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About Nicodemus, The Daily Journal

About Nicodemus, The Daily Journal
Creator: Lawrence Daily Journal
Date: April 30, 1879
This article from the Lawrence Daily Journal discusses a newspaper article from the Chicago Tribune written during the Exoduster Movement in 1879 providing a brief history of the black community of freed people at Nicodemus, Kansas settled in 1877. Nicodemus is now a historic site administered by the National Parks Service.


Boston Corbett's dugout in Cloud County, Kansas

Boston Corbett's dugout in Cloud County, Kansas
Date: Between 1878 and 1889
This black and white photograph shows a sketch of Boston Corbett's dugout in Cloud County, Kansas.


Buttons from the Plaster House, 14GY307

Buttons from the Plaster House, 14GY307
Date: 1879-1899
These eleven buttons were excavated at the Plaster House site in Gray County, possibly a late 19th- or early 20th-century dugout. They include buttons for children, adults, ladies dresses, and work pants. They are made of glass, metal, jet, shell and rubber. The occupants of the dugout were most likely the family of Oliver and Anna Mitchell; Oliver Mitchell was described in his obituary as a horse rancher. Settlement in this area of Kansas mostly post-dated the construction of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad in 1872 and experienced a boom during with the construction of the Soule Canal in the mid-1880s.


Buttons from the Plaster House, 14GY307

Buttons from the Plaster House, 14GY307
Date: 1879-1899
These buttons were excavated at the Plaster House site in Gray County, possibly a late 19th- or early 20th-century dugout. They include buttons for ladies dresses and shirts. They are made of glass and jet, two have loop attachments, one is a 2-hole sew-through, and the last a 4-hole sew-through. The occupants of the dugout were most likely the family of Oliver and Anna Mitchell; Oliver Mitchell was described in his obituary as a horse rancher. Settlement in this area of Kansas mostly post-dated the construction of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad in 1872 and was at least partially associated experienced a boom during with the construction of the Soule Canal in the mid-1880s.


Candy Dish from the Plaster House, 14GY307

Candy Dish from the Plaster House, 14GY307
Date: 1879-1899
These candy dish fragments were excavated at the Plaster House site in Gray County, possibly a late 19th- or early 20th-century dugout. The fragments were reconstructed in the archeology lab. The dish is decorated in etched floral and cut linear patterns. The occupants of the dugout were most likely the family of Oliver and Anna Mitchell; Oliver Mitchell was described in his obituary as a horse rancher. Settlement in this area of Kansas mostly post-dated the construction of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad in 1872 and experienced a boom during with the construction of the Soule Canal in the mid-1880s.


Cream Pitcher from the Plaster House, 14GY307

Cream Pitcher from the Plaster House, 14GY307
Date: 1879-1899
This reconstructed ceramicpitcher was excavated at the Plaster House site in Gray County, possibly a late 19th- or early 20th-century dugout. It is decorated with a blue and brown floral transferware pattern. The occupants of the dugout were most likely the family of Oliver and Anna Mitchell; Oliver Mitchell was described in his obituary as a horse rancher. Settlement in this area of Kansas mostly post-dated the construction of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad in 1872 and experienced a boom during with the construction of the Soule Canal in the mid-1880s.


Dish Sherds from the Plaster House, 14GY307

Dish Sherds from the Plaster House, 14GY307
Date: 1879-1899
These two dish sherds were recovered from excavations at the Plaster House site, a dugout in Gray County. The cup sherd is decorated with transferware printing in a brown floral pattern. The purple pressed glass dish sherd was made by pressing molten glass into a mold. The occupants of the dugout were most likely the family of Oliver and Anna Mitchell; Oliver Mitchell was described in his obituary as a horse rancher. Settlement in this area of Kansas mostly post-dated the construction of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad in 1872 and experienced a boom during with the construction of the Soule Canal in the mid-1880s.


Dugout belonging to Luther Kreigh, Stanton County, Kansas

Dugout belonging to Luther Kreigh, Stanton County, Kansas
Date: Between 1960 and 1965
This dugout was located on the homestead of Luther Kreigh, on the west side of present-day Highway 27, seven miles north of Johnson City, Stanton County, Kansas. Luther Kreigh ran the stage line and mail hack between Syracuse and Richfield and this dugout served as a stage stop on that line. The stage changed teams here and a post office located in the building was called on the maps "Liverpool."


Dugout, Greeley County, Kansas

Dugout, Greeley County, Kansas
Date: Between 1890 and 1910
An unidentified dugout, Greeley County, Kansas.


Dugout home in Greeley County, Kansas

Dugout home in Greeley County, Kansas
Date: 1909
This black and white photograph shows a homesteader in front of a dugout in Greeley County, Kansas. Visible in the background is a barn and a team of mules tied to a wagon.


Dugout home of Mrs. Norman Webster, Morton County, Kansas

Dugout home of Mrs. Norman Webster, Morton County, Kansas
Date: Between 1890 and 1895
This is a photograph of Mrs. Norman Webster's dugout home, Morton County, Kansas.


Dugout houses, Greeley County, Kansas

Dugout houses, Greeley County, Kansas
Date: Between 1880 and 1910
These photographs show several dugouts with pitched roofs and chimneys in Greeley County, Kansas. Several residents, a dog, and a windmill are also visible.


Dugout in Hamilton County, Kansas

Dugout in Hamilton County, Kansas
Date: 1908
This photograph shows a family with their dugout and windmill in Hamilton County, Kansas.


Dugout, Norton County, Kansas

Dugout, Norton County, Kansas
Date: Between 1880 and 1890
This photograph shows a family posed in front of their dugout in Norton County, Kansas. The dugout appears to have some sod walls. Patron provided information notes J.S. Humphrey (John S.) and son, Seldon Humphrey, pictured.


Dugout, Osborne County, Kansas

Dugout, Osborne County, Kansas
Date: Between 1870s and 1880s
This stereograph shows three men and a dog standing before a stoned front dugout in Osborne, Kansas.


Dugout, Riley County, Kansas

Dugout, Riley County, Kansas
Date: Between 1870s and 1880s
This black and white photograph shows a family gathered in front of a dugout located somewhere between Manhattan, Kansas, and Wabaunsee, Kansas. Dugouts such as this one were common dwellings on the plains of Kansas due to the lack of wood and other natural resources.


Dugout, Sheridan County, Kansas

Dugout, Sheridan County, Kansas
Date: 1889
A bachelor's dugout, located south of the Solomon River near Studley, Sheridan County, Kansas. This dugout was used by Abraham, John Fenton, and Tom Pratt; their half-brother James Kirk; and Charlie and Jim Foster when the men first arrived in Sheridan County from Yorkshire, England, prior to 1885.


Family and sod home, Finney County, Kansas

Family and sod home, Finney County, Kansas
Creator: Wolf, Henry L. 1850-1924
Date: Between 1890 and 1900
The photograph shows an unidentified family standing in front of a sod house or dugout in Finney County, Kansas.


Frank Clare's family, Finney County, Kansas

Frank Clare's family, Finney County, Kansas
Date: Between 1900 and 1910
This photograph shows Frank Clare's family outside of his residence. Maude Elliott wrote on the back of the photograph about Frank Clare: Frank Clare was the clerk of the school board, even though he could not write his own name. Elliott believed he had the nicest house in the district, half of it was a dugout and the other half was above ground, as seen in the photograph. Frank Clare was said to have been a criminal, he stole cattle, and ended up in a shoot out in a bar in Garden City.


Hole-In-Top Can from the Plaster House, 14GY307

Hole-In-Top Can from the Plaster House, 14GY307
Date: 1879-1899
This flattened can was recovered from excavations at the Plaster House site, a dugout in Gray County. The tin can was filled through a large hole in the top. After filling, a cap was soldered into place with lead and a pin-hole opening left for steam to vent. This final hole was also sealed with lead. Archeologists can learn much from a discarded can, such as the occupants eating habits, finances, and trading patterns. The occupants of the dugout were most likely the family of Oliver and Anna Mitchell; Oliver Mitchell was described in his obituary as a horse rancher. Settlement in this area of Kansas mostly post-dated the construction of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad in 1872 and experienced a boom during with the construction of the Soule Canal in the mid-1880s.


Interior view of bachelor's dugout

Interior view of bachelor's dugout
Date: 1900
Interior view of the furnishings and decor of a bachelor's dugout in Hamilton County, Kansas.


Marbles from the Plaster House, 14GY307

Marbles from the Plaster House, 14GY307
Date: 1879-1899
These marbles were excavated at the Plaster House site in Gray County, a late 19th- or early 20th-century dugout. The marbles are made of clay and glass and represent hours of fun. The occupants of the dugout were most likely the family of Oliver and Anna Mitchell; Oliver Mitchell was described in his obituary as a horse rancher. Settlement in this area of Kansas mostly post-dated the construction of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad in 1872 and experienced a boom during with the construction of the Soule Canal in the mid-1880s.


Marbles from the Plaster House, 14GY307

Marbles from the Plaster House, 14GY307
Date: 1861-1910
These were recovered from the Plaster House site in Gray County during excavations by Kansas Historical Society archeologists. The Plaster House is possibly a late 19th or early 20th century dugout. It may have been associated with the nearby Soule Canal or be an unrelated railroad or ranch occupation. The marbles are made of clay, glass, and a ceramic type called Bennington. They represent hours of fun at the house.


Mead family dugout in Ford County, Kansas

Mead family dugout in Ford County, Kansas
Date: 1906
In this photograph, the L.A. Mead family stands outside their dugout located one mile north of Bloom, Kansas. In the photograph is Esther, the mother of L. A. Mead, Carl Mead, Mina Mead, Elsie Mead, Mrs. L. A. Mead, and L. A. Mead. Kneeling in front is Mrs. S. R. Mead, Sister-in-Law to L. A. Mead and Edna Mead. Dugouts such as this, as well as sod houses, were common dwelling places on the high plains of Kansas due to the lack of wood and other natural resources. This family was fortunate enough to have glass windows, wood siding, and a stovepipe; these amenities would have been considered luxuries by many pioneers out west. A photograph of the interior of this dwelling can be found at unit ID 205534.


Mead family dugout near Bloom in Ford County, Kansas

Mead family dugout near Bloom in Ford County, Kansas
Date: 1906
This photograph shows the interior of the L. A. Mead family dugout near Bloom, Ford County Kansas, clearly illustrating the cramped living conditions that the family endured during their stay in this residence. An exterior view of the dwelling showing the Mead family can be found at unit ID 205533.


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