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Curriculum - 7th Grade Standards - Kansas History Standards - 1860s to 1870s (Benchmark 3) - Fed. Gov. and Indian lands (Indicator 1) - Broken promises

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Affidavit of John Smith

Affidavit of John Smith
Creator: United States. Congress. Senate
Date: January 15, 1865
This affidavit given by John Smith, an interpreter for the United States military, was presented to the military commission investigating the massacre of Cheyenne Indians at Sand Creek, Colorado, in 1864. Smith's account focuses primary on the events prior to the massacre, including the attitudes of the Cheyenne leaders One Eye and Black Kettle. The affidavit is part of a larger report containing evidence obtained at this hearing, titled Report of the Secretary of War, Communicating, In compliance with a resolution of the Senate of February 4, 1867, a copy of the evidence taken at Denver and Fort Lyon, Colorado Territory, by a military commission, ordered to inquire into the Sand Creek massacre, November, 1864.


Burning the Cheyenne village near Fort Larned, Kansas

Burning the Cheyenne village near Fort Larned, Kansas
Creator: Davis, Theodore R.
Date: April 19, 1867
This illustration portrays soldiers under the command of General Winfield S. Hancock burning a Cheyenne village on Pawnee Fork, thirty miles west of Fort Larned. The illustration was drawn by Theodore Davis and published in Harpers Weekly, April 19, 1867.


Captain Lewis Hanback's final report

Captain Lewis Hanback's final report
Creator: Hanback, Lewis
Date: 1875
This document is Captain Lewis Hanback's final report of an 1875 investigation into a conflict between Captain Ricker's company of state militia and a band of Osage Indians that occurred in 1874. The Osage Indians had filed a complaint with the Department of the Interior, claiming that the U. S. military had attacked a peaceful Indian encampment and stolen their horses and other property. Captain Lewis Hanback was ordered to take down testimonies and determine the circumstances surrounding the conflict. This final report summarizes these testimonies and includes a short history of Barbour County where the altercation took place.


"From the Plains," New York Times

"From the Plains," New York Times
Creator: New York Times Company
Date: October 19, 1867
This brief article concerns the impending treaty negotiations between various Indian tribes and the U. S. government, which would eventually be signed at Medicine Lodge Creek, Barber County. The article mentions that, in case no peace treaties are signed, the military will protect settlers by stationing more soldiers on the plains and by hastening the completion of more railroads. These railroads would ensure that game animals, essential to the livelihood of the Indian tribes, would be wiped out.


Indian slaughter

Indian slaughter
Creator: Manhattan Independent
Date: December 13, 1864
This short article published in the Manhattan Independent discusses the Sand Creek massacre, which took place in Colorado Territory on November 29, 1864. During this massacre the Cheyenne people, led by Black Kettle, were almost completely annihilated. The article also includes a short letter that Colonel John M. Chivington sent to Major General S. G. Curtis detailing the events of the massacre.


Map of Kansas, with parts of neighboring states and territories

Map of Kansas, with parts of neighboring states and territories
Creator: Hunnius, Ado, 1842-1923
Date: 1870
This map was drawn by Ado Hunnius at the request of Major General J. M. Schofield. It was compiled under the direction of 1st Lieutenant Henry Jackson of the 7th U.S. Cavalry in March 1870. It includes the location of forts in Kansas, southern Nebraska, eastern Colorado, and northern portions of Indian Territory (Oklahoma), as well as noting natural features (rivers, hills, etc.), trails, and Indian reservations.


Philip H. Sheridan to Samuel J. Crawford

Philip H. Sheridan to Samuel J. Crawford
Creator: Sheridan, Philip Henry, 1831-1888
Date: September 26, 1868
This confidential letter was written by General Philip Henry Sheridan, a Civil War veteran who led a series of campaigns against Native Americans on the western frontier. In this letter he informs Kansas governor Samuel Crawford of the locations and positions of military units on the frontier. Sheridan also expresses his desire to destroy the Indians' villages and horses and bring these tribes into submission. Sheridan was well-known for his ruthless pursuit of Native Americans and lack of concern for the welfare of non-combatants.


S. R. Curtis to John M. Chivington

S. R. Curtis to John M. Chivington
Creator: Curtis, Samuel Ryan, 1805-1866
Date: September 28, 1864
Major General Samuel R. Curtis, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, addressed this letter to Colonel John M. Chivington, ordering him to round up the "bad Indians" and to secure hostages. He is opposed to peace and wishes to "chastise" the natives. Copied from The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies.


Territory of Kansas and Indian Territory

Territory of Kansas and Indian Territory
Creator: Johnston, Alexander Keith, 1804-1871
Date: 1857
This map, drawn by Henry Rogers and Alexander Keith Johnston in 1857, details Kansas Territory and Indian Territory. Kansas Territory included portions of what would become eastern Colorado. Indian Territory later became Oklahoma. The map traces the route of the Santa Fe Trail, proposed routes for the Pacific Railway, and identifies military forts. The maps also provides information on geographical features.


The Peace Commission. Indian talks

The Peace Commission. Indian talks
Creator: Daily Missouri Democrat (St. Louis)
Date: October 23, 1867
This article, written by a special correspondent for the Daily Missouri Democrat, describes the meeting of U. S. commissioners and Indian chiefs at Medicine Lodge Creek in 1867. The article includes a transcription of the proceedings. Before the council meeting began, Commissioner Taylor distributed gifts to the tribes who were represented, and all the U. S. delegates expressed their desire for peace. Some of the Indian delegates, particularly Chief Black Kettle of the Cheyenne, doubted the intentions of the federal government. The article also states that the commissioners looked into the causes of the war, attributing some blame to the massacre at Sand Creek in 1864.


Treaty between the U.S. government and Kansa tribe

Treaty between the U.S. government and Kansa tribe
Creator: United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs
Date: December 28, 1845
This treaty allowed the U. S. government to create a road connecting the western portion of Missouri to New Mexico (which was still in the hands of Mexico at this time). The treaty goes into some detail about the specifications for this road. It bears the signature of ten Kansa leaders and three Indian commissioners, included George Sibley. Attached to the back of the treaty is a travel pass for the "bearer of this, a Kansas Indian," allowing him undisturbed passage and requesting that he be provided with any necessary supplies. The document is dated August 16, 1825, but the note on the back is dated 1845.


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