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Anson J. Stone to Thomas W. Higginson

Anson J. Stone to Thomas W. Higginson
Creator: Stone, Anson J.
Date: March 12, 1857
This letter written by Anson Stone, assistant treasurer of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, is sent to inform Reverend Thomas W. Higginson, an agent of the Massachusetts Kansas Aid Committee, of the fares for traveling to Kansas Territory. He includes the prices of tickets for each leg of the journey between Boston and Kansas City, with a total price of $34.00. Stone is writing from the company's office at 3 Winter Street, Boston, Massachusetts.


Caleb S. Pratt to Thomas W. Higginson

Caleb S. Pratt to Thomas W. Higginson
Creator: Pratt, Caleb S
Date: December 1, 1856
This letter was written by Caleb Pratt from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Reverend Thomas W. Higginson in Worcester, Massachusetts. Pratt thanks Higginson for the revolvers that he had furnished for Pratt's artillery company; Pratt truly appreciates "the high minded reflecting men of the north." Pratt also writes of the uneasy peace, stating that the free state population is still prepared to fiercely resist any encroachment on their liberty, although they are at times discouraged and war-weary. He also mentions the election of President Buchanan less than a month before. Pratt informs Higginson of the escape of the free state prisoners from Tecumseh, Kansas Territory, although he is sure that Higginson is already aware of the incident. Apparently, Pratt had hoped to help with their escape, but he was too late to assist. Pratt reports that other prisoners had also escaped from the prison in Lecompton, Kansas Territory.


Caleb S. Pratt to Thomas W. Higginson

Caleb S. Pratt to Thomas W. Higginson
Creator: Pratt, Caleb S
Date: April 7, 1857
Caleb Pratt writes from Delaware, Kansas Territory, to Reverend Thomas W. Higginson, a prominent Northern abolitionist and an agent of the Massachusetts Kansas Aid Committee. He informs Higginson that a company of free state men had bought out a large portion of the predominantly pro-slavery town of Delaware, Kansas Territory. They intend to make it a suitable place for the entry of free state emigrants.


Charles Robinson to T. W. Higginson

Charles Robinson to T. W. Higginson
Creator: Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894
Date: August 27, 1855
This letter, written by free state governor Charles Robinson, was sent to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, a prominent Northern abolitionist. Robinson discusses in general terms the troubles facing Kansas Territory, stating that he believes this struggle was not limited to Kansas, "but I regard it as one in which the whole nation is involved." Robinson also expresses doubts that the North would support the free state settlers in the territory, writing that they can only "hope" for reinforcements, not take them for granted. He asks Higginson to stir up Northerners against the bogus legislature and mentions ex-Governor Reeder and opposition to the bogus legislature.


Dunn to Thomas W. Higginson

Dunn to Thomas W. Higginson
Date: October 23, 1856
In this letter to Reverend Thomas W. Higginson, who was an agent of the Massachusetts Kansas Aid Committee, Mr. Dunn writes from Oskaloosa, Iowa, about his attempts to gather together a company of men as a response to Gov. Gary's [sic] election and the U. S. Army's efforts to arrest many prominent free state men. According to the author, "the U. S. troops by the order of Gary [sic] are taking every free State man they can get hold of." He is eager to hear advice from Higginson about the best way to proceed, and he lays out his plan to amass about 60 men to fight against the border ruffians who have invaded the territory. He hopes that Higginson would support him in this matter by obtaining provisions. Dunn maintains that this plan comes from his sense of duty; it does not arise from a warlike spirit.


Emily Kimball and N. Ayres to Thomas W. Higginson

Emily Kimball and N. Ayres to Thomas W. Higginson
Creator: Kimball, Emily P.
Date: December 18, 1856 and December 19, 1856
This letter, dated December 18, 1856, is addressed to Reverend Thomas W. Higginson by Emily Kimball, a representative of the ladies of Oakham, Massachusetts. The letter includes three dollars for freight on a shipment of supplies to Kansas Territory. On the back of Ms. Kimball's letter is a note from N. Ayres, dated December 19, 1856, asking Higginson to explain to the ladies of Oakham why their previous contribution had not been not acknowledged "in your circular or the newspaper or somewhere."


Franklin B. Sanborn to Thomas W. Higginson

Franklin B. Sanborn to Thomas W. Higginson
Creator: Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917
Date: September 19, 1856
In this letter to Reverend Thomas W. Higginson, Franklin B. Sanborn writes about the prospects of raising money and men to support the Kansas Territory cause. He also mentions that Mr. Emerson had made a speech in Cambridge, Massachusetts--"it was a good speech but not well delivered." People in towns in the area are making clothing to send to Kansas Territory. George Stearns is also making progress in his attempts to more fully organize a comprehensive state committee in Massachusetts.


Franklin B. Sanborn to Thomas W. Higginson

Franklin B. Sanborn to Thomas W. Higginson
Creator: Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917
Date: February 19, 1857
While in Boston, Massachusetts, Franklin B. Sanborn wrote this letter to Reverend Thomas W. Higginson, a Northern abolitionist and agent with the Massachusetts State Kansas Committee. The first part of the letter dealt with business, but Sanborn also mentioned a recent speech at the State House where abolitionist John Brown made an appearance. He hoped that Higginson and his friends in Worcester County, Massachusetts, would aid "the good old man."


Franklin B. Sanborn to Thomas W. Higginson

Franklin B. Sanborn to Thomas W. Higginson
Creator: Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917
Date: August 28, 1857
Franklin B. Sanborn, an ardent supporter of abolitionist John Brown, writes this letter in Boston to one of his associates, Reverend Thomas W. Higginson, an agent of the Massachusetts Kansas Aid Committee in Worcester, Massachusetts. Sanborn writes that John Brown, who was poised on the northern border of Kansas Territory, is ready to bring supplies in to relieve the free state settlers. Brown has become discouraged about the free state cause "in consequence of persons not fulfilling his expectations." Sanborn wonders if Higginson or the Worcester Committee could do something to assist Brown, especially with his financial difficulties. If the committee did not have the funds, Sanborn suggests that Higginson should seek funds from his friends and associates. In closing, Sanborn offers his support for a disunion convention.


H. B. Hurd to Thomas W. Higginson

H. B. Hurd to Thomas W. Higginson
Creator: Hurd, H. B.
Date: November 14, 1856
H. B. Hurd was secretary of the National Kansas Committee in Chicago, Illinois. He writes this letter to Reverend Thomas W. Higginson in Worcester, Massachusetts, from the committee's office in Chicago. The main focus of the letter revolves around Higginson's plan of operation to garner support from free state governors. Hurd offers advice about which governors to approach first, also stating his opinion on various related matters. Included in the letter is another sheet, outlining Higginson's "Points to be suggested to the Executives of the States." The back of this sheet has some other notes and doodling.


James Redpath to Thomas W. Higginson

James Redpath to Thomas W. Higginson
Creator: Redpath, James, 1833-1891
Date: February 5, 1857
James Redpath, a journalist who had spent some time in Kansas Territory, writes this letter to Reverend Thomas W. Higginson, an abolitionist and agent of the Massachusetts State Kansas Committee. Redpath begins the letter with a vehement denouncement of Mr. Cutter, who has allowed the Missouri ruffians to arrest him peacefully. Redpath is appalled that Cutter did not even fire a shot. Redpath is obviously distraught and seeks advice from Higginson on how he should proceed.


John B. Dunning to Thomas W. Higginson

John B. Dunning to Thomas W. Higginson
Creator: Dunning, John
Date: October 30, 1856
This letter was written by John B. Dunning, a member of the Massachusetts Company which had been operating in the Kansas Territory, to Reverend Thomas W. Higginson, a prominent Northern abolitionist and agent for the Massachusetts Kansas Aid Committee. Dunning informs Higginson that it is no longer safe for them to remain in Kansas Territory, so they have temporarily relocated to Nebraska City, Nebraska. Furthermore, he adamantly asserts that "we want no further aid from Massachusetts through the hands of Martin Stowell." He asks that, in the future, all aid come through some other source, such as A. A. Jamerson. Martin Stowell, in a letter November 19, 1856, to Reverend Higginson, describes a Mr. Dunning as continually asking Stowell for whiskey money.


John Doy to Thomas W. Higginson

John Doy to Thomas W. Higginson
Creator: Doy, John, b. 1812
Date: February 24, 1857
John Doy writes from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Reverend Thomas W. Higginson of Worcester, Massachusetts, relating the struggles of Doy's family and other matters of interest in the Kansas Territory. Doy writes that he had to sell the last of his corn crop and his pig just to make ends meet during the winter. He also briefly mentions the Central Committee, stating that he did not ask them for relief funds or provisions, because recently they had acted improperly towards some ladies. He also informs Higginson of an altercation at Lecompton, Kansas Territory, where Missourians shot a storekeeper named Mr. Shepard, and "Sherrard their Bully late of Virginia was shot and died in a day or two." In addition, Doy comments on the "bogus officers" and their work in the territory.


Maria Felt to Thomas W. Higginson

Maria Felt to Thomas W. Higginson
Creator: Felt, Maria
Date: June 25, 1858
Maria Felt wrote this letter to Reverend Thomas W. Higginson, She describes her journey from Clinton, Massachusetts, to Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Apparently, she was emigrating to Kansas Territory in order to teach school. Felt and her party traveled by train until they reached Alton, Illinois, where they took a steamer along the Mississippi River to St. Louis, Missouri. From there, they traveled to Jefferson City, Missouri, and finally reached Leavenworth, Kansas Territory. They then traveled to Lawrence by stagecoach and Indian canoe. Once she had arrived in Lawrence, which she described as a pretty town, she became acquainted with James Redpath, R. J. Hinton, Samuel Tappan, and George Stearns. She also called upon Ephraim Nute, but she dislikes both him and his wife, writing that they "sat up like two icicles." This letter appears to have been edited at some later date.


Martin Stowell to Thomas W. Higginson

Martin Stowell to Thomas W. Higginson
Creator: Stowell, Martin
Date: November 19, 1856
This letter from Martin Stowell, written from Nebraska City, Nebraska, was sent to Reverend Thomas W. Higginson, agent of the Massachusetts Kansas Aid Committee in Worcester, Massachusetts, to keep him apprised of the Massachusetts emigrant company's business and financial affairs. Stowell includes information about the other members of his emigrant party, including a Mr. [John B.] Dunning, who continually asks Stowell for whiskey money. For the most part, the members of his company are employed and hard at work. Stowell also mentions Eastern supporters such as Massachusetts supporters Mr. Nightingale from Groton and Mr. Newell from Littleton. Stowell writes briefly about Orville Chester Brown, whose house had been destroyed on August 30, 1856, during the Battle of Osawatomie in Kansas Territory.


Martin Stowell to Thomas W Higginson

Martin Stowell to Thomas W Higginson
Creator: Stowell, Martin
Date: October 27, 1856
Martin Stowell, from Nebraska City, Nebraska, is writing to Reverend Thomas Wentworth Higginson. Stowell and other members of his company from Massachusetts had been driven out of Kansas Territory. Fortunately, none of them had been placed under arrest. Stowell had just returned from Lexington, Kansas Territory, and writes that he had "left Brown there in as comfortable circumstances as I could." The identity of Brown is unclear. The "Plymouth men" in Lexington had stolen their flour and tools which they had hidden in a neighbor's haystack. Stowell inquires about the news revolving around the upcoming Presidential election and other news from the East.


Martin Stowell to Worcester Committee

Martin Stowell to Worcester Committee
Creator: Stowell, Martin
Date: Between June 25, 1856 and November 28, 1856
This expense account sheet, along with the attached memorandum, was written by Martin Stowell for the Worcester Committee in Massachusetts. Stowell had been functioning in Lexington, Kansas Territory, as the head of an emigrant company that had originated from Massachusetts. The sheet provides a detailed listing of the cash he received as well as the cash he expended. His purchases included various foodstuffs, carpentry tools, cooking and eating utensils, and medicine. He also used some of his money to pay for repairs on wagons, etc. The attached memorandum is addressed to "Dear H" (Reverend Thomas Wentworth Higginson). It provides further explanation of the account sheet and gives news of the Massachusetts party in Kansas Territory.


Martin Stowell to friends

Martin Stowell to friends
Creator: Stowell, Martin
Date: August 15, 1856
This letter was written by Martin Stowell from Lexington, Kansas Territory. He describes his journey to Kansas Territory and the movements of his emigrant train, of which he was elected military head. He also writes about the local vegetation and his belief that he could make a fine home in this country. Stowell also gives his friend advice about the best route into Kansas Territory and recommends that all mail be sent through Nebraska City, Nebraska, or Burlington, Iowa, so correspondence would not pass through a slave state. Stowell also asks the recipient of the letter to forward it to Reverend Thomas W. Higginson, agent of the Massachusetts Kansas Aid Committee, in Worchester, Massachusetts.


Receipt, B. B. Newton to Thomas W. Higginson

Receipt, B. B. Newton to Thomas W. Higginson
Creator: Newton, B.B
Date: August 26, 1856
B. B. Newton, an agent with the Vermont State Kansas Committee, acknowledges receipt of twenty rifles from Reverend Thomas W. Higginson. Newont plans to transport these twenty rifles to the Vermont Colony in Kansas Territory. Higginson was an agent for the Massachusetts Kansas Aid Committee.


Receipt, John P. Lovell to Thomas W. Higginson

Receipt, John P. Lovell to Thomas W. Higginson
Creator: Lovell, John P.
Date: August 20, 1856
This receipt from John P. Lovell, a manufacturer and dealer of guns and gun materials, is to Reverend Thomas W. Higginson, an ardent Northern abolitionist. Higginson was an agent for the Massachusetts Kansas Aid Committee, procuring rifles, powder, cartridges and other materials. The purchases on this receipt total $19.95. On the back of the receipt is a note stating that this purchase of twenty rifles was never actually paid, since it was a replacement for a previous shipment of rifles that were defective.


Receipts and Expenditures, State Kansas Committee

Receipts and Expenditures, State Kansas Committee
Creator: Massachusetts State Kansas Committee
Date: Between 1856 and 1857
One of many ledger-type listings of donations to and expenditures of the Massachusetts State Kansas Committee for the support of Kansas settlement and the activities of "Capt J[ohn] Brown" and other free state partisans.


Richard J. Hinton to Thomas W. Higginson

Richard J. Hinton to Thomas W. Higginson
Creator: Hinton, Richard J. (Richard Josiah), 1830-1901
Date: November 6, 1856
This letter from Richard J. Hinton was written from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Reverend Thomas W. Higginson, who was a radical abolitionist and agent of the Massachusetts Kansas Aid Committee. The letter is filled with information about the struggle for Kansas Territory. Hinton mentions the trials of the free state prisoners at Lecompton and Governor Geary's order to arrest other free state figures. Colonel Titus is also threatening to help the U. S. troops arrest free state men. Apparently a Captain Homes [sic] from New York had become so frustrated that he had collected several followers and was determined to administer his own brand of justice. Hinton does not completely approve of such action, claiming that while it is understandable, it is "not generally beneficial to our cause." Hinton had experienced some personal troubles as well, when some thieves who claimed to be free state men carried off the belongings of his company, which was settled at Lexington, Kansas Territory. The letter concludes with updates about the various men in his company.


Samuel C. Smith to Thomas W. Higginson

Samuel C. Smith to Thomas W. Higginson
Creator: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: November 26, 1856
This letter, written from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, by Samuel C. Smith, is addressed to Reverend Thomas W. Higginson of Worcester, Massachusetts. The letter begins with several small matters regarding aid for Kansas Territory and then turns quickly to the most recent events in the struggle between proslavery and free state forces. Apparently, thirty two of the free state prisoners held by U. S. troops at Tecumseh had managed to escape, and Smith rather sarcastically comments that the troops had done a favor to "Uncle Sam" by relieving the government of the cost of supporting all those prisoners. The author also writes of [Thaddeus] Hyatt's presence in the territory and George Washington Brown, who was editor of the "Herald of Freedom" in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Smith wrote that Col. Eldridge and Thomas Eldridge had complaints filed against them, stating that "nature never designed them for distributions of charity." The letter concludes with information regarding land sales in Leavenworth and the founding of a new city, Quindaro, Kansas Territory. In general, Smith's writing style is quite humorous, as well as informative.


Samuel F. Tappan to Thomas W. Higginson

Samuel F. Tappan to Thomas W. Higginson
Creator: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: June 24, 1860
Samuel Tappan writes this letter from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Reverend Thomas W. Higginson of Worcester, Massachusetts. Tappan is leaving for Colorado in a week or two, presumably to meet some family members who are working the gold fields there. He mentions Theodore Parker, a supporter of John Brown, who had a terminal illness and passed away while in Italy. Tappan also writes of James Redpath's biography of John Brown, including a portion of the book that discusses a mail coach robbery in the summer of 1856.


Samuel F. Tappan to Thomas W. Higginson

Samuel F. Tappan to Thomas W. Higginson
Creator: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: July 6, 1857
In this letter, Samuel Tappan writes to Reverend Thomas W. Higginson, an agent of the Massachusetts Kansas Aid Committee, to update him on the situation in Kansas Territory. He discusses the "bogus" constitutional convention and Gov. Walker's actions against the free state cause. He mentions that the proslavery forces "did all they could to have us 'partake' in the bogus election without success." Tappan still has confidence that the forces of "democracy" willd triumph. In the postscript, he speaks briefly of a census taken by free state leaders.


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