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1855 map of Richardson (Wabaunsee) County, Kansas

1855 map of Richardson (Wabaunsee) County, Kansas
Date: 1855
This map shows the original Wabaunsee (Richardson) County boundaries which existed prior to a realignment of the borders with Morris County in 1870 and Riley County in 1871. Approximately 72 square miles were removed in the first action and 54 square miles in the latter. Notice the Potawatomi Reservation in the upper right section of the county and the Kaw Reserve in the lower left portion.


A.M. Coville to George W. Martin

A.M. Coville to George W. Martin
Creator: Coville, A.M.
Date: March 27, 1909
In this letter to Kansas State Historical Society Secretary Geroge W. Martin, A.M. Coville relates his knowledge of the Kaw Indian White Plume. Coville explains that when he first met White Plume in 1875 he "claimed to be over 90 years old, and he certainly looked to be 100. His hair was white his face wrinkled and features shrunken." Coville also mentions that White Plume had survived an attack with the "Plains Indians" in which he had been scalped, surviving only by being rescued by his tribesmen.


A New Home in an Old Settlement:  Come  and see the "New Land in an Old Country"

A New Home in an Old Settlement: Come and see the "New Land in an Old Country"
Date: May 1, 1876
This paper advertises for sale land, formerly owned by the Pottawatomie Nation, from 1837 to 1868, and then purchased by the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Rail Road Company. On the reverse side of the paper is a sectional map showing the area and identifying those lands that were still for sale by the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Company. The text gives brief descriptions of the cities and towns in the area; the railroads available; fuel and lumber that are native to the area; and, descriptions and prices of the land.


Abelard Guthrie

Abelard Guthrie
Abelard Guthrie was a member of the Wyandot tribe through his marriage to his wife Quindaro Nancy. He was elected as the Wyandot delegate to Congress in 1852. He was involved in the development of the town of Quindaro and had business dealing with numerous early territorial settlers.


Albert C. Morton to Hiram Hill

Albert C. Morton to Hiram Hill
Creator: Morton, Albert C.
Date: February 27, 1858
Albert Morton wrote from Quindaro, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Morton predicted a good property market for the coming spring, despite the "hard money matters" which had been the situation during the winter. He reported that the Shawnee lands would open soon, to have them paid for by the end of the summer, and that Hill's land investments in Manhattan were "in good standing". Morton added that Samuel Simpson has been busy lately, traveling back and forth from Quindaro to Lawrence.


Albert C. Morton to Hiram Hill

Albert C. Morton to Hiram Hill
Creator: Morton, Albert C.
Date: April 30, 1858
Albert Morton wrote from Quindaro, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill in Massachusetts. Morton reported that the arrival of two new Eastern businessmen had brought business growth to the town, including a sash and blind factory and new three-story brick building. Despite these new constructions, Morton described the atmosphere as "dull". Though it was a bad time to sell land, since money was scarce, with the recent opening of Indian lands to settlement it was an optimum time to buy land at a low price.


Albert G. Boone to Thomas Nesbit Stinson

Albert G. Boone to Thomas Nesbit Stinson
Creator: Boone, Albert G.
Date: January 16, 1860
Albert G. Boone, writing from Westport, Missouri, to Thomas N. Stinson, described his unsuccessful efforts to sell a printing press for Stinson. Boone suggested that Stinson contact "Free Statemen" with whom he was on good terms to see if they could help him sell it. Boone added a postscript to the letter asking about the prospects of a treaty with the Pottawatomie.


Alfred Gray to George W. Patterson

Alfred Gray to George W. Patterson
Creator: Gray, Alfred, 1830-1880
Date: June 18, 1860
Gray wrote this draft of a letter to George W. Patterson concerning a treaty between the U. S. government and the Delaware Indians at the request of Rev. Pratt, a missionary to the tribe. Gray was concerned that the treaty was unfair to many of the Delaware and that the U.S. government was negotiating with four older chiefs, not some of the younger members of the tribe. He wrote that many of the Delaware were too intimidated to complain.


Amelia Josephine Labedia to James W. Denver

Amelia Josephine Labedia to James W. Denver
Creator: Labedia, Amelia Josephine
Date: March 8, 1857
Amelia Labedia, a Native American from one of the New York Indian tribes, wrote this letter of complaint to James W. Denver, Commissioner of Indian Affairs. She was angered by white squatters who mistreated these native tribes by burning down their houses, ransacking their fields, and driving them off their land. White settlers had no legal claim to these lands, but they settled on them nevertheless. The New York Indian tribes--which consisted of the Seneca, Onodaga, Cayuga, Tuscarora, Oneida, St. Regis, Stockbridge, Munsee, and Brothertown nations--had been given land in Kansas Territory according to the treaty of 1838.


Andrew H. Reeder's instructions about his land claim in the Wyandotte Float

Andrew H. Reeder's instructions about his land claim in the Wyandotte Float
Creator: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: [1857]
This document, obviously written by Andrew H. Reeder either to the surveyor or to Reeder's attorney, John A. Halderman, is undated but was most likely composed in 1857. It addresses issues related to the location of Reeder's claim to land in the Wyandotte Float in the Kansas Territory.


Andrew H. Reeder to John A. Haldeman

Andrew H. Reeder to John A. Haldeman
Creator: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: October 06, 1855
In this letter to John A. Haldeman, Andrew H. Reeder informs Haldeman that he has been told that "a new assessment of $5 per share to pay for a Wyandot float of 640 acres has been laid on the town of Tecumseh."


Andrew H. Reeder to John A. Haldeman

Andrew H. Reeder to John A. Haldeman
Creator: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: August 11, 1856
In this letter to John A. Haldeman, Andrew H. Reeder discusses the "sacking of Lawrence," the loss of papers related to the sale on lands that once belonged to Indians, and the use of Haldeman as his agent for his lots in Leavenworth, Kansas. As Reeder's letter indicates, the transition of Indian lands into the hands of white settlers was often quite difficult and added to tension levels in Kansas in the wake of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854.


Andrew H. Reeder to John A. Halderman

Andrew H. Reeder to John A. Halderman
Creator: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: August 11, 1856
The former governor writes this letter from Easton, Pennsylvania, to his former secretary and attorney, John A. Halderman, in order to secure Halderman's services to retrieve some personal papers and settle some matters of business pertaining to town lots and shares. According to Reeder, "the Sheriff posse at the sacking of Lawrence broke open my trunk and stole the contents. The clothing is probably by this time worn out," and he is not concerned about other contents, with the exception of "some private papers" that someone had informed him could be retrieved. He asks Halderman to get the papers, which included "certificates of stock in Leavenworth, Tecumseh, Lecompton, Lawrence, Easton, Pawnee" etc., and then take care of business matters that are reflected therein. Reeder also asks Halderman "to attend to my Leavenworth lots" and explains in considerable detail about these matters.


Andrew H. Reeder to John A. Halderman

Andrew H. Reeder to John A. Halderman
Creator: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: October 6, 1855
This 1855 letter to John A. Halderman from former territorial governor Andrew H. Reeder of Westport, Kansas Territory, describes a new assessment of $5 per share for the town of Tecumseh's 640 acre Wyandot Float. Reeder also discusses the erection of a court house with bricks that had been intended for a hotel.


Andrew J. Mead to John A. Haldeman

Andrew J. Mead to John A. Haldeman
Date: July 12, 1856
In this letter to John A. Haldeman, Andrew J. Mead asks if he knows of a portion of the Wyandotte Float that was available for sale. The Wyandotte Floats were originally set aside for the Wyandotte Tribe. However, the flexible nature of the Floats allowed them to be more easily transferred to white settlers once the U.S. Government decided to remove Native Indians from the newly created territories of Kansas and Nebraska.


Andrew Jackson Isacks to General James William Denver

Andrew Jackson Isacks to General James William Denver
Creator: Isacks, Andrew Jackson
Date: February 01, 1858
In this letter to General James W. Denver, Kansas Territory Attorney General Andrew J. Isacks addresses his recent purchase of the "lands of the Christian Indians." Isacks explains that the Christian Indians were "content to live upon any other four sections of land that I might get for them, if the Delawares were not disposed to receive them."


A story of the Shawanoes (Shawnee)

A story of the Shawanoes (Shawnee)
Creator: Rayner, John Allen
Date: 1886
This reminiscence by George Bluejacket, a Shawnee (Shawanoe) Indian originally from Ohio, tells the creation story of the Shawnee people as well as the history of his own tribe. Although his story ends before the Shawnee were relocated to Kansas (then called Indian Territory), it appears that he relocated with the rest of his tribe. The reminiscence was recorded by John Allen Rayner, and the first page of the document is an explanatory letter written by Rayner.


Black Hawk, Sauk Indian

Black Hawk, Sauk Indian
Creator: Catlin, George, 1796-1872
Date: 1832
This portrait, painted by the well-known artist George Catlin, depicts the fierce leader of the Sauk and Fox tribe after his arrest in 1832. Black Hawk and some of his tribe had resisted their removal to lands west of the Mississippi River, but the Black Hawk War, as it came to be known, ended in defeat. The original of this portrait is on exhibit at the National Portrait Gallery, which is part of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.


Blue Earth Village in Pottawatomie County, Kansas

Blue Earth Village in Pottawatomie County, Kansas
Date: Between 1900 and 1905
This map shows the Kansa Indian Blue Earth Village in Pottawatomie County, Kansas, active 1780-1830. The archeological site number is 14PO24.


Boomer Camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas

Boomer Camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas
Creator: Mitchell & DeGroff
Date: Between 1886 and 1889
This sepia colored photograph shows a group of "boomers" near the banks of the Walnut River in Arkansas City, Kansas. The "boomers" were white settlers who were attempting to settle in the Indian Territory of Oklahoma. Some of the "boomers" would camp near the Kansas and Oklahoma border waiting to enter the territory to claim land that had not been assigned to Indian tribes. Many of the settlers believed that the unassigned land was in the public domain under the Homestead Act of 1862. The land was some of the last that had been set aside for the settlement of Native American tribes after they had been removed from their ancestral lands.


Boomer Camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas

Boomer Camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas
Date: Between 1886 and 1889
This sepia colored photograph shows a "boomer" camp on the banks of the Walnut River in Arkansas City, Kansas. The "boomers" were white settlers who were attempting to settle in the Indian Territory of Oklahoma, which was the last area of the nation set aside for Native American tribes. Some of the "boomers" would camp near the Kansas and Oklahoma border waiting to enter the territory to claim land that had not been assigned to Indian Tribes. Many of the settlers believed that the unassigned land was in the public domain under the Homestead Act of 1862.


Boomer Camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas

Boomer Camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas
Creator: Mitchell & DeGroff
Date: 1889
This sepia colored photograph shows a "boomer" camp on the banks of the Walnut River in Arkansas City, Kansas. The "boomers" were white settlers who were attempting to settle in the Indian Territory of Oklahoma. Some of the "boomers" would camp near the Kansas and Oklahoma border waiting to enter the territory to claim land that had not been assigned to Indian Tribes. Many of the settlers believed that the unassigned land was in the public domain under the Homestead Act of 1862, despite the fact that the lands were assigned for the settlement of Native Americans.


Boomer Camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas

Boomer Camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas
Creator: Mitchell & DeGroff
Date: Between 1886 and 1889
This sepia colored photograph shows a couple of "boomers" on the banks of the Walnut River in Arkansas City, Kansas. The "boomers" were white settlers who were attempting to settle in the Indian Territory of Oklahoma. Some of the "boomers would camp near the Kansas and Oklahoma border waiting to enter the territory to claim land that had not been assigned to Indian Tribes. Many of the settlers believed that the unassigned land was in the public domain under the Homestead Act of 1862. The land in question was some of the last land in the United States that had been set aside for Native American tribes, many of which had been removed from their ancestral lands.


Boomer camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas

Boomer camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas
Creator: Mitchell & DeGroff
Date: Between 1886 and 1889
This sepia colored photograph shows a "boomer" camp on the banks of the Walnut River in Arkansas City, Kansas. The "boomers" were white settlers who were attempting to settle in the Indian Territory of Oklahoma. Some of the "boomers" would camp near the Kansas and Oklahoma border waiting to enter the territory to claim land that had not been assigned to Indian Tribes. Many of the settlers believed that the unassigned land was in the public domain under the Homestead Act of 1862.


Boomer camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas

Boomer camp on Walnut River, Arkansas City, Kansas
Creator: Mitchell & DeGroff
Date: Between 1886 and 1889
This sepia colored photograph shows a "Boomer" camp on the banks of the Walnut River in Arkansas City, Kansas. The "Boomers" were white settlers who were attempting to settle in the Indian Territory of Oklahoma. Some of the "Boomers" would camp near the Kansas Oklahoma border waiting to enter the territory to claim land that had not been assigned to Indian Tribes and was believed to be in the public domain under the Homestead Act of 1862. The land in question was some of the last few sections of lands set aside by the U.S. Government for the Native American tribes who had been removed from their ancestral lands in other parts of the U.S.


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