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A history of Lawrence, Kansas: from the first settlement to the close of the rebellion

A history of Lawrence, Kansas: from the first settlement to the close of the rebellion
Creator: Cordley, Richard
Date: 1895
Sara Tappan Doolittle (Lawrence) Robinson, author of "Kansas: Its Interior and Exterior Life" and wife of Governor Charles Robinson, owned this copy of Richard Cordley's "A History of Lawrence Kansas." She heavily annotated the book in pencil, as did George Washington Brown (in ink). Brown was another prominent supporter of the Free State cause and an associate of the Robinsons. On page 269 Brown recommends that the author revise the earliest history, prior to Cordley's arrival in Lawrence, for accuracy. The book includes several maps and photographs, including a portrait of Sara Robinson between pages 168 and 169.


Augustus Wattles to John Brown?

Augustus Wattles to John Brown?
Creator: Wattles, Augustus, 1807-1876
Date: August 21, 1857
Augustus Wattles wrote to John Brown from Lawrence, August 21, 1857, regarding several matters but focused again on problems within the Free State movement because of a loss of confidence in Charles Robinson's leadership. Robinson had openly criticized G. W. Brown and the Herald of Freedom and the factious party could accomplish little, but Wattles was confident that free staters would vote in and win the October election for territorial legislature.


Biographical circulars

Biographical circulars
Date: 1890-1899
This collection consists of biographical forms sent by F. G. Adams, secretary of the Kansas Historical Society, to individuals whose names appeared in historically significant materials in the collections of the Kansas Historical Society. The responses are arranged alphabetically by last name. Biographical information may include full name, place and date of birth, place and date of settlement, present residence, place and date of death, official positions, and/or addresses of family members.


Cyrus Kurtz Holliday to Mary Dillon Holliday

Cyrus Kurtz Holliday to Mary Dillon Holliday
Creator: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: February 11, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, where he had stopped on his way to visit Governor Andrew H. Reeder at the Shawnee Indian Mission. Holliday hoped to make the growing Topeka the capital of Kansas Territory. In Lawrence, a hotel keeper had died and George W. Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom, was ill. Despite mail-delaying winter storms further east, the weather continued mildly. Holliday described his financial investments and requested money for his trip to Meadville, more urgent as the birth of their first child approached.


Free-State prisoners near Lecompton, Kansas Territory

Free-State prisoners near Lecompton, Kansas Territory
Creator: Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911
Date: 1856
The Kansas controversy over slavery rocked the nation when Pro-slavery forces arrested several Free-State leaders. This illustration shows the Free-State prisoners George W. Brown, John Brown, Jr., Jedge Smith, Charles Robinson, Gaius Jenkins, Mr. Williams, and George W. Deitzler near Lecompton, Kansas Territory.


George W. Brown named agent for the Kansas Executive Committee

George W. Brown named agent for the Kansas Executive Committee
Creator: Free State Party. Executive Committee
Date: December 10, 1855
Certificate issued by the Free State Executive Committee appointing George Washington Brown, editor of the "Herald of Freedom" newspaper, as its agent to pursue immediate admission of Kansas Territory as a state under the provisions of the Topeka Constitution. James H. Lane signed the certificate as chairman of the Executive Committee.


George W. Brown to Fowler

George W. Brown to Fowler
Creator: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: May 13, 1856
George Washington Brown, editor of the "Herald of Freedom" newspaper, was one of seven free state leaders arrested on May 14, 1856, on charges of high treason and held prisoner by federal troops near Lecompton, Kansas Territory. In this letter, written from Kansas City, Missouri, to his friend, Fowler, on the day before his arrest, Brown expresses concern that his life could be in danger. He encloses an outline for a "Documentary History of Kansas," and asks Fowler to publish a book based upon the outline.


George W. Brown to I. B. Donaldson

George W. Brown to I. B. Donaldson
Creator: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: July 9, 1856
George Washington Brown, editor of the "Herald of Freedom" newspaper, was one of seven free state leaders arrested on May 14, 1856, on charges of high treason and held prisoner by federal troops near Lecompton, Kansas Territory. Brown wrote to Israel B. Donaldson, the U.S. Marshal in Kansas, requesting that he terminate and settle a contract with his wife, Mrs. Lois Brown, for boarding the prisoners. Brown asked to board with fellow prisoners John Brown, Jr. and Henry H. Williams, and sought to distance himself from Charles Robinson and his followers.


George W. Brown to John A. Halderman

George W. Brown to John A. Halderman
Creator: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: November 19, 1859
In a brief note, something of a follow-up to his letter of November 1, 1859, George W. Brown writes Halderman that 150 copies of "to-days" (November 19) "Herald of Freedom" had been sent by "Express" and that another 150 would go out the next day. "I think your friends will be pleased with the present number," writes the editor, "as it more than sustains all I have said in the past in regard to old John Brown, besides it gives some raps at Conway which will be difficult to overcome."


George W. Brown to John Halderman

George W. Brown to John Halderman
Creator: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: November 1, 1859
George W. Brown, the editor of the Herald of Freedom, writes John Halderman from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, concerning the next issue of the paper which was to be "an awful one for Conway." He is probably referring to Martin F. Conway, an active free state partisan who was to be elected the first U.S. congressman to represent Kansas on December 6, 1859. Obviously, the newspaper had less impact than Brown anticipated, as John A. Halderman, the Democratic nominee, lost decisively to Conway, 7,674 to 5,567. Brown believes that his forthcoming issue should be widely distributed and is seeking additional orders from Halderman.


George W. Brown to Sarah H. Brown

George W. Brown to Sarah H. Brown
Creator: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: May 13, 1856
George Washington Brown, editor of the "Herald of Freedom" newspaper, was one of seven free-state leaders arrested on May 14, 1856, on charges of high treason and held prisoner by federal troops near Lecompton, Kansas Territory. Writing to his mother on the day before his arrest, Brown expresses concern that his life could be in danger. He instructes his mother to use his estate to provide support for the "Herald of Freedom."


George Washington Brown

George Washington Brown
Date: Between 1856 and 1860
A portrait of George Washington Brown, who in the autumn of 1854 moved to Lawrence, Kansas Territory where he settled with a group of New England emigrants. By October of that year he had constructed a building and became editor of one of the first free-state newspapers in the territory, the Herald of Freedom, the organ of the New England Emigrant Aid Company. The newspaper angered the proslavery forces in the territory. On May 21, 1856, a proslavery posse led by the notorious Douglas County sheriff, Samuel J. Jones arrested Brown and sacked and burned Lawrence. Brown spent four months incarcerated following an indictment by a proslavery grand jury for high treason. Later his case was dismissed without trial for want of cause for prosecution. He returned to Lawrence to rebuild his business and resume the publication of the Herald of Freedom. In the capacity of editor he served until the last issue of the newspaper on December 17, 1859. Brown's interests included the founding of the city of Emporia and oil. In 1860 Brown drilled three wells in Miami County and began to extract oil. He finally decided to leave Kansas in 1865 for the more lucrative oil fields of Pennsylvania. His stay in Pennsylvania was brief, however, and by the end of the year he had journeyed to Rockford, Illinois, where he decided to take up permanent residence. Brown died there on February 5, 1915, at the age of ninety-four.


George Washington Brown

George Washington Brown
Creator: Medlar
Date: Between 1890 and 1899
A photograph of George Washington Brown, who in the autumn of 1854 moved to Lawrence, Kansas Territory where he settled with a group of New England emigrants. By October of that year he had constructed a building and became editor of one of the first free-state newspapers in the territory, the Herald of Freedom, the organ of the New England Emigrant Aid Company. The newspaper angered the proslavery forces in the territory. On May 21, 1856, a proslavery posse led by the notorious Douglas County sheriff, Samuel J. Jones arrested Brown and sacked and burned Lawrence. Brown spent four months incarcerated following an indictment by a proslavery grand jury for high treason. Later his case was dismissed without trial for want of cause for prosecution. He returned to Lawrence to rebuild his business and resume the publication of the Herald of Freedom. In the capacity of editor he served until the last issue of the newspaper on December 17, 1859. Brown's interests included the founding of the city of Emporia and oil. In 1860 Brown drilled three wells in Miami County and began to extract oil. He finally decided to leave Kansas in 1865 for the more lucrative oil fields of Pennsylvania. His stay in Pennsylvania was brief, however, and by the end of the year he had journeyed to Rockford, Illinois, where he decided to take up permanent residence. Brown died there on February 5, 1915, at the age of ninety-four.


George Washington Brown to Dear Sir & Brother

George Washington Brown to Dear Sir & Brother
Creator: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: July 28, 1858
Writing on International Order of Oddfellows letterhead, George W. Brown of Lawrence informed his correspondent, apparently of White Cloud, Doniphan County, that he had enclosed an application for a subordinate lodge charter. The recipient of this letter might have been Sol Miller.


George Washington Brown to Eli Thayer

George Washington Brown to Eli Thayer
Creator: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: June 4, 1856
George Washington Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom newspaper, was one of seven free state leaders arrested on May 14, 1856 on charges of high treason and held prisoner by federal troops near Lecompton. G. W. Brown described the sack of Lawrence and the destruction of his printing press, commented upon the harshness of his prison conditions, and asked Eli Thayer to do anything in his power to help secure his release.


George Washington Brown to Hiram Hill

George Washington Brown to Hiram Hill
Creator: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: January 10, 1857
George Brown, editor of the free state newspaper, Herald of Freedom, wrote to Hiram Hill thanking him for his Christmas donation to the newspaper. Brown enclosed with his letter several copies of the Herald and a new map of Kansas Territory. He also reported that the Herald was increasing circulation at an unparalleled rate, and that he appreciated the freedom and independence afforded him as a member of the press.


George Washington Brown to Hiram Hill

George Washington Brown to Hiram Hill
Creator: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: December 10, 1856
George W. Brown dictated this letter to Hiram Hill from the Herald of Freedom newspaper office in Lawrence, Kansas Territory. Brown thanked Hill and his fellow citizens of Williamsburgh for the financial gift that they had sent to the newspaper, and also for their material support to the citizens of Kansas. He closed by reiterating the newspaper's commitment to the cause of freedom.


George Washington Brown to friends

George Washington Brown to friends
Creator: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: August, 1856
This unsigned letter, probably, is written by George Washington Brown while he was being held prisoner at a camp near Lecompton, Kansas Territory, on treason charges,. He offers military advice to free state leaders and comments on events in the Lecompton area.


James Abbott a certified agent of the Kansas Herald of Freedom

James Abbott a certified agent of the Kansas Herald of Freedom
Creator: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: July 10, 1855
This certificate granted James Abbott, of Blanton, Kansas Territory, agency to sell subscriptions to the Kansas Herald of Freedom newspaper. The document was signed and sealed by George W. Brown, publisher and editor of the free state paper.


James H. Lane to Charles Robinson et al

James H. Lane to Charles Robinson et al
Creator: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: August 10, 1856
In a brief letter from Topeka that is very difficult to decipher, Jim Lane informs Robinson, Gen. George W. Deitzler, George W. Brown, John Brown, "& others" of his arrival with "a sufficient force" to do battle for the free state cause. He seems to counsel quick and decisive action. The men to whom Lane wrote were prisoners at Lecompton, Kansas Territory. The "John Brown" mentioned in this letter was John Brown, Jr.


Kansas A Free State. Squatter Sovereignty Vindicated!

Kansas A Free State. Squatter Sovereignty Vindicated!
Date: September 24, 1855
This broadside advertises a series of mass meetings in support of the free state cause, with Charles Robinson as the speaker.


Kansas Territory, U.S. District Court, 2nd District versus Andrew Reeder, Charles Robinson, James H. Lane and others, for treason

Kansas Territory, U.S. District Court, 2nd District versus Andrew Reeder, Charles Robinson, James H. Lane and others, for treason
Date: 1856
Material relating to the Kansas Territory, U.S. District Court, 2nd District versus Andrew H. Reeder, Charles Robinson, James H. Lane, George W. Brown, Samuel N. Wood, George W. Deitzler, George W. Smith, and Gaius Jenkins on the count of treason.


Notice!! to the public!

Notice!! to the public!
Creator: Realf, Richard, 1834-1878
Date: July 14, 1857
In this poster, Richard Realf publicly declares that George W. Brown, editor of the "Herald of Freedom" in Lawrence, Kansas Territory,is a liar, slanderer, and coward.


Shall Kansas be free?

Shall Kansas be free?
Creator: Barker, Stephen
Date: February 7, 1855
This printed letter is an advertisement for the Kansas "Herald Of Freedom" newspaper. The newspaper is supported by the New England Emigrant Aid Company and the letter describes how the company and the newspaper support Kansas Territory's entrance into the Union as a free state. It attempts to persuade other Bostonians to support the newspaper and its work on behalf of the free state cause.


T. J. Marsh to George L. Stearns

T. J. Marsh to George L. Stearns
Creator: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: July 21, 1857
From Lawrence, Kansas Territory, Marsh writes his third letter in four days to keep his Massachusetts colleague informed about Gov. Walker's occupation of Lawrence. Marsh, who had known the governor when he was secretary of the treasury under President James K. Polk, had a chance to visit with Walker but learned nothing regarding his current intentions. The letter indicates that the city's residents were "attending to their ordinary affairs as though he were not in their midst"--with some 600 dragoons. Marsh then mentions, among other things, his visit with G. W. Brown, one of the "hostile chiefs." As with the others, Marsh reportedly emphasizes the importance of harmony through the elections and the fact "that their differences was a source of grief to all their friends East, no matter who was right, or who was wrong."


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