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About Nicodemus, The Daily Journal

About Nicodemus, The Daily Journal
Creator: Lawrence Daily Journal
Date: April 30, 1879
This article from the Lawrence Daily Journal discusses a newspaper article from the Chicago Tribune written during the Exoduster Movement in 1879 providing a brief history of the black community of freed people at Nicodemus, Kansas settled in 1877. Nicodemus is now a historic site administered by the National Parks Service.


Boston Corbett's dugout in Cloud County, Kansas

Boston Corbett's dugout in Cloud County, Kansas
Date: Between 1878 and 1889
This black and white photograph shows a sketch of Boston Corbett's dugout in Cloud County, Kansas.


Buttons from the Plaster House, 14GY307

Buttons from the Plaster House, 14GY307
Date: 1879-1899
These eleven buttons were excavated at the Plaster House site in Gray County, possibly a late 19th- or early 20th-century dugout. They include buttons for children, adults, ladies dresses, and work pants. They are made of glass, metal, jet, shell and rubber. The occupants of the dugout were most likely the family of Oliver and Anna Mitchell; Oliver Mitchell was described in his obituary as a horse rancher. Settlement in this area of Kansas mostly post-dated the construction of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad in 1872 and was at least partially associated experienced a boom during with the construction of the Soule Canal in the mid-1880s.


Dish Sherds from the Plaster House, 14GY307

Dish Sherds from the Plaster House, 14GY307
Date: 1879-1899
These two dish sherds were recovered from excavations at the Plaster House site, a dugout in Gray County. The cup sherd is decorated with transferware printing in a brown floral pattern. The purple pressed glass dish sherd was made by pressing molten glass into a mold. The occupants of the dugout were most likely the family of Oliver and Anna Mitchell; Oliver Mitchell was described in his obituary as a horse rancher. Settlement in this area of Kansas mostly post-dated the construction of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad in 1872 and was at least partially associated experienced a boom during with the construction of the Soule Canal in the mid-1880s.


Dugout belonging to Luther Kreigh, Stanton County, Kansas

Dugout belonging to Luther Kreigh, Stanton County, Kansas
Date: Between 1960 and 1965
This dugout was located on the homestead of Luther Kreigh, on the west side of present-day Highway 27, seven miles north of Johnson City, Stanton County, Kansas. Luther Kreigh ran the stage line and mail hack between Syracuse and Richfield and this dugout served as a stage stop on that line. The stage changed teams here and a post office located in the building was called on the maps "Liverpool."


Dugout, Greeley County, Kansas

Dugout, Greeley County, Kansas
Date: Between 1890 and 1910
An unidentified dugout, Greeley County, Kansas.


Dugout home in Greeley County, Kansas

Dugout home in Greeley County, Kansas
Date: 1909
This black and white photograph shows a homesteader in front of a dugout in Greeley County, Kansas. Visible in the background is a barn and a team of mules tied to a wagon.


Dugout home of Mrs. Norman Webster, Morton County, Kansas

Dugout home of Mrs. Norman Webster, Morton County, Kansas
Date: Between 1890 and 1895
This is a photograph of Mrs. Norman Webster's dugout home, Morton County, Kansas.


Dugout houses, Greeley County, Kansas

Dugout houses, Greeley County, Kansas
Date: Between 1880 and 1910
These photographs show several dugouts with pitched roofs and chimneys in Greeley County, Kansas. Several residents, a dog, and a windmill are also visible.


Dugout in Hamilton County, Kansas

Dugout in Hamilton County, Kansas
Date: 1908
This photograph shows a family with their dugout and windmill in Hamilton County, Kansas.


Dugout, Norton County, Kansas

Dugout, Norton County, Kansas
Date: Between 1880 and 1890
This photograph shows a family posed in front of their dugout in Norton County, Kansas. The dugout appears to have some sod walls.


Dugout, Osborne County, Kansas

Dugout, Osborne County, Kansas
Date: Between 1870s and 1880s
This stereograph shows three men and a dog standing before a stoned front dugout in Osborne, Kansas.


Dugout, Riley County, Kansas

Dugout, Riley County, Kansas
Date: Between 1870s and 1880s
This black and white photograph shows a family gathered in front of a dugout located somewhere between Manhattan, Kansas, and Wabaunsee, Kansas. Dugouts such as this one were common dwellings on the plains of Kansas due to the lack of wood and other natural resources.


Dugout, Sheridan County, Kansas

Dugout, Sheridan County, Kansas
Date: 1889
A bachelor's dugout, located south of the Solomon River near Studley, Sheridan County, Kansas. This dugout was used by Abraham, John Fenton, and Tom Pratt; their half-brother James Kirk; and Charlie and Jim Foster when the men first arrived in Sheridan County from Yorkshire, England, prior to 1885.


Family and sod home, Finney County, Kansas

Family and sod home, Finney County, Kansas
Creator: Wolf, Henry L. 1850-1924
Date: Between 1890 and 1900
The photograph shows an unidentified family standing in front of a sod house or dugout in Finney County, Kansas.


Frank Clare's family, Finney County, Kansas

Frank Clare's family, Finney County, Kansas
Date: Between 1900 and 1910
This photograph shows Frank Clare's family outside of his residence. Maude Elliott wrote on the back of the photograph about Frank Clare: Frank Clare was the clerk of the school board, even though he could not write his own name. Elliott believed he had the nicest house in the district, half of it was a dugout and the other half was above ground, as seen in the photograph. Frank Clare was said to have been a criminal, he stole cattle, and ended up in a shoot out in a bar in Garden City.


Hole-In-Top Can from the Plaster House, 14GY307

Hole-In-Top Can from the Plaster House, 14GY307
Date: 1879-1899
This flattened can was recovered from excavations at the Plaster House site, a dugout in Gray County. The tin can was filled through a large hole in the top. After filling, a cap was soldered into place with lead and a pin-hole opening left for steam to vent. This final hole was also sealed with lead. Archeologists can learn much from a discarded can, such as the occupants eating habits, finances, and trading patterns. The occupants of the dugout were most likely the family of Oliver and Anna Mitchell; Oliver Mitchell was described in his obituary as a horse rancher. Settlement in this area of Kansas mostly post-dated the construction of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad in 1872 and was at least partially associated experienced a boom during with the construction of the Soule Canal in the mid-1880s.


Interior view of bachelor's dugout

Interior view of bachelor's dugout
Date: 1900
Interior view of the furnishings and decor of a bachelor's dugout in Hamilton County, Kansas.


Marbles from the Plaster House, 14GY307

Marbles from the Plaster House, 14GY307
Date: 1861-1910
These were recovered from the Plaster House site in Gray County during excavations by Kansas Historical Society archeologists. The Plaster House is possibly a late 19th or early 20th century dugout. It may have been associated with the nearby Soule Canal or be an unrelated railroad or ranch occupation. The marbles are made of clay, glass, and a ceramic type called Bennington. They represent hours of fun at the house.


Mead family dugout in Ford County, Kansas

Mead family dugout in Ford County, Kansas
Date: Between 1890 and 1910
In this undated photograph, the L.A. Mead family stands outside their dugout located near Bloom, Ford County. Dugouts such as this, as well as sod houses, were common dwelling places on the high plains of Kansas due to the lack of wood and other natural resources. This family was fortunate enough to have glass windows, wood siding, and a stovepipe; these amenities would have been considered luxuries by many pioneers out west.


Mead family dugout near Bloom in Ford County, Kansas

Mead family dugout near Bloom in Ford County, Kansas
Date: Between 1870 and 1890
This photograph shows the interior of the L. A. Mead family dugout near Bloom, Ford County, clearly illustrating the cramped living conditions that the family endured during their stay in this residence.


Mrs. Lawrence Claar to Kansas State Historical Society

Mrs. Lawrence Claar to Kansas State Historical Society
Creator: Claar, Mrs. Lawrence
Date: March 17, 1946
This is a letter from Mrs. Lawrence Claar, Oberlin, Kansas, to the Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka, Kansas. In the letter, Mrs. Claar writes that she is sending a story that describes a Kansas settlement called "Old Hawkeye". Along with the letter is the actual "Old Hawkeye" story to which she refers. The story is told by Amy G.C. Rezner, aunt to Mrs. Claar's husband, Lawrence.


Philip Bright diary

Philip Bright diary
Creator: Bright, Philip T., d. 1873
Date: August 1870 - October 1872
This diary comprises part of series three of the Abbie Bright Papers. Abbie's brother Philip wrote the diary during his stay in Kansas. Around 1870, Philip Bright moved to Kansas and took up a claim near present-day Clearwater in Sedgwick County. Abbie came to visit him soon after. The diary describes Philip's experience settling in Kansas in many very brief entries. It describes his travels, building a dugout, buffalo hunting, his health, raising stock, and helping his neighbors. The diary also includes accounts, a calendar of work, and information on his soldier's pension. Philip Bright did not settle permanently in Kansas. He accumulated a substantial amount of money and moved to Texas and then to Arizona by 1873 where he was murdered in his sleep and robbed.


Potters' dugout, Logan County, Kansas

Potters' dugout, Logan County, Kansas
Date: Between 1890 and 1899
In this photograph, the Potters are sitting in front of their dugout in Logan County, Kansas.


Rubber Buttons from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site, 14GH102

Rubber Buttons from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site, 14GH102
Date: 1877-1910
These three hard rubber buttons were recovered from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout site a domestic site related to the settlement of Nicodemus, Kansas, an all black community in Graham County. Two of the buttons were recovered during the 2006 archeological field school excavations by Washburn University (WU) and were later donated to the Kansas Historical Society. The other button was recovered during the 2007 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school (KATP). The button on the far left was recovered at the KATP and is identical in its molded lines and pin-head shank style to the one in the center recovered at WU's excavations. The button on the right has a herringbone pattern on the front and a back stamp stating "I. R. C. Co. Goodyear 1851," indicating it was manufactured by the India Rubber Comb Co. These types of buttons were most popular in the 1880s and 1890s.


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