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1880 census of Farmer Township, Wabaunsee County, Kansas

1880 census of Farmer Township, Wabaunsee County, Kansas
Creator: United States. Census Office. 10th census, 1880
Date: June 1, 1880 through June 2, 1880
This excerpt of a census schedule provides details--including the name, age, race, and occupation--of settlers in Farmer Township in Wabaunsee County, Kansas. The county included a black population (B=Black) who had settled there in 1879 with the help of the Freedmen's Relief Association.


1880 census of Rock Creek Township, Wabaunsee County, Kansas

1880 census of Rock Creek Township, Wabaunsee County, Kansas
Creator: United States. Census Office. 10th census, 1880
Date: June 11, 1880
This excerpt of a census schedule provides details--including the name, age, race, and occupation--of settlers in Rock Creek Township in Wabaunsee County, Kansas. The county included a black population (B=Black) who had settled there in 1879 with the help of the Freedmen's Relief Association.


1st Infantry Division - Memorial in Vicksburg Park

1st Infantry Division - Memorial in Vicksburg Park
Creator: Kansas. Governor (1915-1919: Capper)
Date: 1915
This file includes general correspondence relating to the Memorial in Vicksburg Park honoring the 1st Infantry Division. Topics included but not limited in the correspondence includes: inscription proposals and cost of the Memorial, blueprints, and printed material relating to the siege and defense of Vicksburg. This is part of a bigger collection of Governor Arthur Capper correspondence.


Governor Clyde M. Reed correspondence, Red Cross

Governor Clyde M. Reed correspondence, Red Cross
Creator: Kansas. Governor (1929-1931 : Reed)
Date: 1929-1931
This file includes subject correspondence relating to the Red Cross. Topics in the correspondence cover but is not limited to disaster relief plans, Mississippi Valley Flood relief in 1927, and tornado disaster relief. This file is part of a bigger collection of Governor Clyde M. Reed correspondence.


Governor John P. St. John to Roseline Cunningham

Governor John P. St. John to Roseline Cunningham
Creator: St. John, John Pierce, 1833-1916
Date: June 24, 1879
In this letter, Governor St. John responded to Cunningham's inquiry (from June 18, 1879) about receiving financial assistance to cover the cost of emigration to Kansas. He informs her that there is no society to aid her travel costs, and that the promise of "40 acres and a mule" is a misrepresentation. While he states that he does sympathize with the Southern blacks' situation, he advises Cunningham that emigrants should not come to Kansas if they are destitute. He also provides her with information about Kansas, including the cost of farmland and the typical wage for laborers. Governor St. John, in addition to his official government duties, was also on the board of the Kansas Freedmen's Relief Association, This association was formed to provide aid to Exodusters such as Cunningham, but unfortunately the association did not have adequate funding to provide for all the Exodusters fleeing from the South.


Isaiah T. Montgomery to Governor John P. St. John

Isaiah T. Montgomery to Governor John P. St. John
Creator: Montgomery, Isaiah T. (Isaiah Thorton), 1847-1924
Date: May 23, 1879
Isaiah T. Montgomery of Hurricane, Mississippi, wrote Governor John P. St. John of Topeka, Kansas, concerning the migration of twenty five families of black refugees from Mississippi to Kansas. Montgomery described the difficulties faced by the families and a visit he made to Kansas to assess their conditions. He also critiqued the relief programs in Kansas and made recommendations for assisting present and future migrants. In addition, the letter addresses Montgomery's broader effort to establish a community for black refugees in Kansas and the oppressive conditions under which blacks lived in Mississippi. Montgomery dictated a letter sent to him from William Nervis regarding the conditions of the refugees. During 1879 and 1880 a mass exodus of blacks from the deep South, known as the Negro Exodus, overwhelmed the state's ability to accommodate the refugees. These refugees were called Exodusters. Governor St. John established a Freedman's Relief Association to assist the migrants but its efforts were largely seen as a failure.


Leigh R. Webber to Charles Brown

Leigh R. Webber to Charles Brown
Creator: Webber, L. R.
Date: March 23, 1862
A letter written by Leigh R. Webber from Fort Scott, Kansas, addressed to Charles Brown. Webber expresses frustration at his bad health, the poor weather, and fort life. He wished for the troops to move to territory where they could engage in battle and gain "military glory." Webber describes the unruly behavior of the troops, including violence and drunkenness.


Leigh R. Webber to Mrs. Brown

Leigh R. Webber to Mrs. Brown
Creator: Webber, L. R.
Date: September 5, 1863
A letter written by Leigh R. Webber from Natchez, Mississippi, addressed to Mrs. Brown, wife of John Stillman Brown, a Unitarian minister who lived west of Lawrence, Kansas. Webber discusses reading accounts of the raid on Lawrence in the Cincinnati newspapers. He also describes camp life in Natchez, and shares a rumor that the troops may soon go to Kansas.


Lewis Stafford to Kate Newland

Lewis Stafford to Kate Newland
Creator: Stafford, Lewis
Date: March 26, 1861-January 24, 1863
These letters are from a larger collection of Civil War letters written by Lewis Stafford of Grasshopper Falls, Kansas, to his girlfriend Kate Newland, also of Grasshopper Falls and later Lecompton and Topeka. Stafford served in Company E of the 1st Kansas Infantry as a Lieutenant and then a Captain. The regiment was formed at Fort Leavenworth. The headings on the letters are from various locations and give a sense of where his regiment was stationed. The locations include Fort Leavenworth, KS; Chillicothe, MO; Tipton, MO; Lawrence, KS; Fort Scott, KS; Fort Riley, KS; Trenton, TN; Corinth, MS; Grand Junction, TN; and on the Mississippi River. Almost all of the letters include expressions of his feelings for Miss Newland and he conveys his emotions about her quite eloquently. Many of the letters describe the movement of the regiment from this place to that, the social life (including mentions of drunkenness) in the Kansas towns where they are staying--particularly after pay was received, and rumors about where they would be sent. Others include his impressions of the areas through which they were traveling and details of his day-to-day military activities. Stafford died in a logging accident on January 31, 1863, at Young's Point, Louisiana. For the present, the scanned transcripts follow the handwritten letters.


Members of the 7th Kansas Volunteer Cavalry

Members of the 7th Kansas Volunteer Cavalry
Date: Between 1861 and 1865
Photographs of members of several different companies of the 7th Kansas Volunteer Cavalry. The men include Capt. Francis M. Malone, Capt. William Jenkins, Lt. Frederick W. Emery, Lt. Russell W. Maryhugh, Lt. Bazil C. Sanders, Capt. Burr H. Bostwick, Lt. Edward Colbert, Sgt. Jacob Ruppelins, Adjutant General Joseph S. Martin, Lt. Andrew Downing, Lt. Charles L. Wall, and three unidentified members. Photographers include George W. Armstead & Henry White in Corinth, Mississippi, Howard & Hall in Corinth, Mississippi, Tuttle's Fine Art Gallery in Olathe, Kansas, and A. C. Nichols in Leavenworth, Kansas.


Mr. and Mrs. Dwight H. Woolf, the Walking Woolfs

Mr. and Mrs. Dwight H. Woolf, the Walking Woolfs
Date: 1909
Here are five postcards showing Mr. and Mrs. Dwight H. Woolf, also known as the Walking Woolfs. They wrote a book titled Tramping and Camping published by S. I. Meseraull & Son, Kansas City, Kansas. The book tells of Mr. Woolf's failing health in 1909, when he was a 107 pound music publisher. His doctor fold him he must get outside to revive his health. With his wife's encouragement, they started walking first to the Ozarks and back to Kansas City, Kansas, three hundred miles; then a thousand mile trip to New York, and finally an eight thousand mile walk through the South and East and back to Kansas City, Kansas. They were accompanied by their horse Dolly and dog Don. The book is available at the Kansas State Historical Society


Part 12: Exodusters, in first annual report of the Bureau of Labor and Industrial Statistics

Part 12: Exodusters, in first annual report of the Bureau of Labor and Industrial Statistics
Creator: Kansas Bureau of Labor
Date: 1886
This excerpt of the Kansas Bureau of Labor report includes only Part 12, the portion of the report focusing on the Exodusters in Wyandotte, Kansas. The report includes transcribed testimonies of Exodusters as well as a detailed table showing statistics compiled from seventeen families, including their location, ages, health, and occupations. The report also includes a few references to Exodusters in Topeka.


Postcards from various state hospitals

Postcards from various state hospitals
Date: Unknown
Twenty-four colored postcards showing state hospitals from various states, including California, Kansas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Wisconsin.


Report of the minority, in report and testimony of the select committee to Investigate the causes of the removal of the Negroes from the southern states to the northern states, in three parts

Report of the minority, in report and testimony of the select committee to Investigate the causes of the removal of the Negroes from the southern states to the northern states, in three parts
Creator: United States. Congress. Senate. Select Committee on Negro Exodus
Date: 1880
This report, written by the minority party of the Senate select committee investigating the Exodus, outlines the minority's conclusions about the reasons for black emigration to the North during the Reconstruction period. This committee, composed of majority and minority parties, had taken testimony from hundreds of people having direct knowledge of the exodus movement. In essence, the minority party concluded that the Northern Republican Party and emigrant aid organizations had not persuaded blacks in the South to emigrate to the North. Instead, the unfavorable condition of life in the South had caused this mass exodus. The minority members were William Windom, a Republican senator from Minnesota, and Henry W. Blair, a Republican senator from New Hampshire.


Roseline Cunningham to John P. St. John

Roseline Cunningham to John P. St. John
Creator: Cunningham, Roseline
Date: June 18, 1879
Roseline Cunningham, a black schoolteacher from Westpoint, Mississippi, wrote this letter to Kansas governor John St. John concerning emigration to Kansas. Cunningham, like many other Exodusters, was unable to make a living in the South and sought information about settling in Kansas. She also wanted to know if there was a governmental agency or society that would help her (and her neighbors) cover the cost of emigration. Governor St. John served on the board of the Kansas Freedmen's Relief Association.


Samuel Ayres [Ayers?] to Lyman Langdon

Samuel Ayres [Ayers?] to Lyman Langdon
Creator: Ayres, Samuel
Date: January 7, 1859-July 6, 1864
Samuel Ayres [Ayers?] served as a chaplain for the Seventh Kansas Cavalry, which was led by Colonel Charles R. Jennison. He was mustered in October 14, 1861. Several of the Civil War letters in this collection have been digitized. They are written to Lyman Langdon of Defiance, Ohio, where Ayres lived before settling in Moneka, Linn County, Kansas. The letter dated December 29, 1861, describes the capture and killing of a Confederate officer home on leave; the destruction caused by the 7th Kansas Cavalry near West Point, MO; various other activities; and his thoughts about the war. A letter written from Lawrence on April 5, 1962, tells of the various units stationed in the area. The regiment eventually spent some time in Tennessee and, in a letter "in camp near Union City, Ten" dated June 12, 1862, Ayres describes how the secessionist supporters interacted with the Union troops and the activities of units in that region. Writing from his home in Moneka on June 1, 1863, he describes visits by bushwhackers and guerrillas. He also shares news about various areas of Union activity, including Vicksburg, MS.


Sewing kit

Sewing kit
Date: between 1861 and 1865
Civil War sewing kit, also known as a housewife. Rectangular case of soft, dark brown leather with pointed front flap. Folded case opens to reveal machine-quilted dark blue silk interior over cotton lining. Case's interior compartments include wool flaps for needle storage, leather straps to hold scissors, large pocket with button flap, and second large pocket with two button flaps. This sewing kit was carried during the Civil War by Capt. William H. Ward of the 47th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Company B. Ward was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for actions at Vicksburg, Mississippi, in May 1863. He moved his family to Kansas after the war.


State Flags

State Flags
Creator: Kansas. Governor (1915-1919: Capper)
Date: February 1915
This file includes correspondence and postcards; correspondence from Secretary of States describe the colors, fabric, dimensions, and symbolism of their state flag. The postcard, if provided, shows the graphical design of each state flag. Correspondence is arranged alphabetically by state. This file is part of a bigger collection of Governor Arthur Capper correspondence.


The Mississippi Negro Swindle

The Mississippi Negro Swindle
Creator: Topeka Colored Citizen
Date: July 19, 1879
This unsigned article in the Topeka Colored Citizen relates how a swindler, who had represented himself as a government agent, stole money from Southern blacks who were looking for passage to Kansas. Apparently, "a club of White Leaguers" planned the swindle in order to keep freed blacks in the South. The swindlers also told the blacks that they had been taken advantage of by their Northern allies.


The Negro exodus. Scenes on the wharves at Vicksburg

The Negro exodus. Scenes on the wharves at Vicksburg
Creator: Moser, James H.
Date: May 17, 1879
This drawing, from an original by James H. Moser, depicts a large gathering of African-American refugees congregating around a steamboat docked at Vicksburg, Mississippi. It was published in the national magazine Harper's Weekly.


What the Rebels of the South Threaten to Do

What the Rebels of the South Threaten to Do
Creator: Topeka Colored Citizen
Date: December 21, 1878
This article in the Topeka Colored Citizen argues that, while many Northerners believed that the Civil War had ended, Southerners continued to deny blacks their rights. It also includes an excerpt from some newspapers in Mississippi that discuss this matter; one even states that "blacks have no right under the sun to vote."


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