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Objects and Artifacts - Archeological Artifacts - Material/Stone Type - Permian Chert

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Adze or Axe from the Country Club Site, 14CO3

Adze or Axe from the Country Club Site, 14CO3
Date: 1400-1725 CE
This chipped stone tool, either an adze or an axe, was most likely used for woodworking. It was excavated from a Great Bend aspect village site (ancestral Wichita) in Cowley County during Phase IV archeological investigations in 1995. The site had been much impacted by a water line, golf greens, roads, and highways. Excavations had been occurring at the site since 1916.


Alternately Beveled Knife from 14MO433

Alternately Beveled Knife from 14MO433
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This knife fragment was recovered from an archeological site in Morris County with occupations in the Archaic, Early Ceramic, and Late Ceramic periods. It was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. The Great Bend aspect style knife would have been hafted to a handle.


Alternately Beveled Knife from Montgomery County

Alternately Beveled Knife from Montgomery County
Date: Unknown
This alternately beveled knife fragment was recovered from Montgomery County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1975. The knife was reconstructed by the donor. The pinkish color of the Florence chert indicates that it had been heat treated to improve knapping quality of the chert. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels.


Alternately Beveled Knives from 14EK304

Alternately Beveled Knives from 14EK304
Date: Unknown
These three alternately beveled knife fragments were collected from a multicomponent (multiple occupations) camp site in Elk County and, in 1975, donated to the Kansas Historical Society. All three artifacts were made of Permian chert. The pinkish color of one indicates that it had been heat treated to improve knapping quality of the chert. Repeated sharpening on the knives alternate sides created the bevels.


Alternately Beveled Knives from 14EK318

Alternately Beveled Knives from 14EK318
Date: 1-1500 CE
These three alternately beveled knife fragments were recovered from an archeological site in Elk County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1974 and 1975. Knives with a general diamond shape, as is the white fragment, are sometimes called Harahey knives. Archeologists believe that a knife shaped like this would have been used for bison butchering. The other two knife fragments are alternately beveled on two sides. The pinkish color of one knife fragment is a result of the material being carefully heated before manufacturing to improve the chert's knapping qualities. The remaining alternately beveled knife fragment was made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk.


Alternately Beveled Knives from 14MY316

Alternately Beveled Knives from 14MY316
Date: 700-1500 CE
These five alternately beveled knife fragments were recovered from an archeological site along the Elk River in Montgomery County. Repeated sharpening on the knives alternate sides created the bevels. The three on the bottom are made of Permian chert and the one on the bottom right has been heat-treated prior to knapping to improve the knapping qualities of the chert. The two on the top row are made of an unknown chert. The site had house remains and is considered to be part of the Pomona focus of the Early and Middle Ceramic period. Pomona focus sites are located in eastern Kansas and western Missouri.


Alternately Beveled Knives from Anderson County

Alternately Beveled Knives from Anderson County
Date: Unknown
These four knives were collected from Anderson County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society. From left to right are shown a knife made of Alibates chert, an agatized dolomite from the Canadian River Valley in Texas, a knife made of heat treated Permian chert, a knife that may have once been hafted, and a knife in the style archeologists call Harahey.


Alternately Beveled Knives from Elk County

Alternately Beveled Knives from Elk County
Date: Unknown
These alternately beveled knives were collected in Elk County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1959. Both knives were made of Permian chert. The knives gets their pinkish color as a result of the flintknapper heat treating the material to improve the chert's knapping qualities. Repeated sharpening on alternate sides created bevels.


Alternately Beveled Knives from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1

Alternately Beveled Knives from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1
Date: 1500-1800 CE
These alternately beveled knives were collected from the Paint Creek village site in McPherson County, Kansas. Four were donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1971 and the other was excavated by Kansas Historical Society archeologists. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. Four of the knives were made Permian chert with the fifth knife of Alibates Agatized Dolomite. The Paint Creek site is what archeologists call part of the Little River Focus of the Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Arrow Point from 14AT327

Arrow Point from 14AT327
Date: 1-1000 CE
This arrow point was collected from an Early Ceramic period site in Atchison County and donated in 2018 to the Kansas Historical Society. The side-notched point made of Permian chert, is nearly complete. The site had been heavily collected and highly disturbed in the past.


Arrow Point from 14DN308

Arrow Point from 14DN308
Date: 2000 BCE-500 CE
This arrow point fragment was recovered from an archeological site in a creek meander in Dickinson County. The point is made of Permian chert that has been heat-treated prior to finishing to improve its knapping qualities. The point has an expanding stem. The site was occupied during the late Archaic to Early Ceramic period.


Arrow Points from 14AT315

Arrow Points from 14AT315
Date: 1-1000 CE
These three arrow points were collected from an Early Ceramic period archeological site in Atchison County. They were donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2018. All three arrow points were made of Permian chert. Two are side-notched and one is corner-notched. The notches and the stem aided in hafting the arrow point to the arrow shaft.


Arrow Points from 14CW315

Arrow Points from 14CW315
Date: 1-1000 CE
These two small arrow points were recovered from a village site in Crawford County. They are made of Permian chert from the Flint Hills region and get their pinkish color as a result of the material being carefully heated before manufacturing to improve the chert's knapping qualities. Archeologists consider corner-notched points such as these to be the earliest form of arrow points that are found in the Great Plains. The notches aided in hafting the point to the arrow shaft.


Arrow Points from 14LY414

Arrow Points from 14LY414
Date: 1-1000 CE
These five arrow points were collected from a multicomponent (multiple occupations) site in Lyon County and donated in 1958 to the Kansas Historical Society. The projectile points date approximately to the Early and Middle Ceramic periods. All five are made of Permian chert. Shown are two corner-notched, two side-notched, and one triangular shaped arrow points. Two of the arrow points get their pinkish color as a result of the material being carefully heated before manufacturing to improve the chert's knapping qualities.


Arrow Points from 14MY312

Arrow Points from 14MY312
Date: 1-1000 CE
These two arrow points were collected from an Early Ceramic period site in Montgomery County and, in 1963, donated to the Kansas Historical Society. Both of the arrow points may have been heat-treated prior to knapping to improve their knapping qualities. Both corner-notched arrow points were made of Permian chert.


Arrow Points from 14MY349

Arrow Points from 14MY349
Date: 1000-1800 CE
These six arrow points were collected from a multicomponent site in Montgomery County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1972, 1973, and 1975. Shown are side-notched, corner-notched, and triangular arrow points.


Arrow Points from Harvey County

Arrow Points from Harvey County
Date: Unknown
Little is known regarding these four arrow points that were donated in 2012 to the Kansas Historical Society. They were collected from an archeological site in Harvey County, but the location of the site was not recorded. Shown are two contracting stemmed points, a corner-notched point and a triangular arrow point made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk. The other three points were made of Permian chert and two were heat treated to improve their knapping qualities.


Arrow Points from the Lindeman Site, 14SA412

Arrow Points from the Lindeman Site, 14SA412
Date: 1-1800 CE
These seven arrow points were just a few of those recovered from the surface of the Lindeman site in Saline County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. All of the arrow points are made of Permian chert. One side-notched arrow point gets its pinkish color as a result of the material being carefully heated before manufacturing to improve the chert's knapping qualities. Five of the arrow points are side-notched, one is corner-notched and last arrow point is stemmed. The notches and the stem aided in hafting the point to the arrow shaft. The site was occupied periodically from the Early Ceramic period through the Late Ceramic period. During one of these occupations there may have been at least two houses on the site.


Arrow Points from the Malone Site, 14RC5

Arrow Points from the Malone Site, 14RC5
Date: 1432-1651 CE
These arrow points were collected from the Malone village site in Rice County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2001 and 2005. The two on the top row are triangular points made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, which outcrops in western Kansas and Nebraska. The three points on the bottom row are side-notched: the one on the left is made of Alibates flint, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle and the two on the right are made of local chert from the Flint Hills region. The Malone site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits.


Biface from 14CS1307

Biface from 14CS1307
Date: 7000 BCE-1000 CE
This biface was collected from the surface of a multicomponent workshop site in Chase County by Kansas Historical Society archeologists. The biface, made of Permian chert, may have been stored for future use (what archeologists call a cache), been meant for trade, or had some other significance we today do not know. The site was occupied periodically through the Archaic and Early Ceramic periods.


Bifaces

Bifaces
Date: Unknown
These three bifaces represent just a few of the many that were collected from Elk County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1959. All three are made of Permian chert. Two of the bifaces get their pinkish color as a result of the material being carefully heated before manufacturing to improve the chert's knapping qualities. Bifaces like these could have been used as a cutting tool or, with more work, turned into a specific tool.


Bifaces from 14CS1304

Bifaces from 14CS1304
Date: 1-1000 CE
These two biface were surface finds collected during a survey by Kansas Historical Society archeologists from an Early Ceramic period site in Chase County. A biface, like these, could have been used as a cutting tool or, with more work, turned into a specific tool. Both were made of Permian chert.


Bifaces from 14EK311

Bifaces from 14EK311
Date: 1-1000 CE
These four bifaces were among the many that were collection from an Early Ceramic period site in Elk County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1972 and 1975. All four were made of Permian chert and get their pinkish color as a result of the material being carefully heated before manufacturing to improve the chert's knapping qualities. Bifaces like these could have been used as a cutting tool or, with more work, turned into a specific tool.


Bifaces from Morris County

Bifaces from Morris County
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
These bifaces were collected from Morris County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1980. They are made of local chert from the Flint Hills region. Bifaces like these could have been used as a chopping tool or a blank intended to be turned into a specific tool at a later date. Munkers Creek sites often contain similar large, crude bifaces, but such artifacts are also found in other places and times. The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that some archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they had to adapt by using many different types of animals and plants for food in a less productive environment.


Bifaces from Riley County

Bifaces from Riley County
Date: Unknown
These five bifaces were collected from Riley County in the 1800s and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1925. All five are made of Permian chert. The bifaces get their pinkish color as a result of the material being carefully heated before manufacturing to improve the chert's knapping qualities. Bifaces like these could have been used as a cutting tool or, with more work, turned into a specific tool.


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