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Charles W. Waddell to Governor George Hodges

Charles W. Waddell to Governor George Hodges
Creator: Waddell, Charlis, W
Date: June 28, 1914
This letter from Charles W. Waddell was sent to Governor George Hodges to express his thoughts on the possible passage of a Jim Crow law in Kansas. Waddell, a Wisconsin resident and a supporter of Jim Crow, claimed that if the people of Kansas understood who the Negro was, then the law would pass with little opposition. In Waddell's letter he suggests that Governor Hodges supports the passing of the Jim Crow law. Hodges had made a speech to the Kansas House of Representatives in January of 1913 publicly discouraging the passing of any Jim Crow laws in Kansas. The Jim Crow law did not pass. Blacks in Kansas did experience discrimination from Jim Crow laws such as poll taxing and segregated elementary schools. Jim Crow laws were not officially outlawed nationwide until the mid to late 1960s.


Citizens of Wellington, Kansas, to Governor George Hodges

Citizens of Wellington, Kansas, to Governor George Hodges
Creator: Citizens of Wellington Kansas
Date: January 11, 1913
This letter was submitted by Jesse Brower on behalf of the citizens of Wellington, Kansas, to Kansas Governor George Hodges concerning the possible passage of a Jim Crow law in Kansas. Brower explained how Jim Crow laws denied black people their basic rights as citizens. The letter goes on to remind Governor Hodges that African Americans had always been loyal, law abiding citizens. He argues that forcing them to live under the rules of Jim Crow would have been shameful and embarrassing. Jim Crow laws were in place in almost all fifty states during this time, especially in the South. Although this particular law failed to pass in Kansas, it would take another fifty-five to sixty years for such laws to be overturned nationwide. The term "Jim Crow" referred to a caricature of a black man in a popular minstrel song of the same name during the late nineteenth century.


D. H. Holt to Governor George Hartshorn Hodges

D. H. Holt to Governor George Hartshorn Hodges
Creator: Holt, D. H.
Date: May 14, 1913
The cashier of the Kansas State Mineral Bank in West Mineral (Cherokee County), D. H. Holt, writes Governor George Hodges of Topeka, Kansas, to inform him of his bank's stand against the illegal trade in liquor. Mr. Holt claims the liquor trade so dominates the county that banks are compelled to participate by accepting drafts (an order in writing to pay money) from Brewery Companies drawn against their customer's intent to pay. The cashier describes his successful effort to stop this practice at his bank. The letter also describes the seizure of a railroad car containing beer and subsequent investigations. This letter comes shortly after passage of the Webb-Kenyon Act by Congress early in 1913. The act gave states the right to regulate or prohibit the importation of liquor across their boundaries. Shortly thereafter, the Kansas legislature passed the Mahin bill which made the provisions of the Webb bill effective in Kansas. Kansas first adopted a constitutional amendment on prohibition in 1881 and by 1909 had outlawed the sale of liquor for medicinal purposes.


G.W. Lowry to Governor George Hodges

G.W. Lowry to Governor George Hodges
Creator: G.W. Lowry
Date: January 18, 1913
This letter was written by G.W. Lowry to Governor George Hodges. Lowry thanked Governor Hodges for a speech he had recently made to the Kansas House of Representatives discouraging the passage of a Jim Crow law. Lowry was pleased to learn that the Governor opposed the law and that true democracy could still be found in Kansas. This particular Jim Crow law did not pass in Kansas. Many black Kansans at this time were experiencing Jim Crow laws by segregated elementary schools in first class cities and having to pay a poll tax at voting booths. Up until the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s few if any changes were made to Jim Crow laws nationwide, especially in the South.


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