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Archie Hawkins video interview on experiences in World War II (transcript)

Archie Hawkins video interview on experiences in World War II (transcript)
Creator: Hawkins, Archie
Date: August 14, 2006
Archie Hawkins was drafted into the Army (Air Corps) in 1942 and served until 1945 in the 83rd Squadron. Interviewed by Pattie Johnston on Aug 14, 2006, Hawkins talked about military experiences in the Second World War. He provides descriptions of his training and combat missions as a crew member on a B-25 bomber in the Army Air Corps. He was born April 24, 1919, in South Dakota. He was a Sioux Indian and he and both of his parents attended Haskell Institute in Lawrence, Kansas. The 2005 Kansas Legislature passed a bill funding the WWII Veterans Oral History grant program. This transcript is from one of the community institutions receiving grants. The transcript of the interview is presented here; the original video copy of the interview is available through the Watkins Community Museum of History (Lawrence) and through the Kansas State Historical Society.


Badlands, South Dakota

Badlands, South Dakota
Creator: Palenske, Louis F., 1858-1943
Date: 1930-1936
Louis Palenske made two photographic excursions to the Badlands of South Dakota in the1930s. This is an unidentified view taken on one of those trips. Funded by the National Historical Publications and Records Commission through the Kansas State Historical Records Advisory Board.


Badlands, South Dakota

Badlands, South Dakota
Creator: Palenske, Louis F., 1858-1943
Date: 1928-1938
This photograph of the Badlands in South Dakota was created by Louis Palenske during one of his two photographic excursions to South Dakota. Palenske took this photo with his Korona Panoramic View Camera, using 17-inch film. Funded by the National Historical Publications and Records Commission through the Kansas State Historical Records Advisory Board.


Badlands, South Dakota

Badlands, South Dakota
Creator: Palenske, Louis F., 1858-1943
Date: 1928-1938
This photograph is one of many views taken in South Dakota on Louis Palenske's two photographic excursions to the Badlands. This photo was produced with Palenske's Korona Panoramic View Camera. Funded by the National Historical Publications and Records Commission through the Kansas State Historical Records Advisory Board.


Badlands, South Dakota

Badlands, South Dakota
Creator: Palenske, Louis F., 1858-1943
Date: 1928-1938
This photograph of the Badlands in South Dakota was created by Louis Palenske during one of his two photographic excursions to South Dakota. Palenske took this photo with his Korona Panoramic View Camera, using 17-inch film. Funded by the National Historical Publications and Records Commission through the Kansas State Historical Records Advisory Board.


Badlands, South Dakota

Badlands, South Dakota
Creator: Palenske, Louis F., 1858-1943
Date: 1928-1938
This photographic panorama of the Badlands in South Dakota was created by Louis Palenske during one of his two photographic excursions to South Dakota. Palenske took this photo with his Korona Panoramic View Camera, using 17-inch film. Funded by the National Historical Publications and Records Commission through the Kansas State Historical Records Advisory Board.


Battle of Wounded Knee Creek, South Dakota

Battle of Wounded Knee Creek, South Dakota
Date: 1890
Postcard showing members of the Lakota Sioux tribe surrendering to the U.S. Seventh Cavalry after the Battle of Wounded Knee. The December 29, 1890, battle was considered the last major conflict between U.S. troops and Native Americans.


Battle of Wounded Knee and Pine Ridge, South Dakota

Battle of Wounded Knee and Pine Ridge, South Dakota
Creator: Northwestern Photographic Company
Date: 1890 and 1891
Twelve photographs showing scenes of the Sioux Indians at Pine Ridge Indian Agency and the Battle of Wounded Knee, South Dakota. During this time, the U. S. Army sought to curb the Sioux Ghost Dance. They killed Sitting Bull and pursued Big Foot. He led his people south to seek protection at the Pine Ridge Reservation. The army intercepted the band on December 28 and brought them to the edge of Wounded Knee Creek to camp. On December 29, 1890, the U.S. Army attacked Big Foot's camp killing him and approximately 300 Sioux. The Battle of Wounded Knee is considered the last major conflict between U.S. troops and Native Americans. A number of Chiefs in the photographs are identified on the specific image. The backs of several of the photographs have advertisements for the photographic company which was located in Chadron, Nebraska; for the Minne Pazuta Springs credited with curing epilepsy; and for E. F. King, the Black Hills Jeweler located in Deadwood, South Dakota.


Battle of Wounded Knee and Pine Ridge, South Dakota

Battle of Wounded Knee and Pine Ridge, South Dakota
Date: 1890 and 1891
Three photographs showing scenes of the Sioux Indians at Pine Ridge Indian Agency and the Battle of Wounded Knee, South Dakota. It was during this time, when the U. S. Army sought to curb the Sioux Ghost Dance. They killed Sitting Bull and pursued Big Foot. He led his people south to seek protection at the Pine Ridge Reservation. The army intercepted the band on December 28 and brought them to the edge of Wounded Knee Creek to camp. On December 29, 1890, the U.S. Army attacked Big Foot's camp killing him and approximately 300 Sioux. The Battle of Wounded Knee is considered the last major conflict between U.S. troops and Native Americans.


Battle of Wounded Knee and Pine Ridge, South Dakota

Battle of Wounded Knee and Pine Ridge, South Dakota
Creator: American Viewing Company
Date: 1890
Nine photographs showing scenes of the Sioux Indians at Pine Ridge Indian Agency and the Battle of Wounded Knee, South Dakota. It was during this time, when the U. S. Army sought to curb the Sioux Ghost Dance. They killed Sitting Bull and pursued Big Foot. He led his people south to seek protection at the Pine Ridge Agency. The army intercepted the band on December 28 and brought them to the edge of Wounded Knee Creek to camp. On December 29, 1890, the U.S. Army attacked Big Foot's camp killing him and approximately 300 Sioux. The Battle of Wounded Knee is considered the last major conflict between U.S. troops and Native Americans.


Chapter IV: Destructive effects of undesirable tendencies, in The future of the Great Plains: Report of the Great Plains Committee

Chapter IV: Destructive effects of undesirable tendencies, in The future of the Great Plains: Report of the Great Plains Committee
Creator: Great Plains Committee
Date: December, 1936
This report was created by the Great Plains Committee, which had been called by President Roosevelt to investigate the effects of drought and wind erosion in the southwestern United States. Chapter IV of the report, titled "Destructive Effects of Undesirable Tendencies," outlines some of the major problems in this region, composed of North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana. These problems included the decreasing amount of range land, soil erosion, and the depletion of ground water. A large part of the chapter deals with relief efforts and homestead rehabilitation. It also contains illustrations and tables that provide comparative data on the situation in each of these states.


Chapter V: Attitudes of mind, in The future of the Great Plains: Report of the Great Plains Committee

Chapter V: Attitudes of mind, in The future of the Great Plains: Report of the Great Plains Committee
Creator: Great Plains Committee
Date: December 1936
This report was created by the Great Plains Committee, which had been called by the President to investigate the effects of drought and wind erosion in the southwestern United States. For the purposes of the committee, the Great Plains region was composed of North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana. In Chapter V, the committee argues that farmers' lack of understanding about effective agricultural techniques, combined with severe drought, had created the critical situation that existed during the Dust Bowl. Certain "attitudes of mind," such as the idea that natural resources are inexhaustible, were the root cause of farmers' problems. The chapter outlines some of these attitudes and assumptions that had proved to be unreliable.


Chief Red Cloud's home, Pine Ridge, South Dakota

Chief Red Cloud's home, Pine Ridge, South Dakota
Date: Between 1890 and 1891
A photograph of Chief Red Cloud's home at Pine Ridge, South Dakota. He was a leader of the Oglala Lakota Sioux.


Compliments of the Great Rock Island Route

Compliments of the Great Rock Island Route
Creator: Rock Island Railroad Company
Date: 1890
This is a Rock Island Railroad promotional advertisement in the form of a monthly calendar detailing the various major routes of the line. The first image shows a photographic transparency of the poster taken in the 1960s when the poster was still in good condition. The second image shows a recent scan of the original poster and the resulting deterioration over the last forty years.


Corn, wheat and oats on farms in the states on the tributory to the Union Pacific Railroad, March 1, 1913

Corn, wheat and oats on farms in the states on the tributory to the Union Pacific Railroad, March 1, 1913
Creator: Union Pacific Railway Company
Date: August 14, 1913
Union Pacific Railroad Company Agricultural Bulletin (No. 109). Union Pacific Railroad promotional advertisement showing aggregate yields for specific crop categories from 1912 and early 1913 for areas west of the Mississippi River.


Donald Raub Kirkwood

Donald Raub Kirkwood
Date: 1940
This photograph shows life-long Topeka resident and semi-professional baseball player Donald Raub Kirkwood (1819-2013) with the Kernels's baseball team bus in Mitchell, South Dakota. Kirkwood's baseball career began with the Capitol Post 1 American Legion team and the Junior Owls of the Kiwanis league. As a young adult, he played infield for the Mitchell, South Dakota Kernels. After World War II, Kirkwood returned to baseball to play as shortstop and third-baseman for the Decker Oilers in Topeka, Kansas. Off-field, Kirkwood also worked as a substitute rural mail carrier and farmer in Topeka, Kansas.


Farmers' and Merchants' Clubs

Farmers' and Merchants' Clubs
Creator: Kansas. Governor (1915-1919: Capper)
Date: February 1915
Written by E.J. Mannix of Sioux Falls, South Dakota, this letter is asking Governor Capper to agree for his picture to be published in the Farmers and Merchant as well as serve on the board. Governor Capper in his reply accepts the invitation. This file is part of a bigger collection of Governor Arthur Capper correspondence.


Fort Randall in South Dakota

Fort Randall in South Dakota
Creator: Hays, William Jacob
Date: July 19, 1860
This is a drawing by William Jacob Hays depicting Fort Randall located in South Dakota on the Missouri River.


George Armstrong Custer

George Armstrong Custer
Creator: Illingworth, W. H.
Date: 1872
This copy from a stereograph shows George Armstrong Custer during the Black Hills Expedition. The image identified by Elizabeth B. Custer, shows her husband gathered around the carcass of a grizzly bear with Indian scout Bloody Knife, Captain William Ludlow; the chief engineer of the expedition and Private Noonan in the background. The military expedition to the Black Hills of South Dakota was a strategic plan by the United States government to explore the benefits of the uncharted land.


Harry L. Black, World War I soldier

Harry L. Black, World War I soldier
Date: 1919
Around 1919, the Kansas State Historical Society and the American Legion solicited biographical information from returning veterans (primarily members of the 35th and 89th infantry divisions) and the families of those who died in service, notably from the Gold Star Mothers. Each veteran or family member was asked to provide letters, photographs, a biography, and military records. This file contains information on Harry L. Black, Company D, 354th Infantry, 89th Division.


Hot Springs, South Dakota

Hot Springs, South Dakota
Creator: Palenske, Louis F., 1858-1943
Date: 1930-1938
Louis Palenske photographed this street scene in Hot Springs, South Dakota during one of his two trips across South Dakota while photographing the Badlands. Funded by the National Historical Publications and Records Commission through the Kansas State Historical Records Advisory Board.


Interview with Gus Kramer

Interview with Gus Kramer
Creator: Kramer, Gus
Date: 1979
This oral history interview with Gus Kramer of Hugoton, Stevens County, describes his experiences during the dust storms of the 1930s. In it he recounts how difficult it was to make a living, and how the drifting soil clung to everything, clogging engines and seeping through cracks in buildings. He also compares living during the Dust Bowl and Depression to his early childhood, when the area around Hugoton was covered with healthy, green grass. This interview was printed in Dust Storms as Remembered by Hugoton Citizens, a collection of interviews collected by the Hugoton High School Social Studies Club.


Jack Red Cloud

Jack Red Cloud
Creator: Northwestern Photographic Company
Date: Between 1890 and 1891
A portrait of Jack Red Cloud, an Oglala Sioux and the son of Red Cloud. Jack Red Cloud became chief of the Oglala Sioux at the Pine Ridge Agency. He was a recognized warrior and orator.


James Butler (Wild Bill) Hickok family collection

James Butler (Wild Bill) Hickok family collection
Creator: Hickok family
Date: 1851-1904
A collection of fifty-six letters from the family of James Butler ("Wild Bill") Hickok. The letters describe the adventures of the Hickok children (including Wild Bill) in California, Kansas, Missouri and elsewhere, and their parents and family in Troy Grove, Illinois. After Wild Bill's death in Deadwood, Dakota Territory, in 1876, the letters mostly concern his burial, the maintenance of his grave, and his reputation. Correspondents also include Agnes Hickok (Wild Bill's wife), William "Buffalo Bill" Cody, and Charlie H. Utter ("Colorado Charlie"). Ethel Ann Hickok, the last surviving niece of Wild Bill, donated fifty-four letters to the Kansas Historical Society and two letters to historian Joseph G. Rosa in the 1980s. The two Rosa letters (June 6, 1861; March 23, 1880) are included here by permission. The William F. Cody letter to Horace Hickok dated March 23, 1880 originally owned by Joe Rosa was donated to the Kansas State Historical Society on January 9, 2017. Ethel Hickok passed away in 1985 eight months before her 100th birthday. Ethel's niece Edith Harmon and historian Joseph G. Rosa assisted with the donations.


Knife sheath

Knife sheath
Date: 1889-1925
This beaded knife sheath was purchased on the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota and later donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1925. The rawhide sheath is decorated on the front with small multicolor "seed" beads in a geometric pattern. Twelve remaining cone tinklers, along with feathers dyed purple, are attached to the edges.


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