.C. Pepper tells Simerwell that he is preparing to lead a band of Native Indians led by Quea-Quea-Tah, west in the early part of June 1833, and that the Native Indians "express a wish" that Simerwell accompany them on their journey. Pepper also states that Simerwell should talk with the Native Indians in his area to see if they are interested in moving west with the others and, if so, to meet at Logansport, Indiana on June 10, 1833.


Council meeting at Kickapoo Agency

Council meeting at Kickapoo Agency
Creator: Baldwin, Royal
Date: 1857
This is a transcribed copy of a conversation between Keotuck and his fellow Potawatomi leaders and their Indian agent, Royal Baldwin. The Potawatomi and Kickapoo had been living on the same lands, and since they had just planted their crops, the Potawatomi were expressing their desire to remain settled on this land. Apparently the United States government had not given the Potawatomi their full annuity payment and had asked them to move, but Keotuck's band protested because they had paid 8,009 dollars to remain with the Kickapoo. The back of the document includes a transcription of the compact joining the Kickapoo and Potawatomi, written in 1851.


Delaware Indians to T. Hartley Crawford

Delaware Indians to T. Hartley Crawford
Creator: Delaware Indians
Date: January 6, 1840
This is a copy of a letter that Isaac McCoy sent on behalf of the Delaware Indians. McCoy was a missionary in Indian Territory (present-day Kansas), and Crawford was Commissioner of Indian Affairs. In the letter, the Delaware asked for government patents that would prove their ownership of their new lands in Indian Territory. Apparently, some of their lands had also been claimed by Kansa Indians. The Delaware refer in this letter to a treaty signed on September 24, 1829, and express their desire to be permanently settled in this new territory. However, the Delaware did not enjoy a permanent home in Kansas--treaties in 1854 and 1860 diminished Delaware lands and, in 1867, the Delaware were moved to present-day Oklahoma.


Exhibit of cattle and other articles sold by the Cary Mission from April 1829 to September 1, 1830

Exhibit of cattle and other articles sold by the Cary Mission from April 1829 to September 1, 1830
Creator: Simerwell, Robert, 1786-1868
Date: September 1830
This item lists the livestock and items sold by the Carey Mission, Michigan Territory, prior to the closure of the mission in early September of 1830 following the passage of the Indian Removal Act.


G.W. Kelly to Creigh, Arbuckle, and Lewis Allen Alderson

G.W. Kelly to Creigh, Arbuckle, and Lewis Allen Alderson
Creator: Kelly, G.W.
Date: February 23, 1831
In this letter to his friends, G.W. Kelly describes life at the Andover Theological Seminary in Newton, Massachusetts. In addition, Kelly discusses the Indian Removal Bill which was being deliberated by the United States Congress at time, as well as its effect on the students and faculty at Andover Theological Seminary. The letter also addresses turmoil in Europe at the time, including the execution of students in Warsaw, Poland, the Marquis de La Feyette's troubles in France, and the death of Latin American military hero Simon Bolivar.


Indian farm in Delaware Reservation, Kansas. 311 miles west of St. Louis Mo.

Indian farm in Delaware Reservation, Kansas. 311 miles west of St. Louis Mo.
Creator: Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882
Date: 1867
This stereograph was taken by Alexander Gardner in 1867. It depicts an Indian farm located on the Delaware Indian Reservation in Kansas (approximately 311 miles west of St. Louis, Missouri). The Alexander Gardner Collection contains 170 photographs taken along the Union Pacific Railway, Eastern Division. It covers a geographic area stretching from Wyandotte (in present-day Kansas City) to west of Hays, Kansas. The image was taken from Alexander Gardner's series, "Across the Continent on the Union Pacific Railway, Eastern Division."


Isaac McCoy to Robert Simerwell

Isaac McCoy to Robert Simerwell
Creator: McCoy, Isaac, 1784-1846
Date: July 22, 1830
In this letter to Robert Simerwell, Isaac McCoy explains what awaits Simerwell and the Indians at the Carey Mission, Michigan Territory, as well as all Indians that will soon be impacted by the passage of the Indian Removal Act. McCoy states that the Baptist Board of Missions has offered to lead the effort to re-settle the Indians if the U.S. Government is willing to help them do so.


Isaac McCoy to Robert Simerwell

Isaac McCoy to Robert Simerwell
Creator: McCoy, Isaac, 1784-1846
Date: February 19, 1831
In this letter to Robert Simerwell, Isaac McCoy relates the news of his recent travels. McCoy, who had been away from the Carey Mission for some time, explained that he had been busy working to achieve the best for the Indians and the Baptist Board of Missions. However, McCoy candidly admits that his efforts have been "all up-hill work."


Issac McCoy to Robert Simerwell

Issac McCoy to Robert Simerwell
Creator: McCoy, Isaac, 1784-1846
Date: April 12, 1830
In this letter to Robert Simerwell at the Carey Mission, Michigan Territory, Isaac McCoy addresses the "Indian removal question" that eventually resulted in the Indian Removal Act which was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 26, 1830. McCoy states that "I think the measure of removal will carry," and he suggests that Simerwell will have to wait a short time before needed improvements to the Carey Mission can be addressed. In fact, McCoy explains that Simerwell may soon have to relocate depending on what might follow the passage of the Indian Removal Act.


Johnston Lykins

Johnston Lykins
Date: Between 1840 and 1860
Johnston Lykins was a well-known missionary, physician, and translator who worked with the Pottawatomi and Shawnee Indians who had moved to Indian Territory (present-day Kansas) after the passage of the Indian Removal Act in 1830. In 1831, after serving as a missionary to the Indian tribes in Indiana and Michigan, Lykins and his first wife Delilah (McCoy) Lykins moved to Indian Territory. Lykins and his father-in-law, Isaac McCoy, established the Shawnee Indian Baptist Mission in present-day Johnson County, Kansas. In addition to his responsibilities as a physician, Lykins worked as a translator and developed a system of Indian orthography that allowed the Shawnee people to read and write in their native language. He edited and published the first paper printed in Shawnee, called the Sinwiowe Kesibwi (Shawnee Sun). In the spring of 1843, Lykins founded a mission among the Pottawatomi near what is today Topeka. Due, perhaps, to inter-denominational conflicts and other problems with the mission, Lykins left the Pottawatomi mission and moved to Kansas City, Missouri. He served as the second mayor of Kansas City in 1854, and he remained in residence there until his death in 1876.


Johnston Lykins journal entry, undated

Johnston Lykins journal entry, undated
Creator: Lykins, Johnston, 1800?-1876
Date: Between 1826 and 1842
In this undated journal entry, Johnston Lykins, a Baptist missionary to the Shawnee of northeast Kansas, gives his perspective on how the U.S. government and Indian agents have treated emigrant Indians in Kansas. He also discusses how many of these Indian tribes are suffering from starvation.


Johnston Lykins to Robert Simerwell

Johnston Lykins to Robert Simerwell
Creator: Lykins, Johnston, 1800?-1876
Date: December 21, 1830
In this letter to Robert Simerwell, Johnston Lykins relates some of his activities in the late fall and early winter of 1830, most of which concerned the efforts to ready the local Native Indians for the move west of the Mississippi. Lykins states that, while at Logan Fort, he met a Wea from the Kanza River who had "collected 100 Weas & Miamis who will go on in the spring to Missouri." Lykins then explains that he plans to see the Wea soon so that the two of them can make arrangements for the 100 Native Indians that were ready to leave the Michigan Territory for the "West."


Kansas land survey plats

Kansas land survey plats
Creator: U.S. Surveyor General of Kansas and Nebraska
Date: 1855-1861
The U.S. Surveyor General began surveying Kansas after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. Plat maps were created at that time to document the surveys. The plats show public lands within the territory divided by range, township and section. Townships were measured in six mile increments starting from the Kansas-Nebraska border. Ranges were numbered in six mile increments east and west from the Sixth Prime Meridian, which crosses through present day Wichita, Kansas. This system is still the basis for legal land description in the state. The Kansas Historical Society acquired a collection of these original plats previously held by the Kansas Secretary of State. The National Archives and the Bureau of Land Management also hold copies of the plats. The sixteen plats presented here are from the Kansas Historical Society collection but are not included in the National Archives copies. These plats cover portions of Douglas, Jefferson, Johnson, Shawnee and Wyandotte counties. Kansas land surveyors are the most frequent users of these maps. They use them to verify section corners when surveying land. A complete collection of the original plats is available in the Society's Center for Historical Research. The plats are also available on microfilm (AR 137-143). For more information on these plats and the accompanying field notes, click on the Land Survey Maps link below.


Kennekuk, "The Kickapoo Prophet"

Kennekuk, "The Kickapoo Prophet"
Date: between 1819 and 1845
This portrait by an unidentified artist depicts the Kickapoo chief Kennekuk, who moved with his tribe to Indian Territory (present-day Kansas) in 1832. The Kickapoo tribe had originally claimed land in Illinois, but they ceded this land to the United States in 1819. In the next year they moved to lands in Missouri, where they stayed for twelve years. The reverse of the print refers to Kennekuk as the "Kickapoo Prophet."


Keokuk, or "The Watchful Fox"

Keokuk, or "The Watchful Fox"
Date: Between 1816 and 1854
This photograph depicts Keokuk, or "the Watchful Fox," a chief of the Sac and Fox tribe. The Sac and Fox tribes had moved to Kansas (then called Indian Territory) after they had ceded their lands in Illinois to the U. S. government in 1804 and 1816. The photo is undated.


Kickapoo Indian Reserve lands

Kickapoo Indian Reserve lands
Creator: Union Pacific Railroad, Central Branch
Date: 1857
This detailed map of the Kickapoo lands in Kansas shows the location of military roads, railroads, settlements, Indian missions, rivers, wooded areas, and cultivated fields. Kickapoo lands straddled Brown, Jackson, and Atchison counties in Northeast Kansas. The map was compiled by Major C.B. Keith for the Central Branch of the Union Pacific Railroad.


Lucas Bolles to Johnston Lykins and Robert Simerwell

Lucas Bolles to Johnston Lykins and Robert Simerwell
Creator: Bowles, Reverend Lucas
Date: October 1, 1830
In this letter to Johnston Lykins and Robert Simerwell, Reverend Lucas Bolles reports that the Baptist Board of Missions has received the reports sent by both Lykins and Simerwell and, as a result, the Board is completing the closing of the Books & winding up of affairs at Carey Mission, Michigan Territory. Bolles letter indicates that the educational department of the Carey Mission was closed on August 26, 1830, with 15 scholars in attendance at the time it ceased operations. Bolles reports that the U.S. Government has promised that a new school will be opened in the "new Country" west of the Mississippi and that the Native Americans were being moved there following the passage of the Indian Removal Act of 1830.


Map of Indian lands in Kansas

Map of Indian lands in Kansas
Creator: McCoy, Isaac, 1784-1846
Date: 1830-1836
This map represents all the surveys of Indian lands completed by missionary Isaac McCoy between the years 1830 and 1836. McCoy, a missionary to the Ottawa and Pottawatomie tribes in Michigan, was convinced that Indians should be moved to new lands west of the Mississippi River. He took some Indian delegates on exploring missions in addition to his work as surveyor, missionary, and teacher. The map was redrawn by H. J. Adams.


Names and numbers of Indian tribes which must have possessions in the Indian Territory

Names and numbers of Indian tribes which must have possessions in the Indian Territory
Creator: McCoy, Isaac, 1784-1846
Date: November 1, 1832
Isaac McCoy, a Baptist missionary and surveyor, compiled this list of Indian tribes and their estimated populations. McCoy advocated Indian removal to western lands because he believed that the white man's influence on natives was corrupting. On this chart he listed about 45 tribes from all over the eastern United States. Only some of these tribes were relocated to Indian Territory (present-day Kansas). "Do" is an abbreviation for "ditto."


Noble and Simonson to John H. Eaton

Noble and Simonson to John H. Eaton
Date: September 2, 1830
In this letter to U.S. Secretary of War John H. Eaton, Department of War agents Noble and Simonson report on the property held by the Baptist missionaries at Carey Mission, Michigan Territory. The report contains a detailed breakdown of the assets at Carey, including the 11 "hewed log" buildings, mill, and other items.


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