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Annals of Kansas, April, 1856

Annals of Kansas, April, 1856
Creator: Wilder, Daniel Webster, 1832-1911
Date: April, 1856


Augustus Wattles to James Smith

Augustus Wattles to James Smith
Creator: Wattles, Augustus, 1807-1876
Date: June 18, 1857
From Lawrence on June 18, 1857, Augustus Wattles wrote Jas. Smith (Is this a Brown alias?) regarding affairs in Kansas Territory, specifically referring to several of the Free State Party's leaders: "Holmes' is at Emporia plowing. Conway's here talking politics. Phillips is here trying to urge the free State men to galvanize the Topeka Constitution into life. . . ." and Robinson had "dispirited the Free State party" by his absence from the legislature last winter, making it "difficult to make them rally again under him." Although one hears "much against Brown" he is "as good as ever."


Certificate of election, James Abbott, Representative to the General Assembly of Kansas

Certificate of election, James Abbott, Representative to the General Assembly of Kansas
Creator: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: February 19, 1856
Certification of James Abbott's December 1855 election to the post of Representative for the First Senatorial District in the General Assembly of Kansas under the provisions of the Topeka Constitution. The certificate is signed by James Lane and Joel Goodin, Chairman and Secretary of the Executive Committee, respectively.


Concurrent Resolutions, Topeka Legislature, House and Senate [1858]

Concurrent Resolutions, Topeka Legislature, House and Senate [1858]
Creator: Free State Legislature
Date: no date
These handwritten copies of two, slightly different, concurrent resolutions were passed by the House and the Senate of the Topeka Free-State Legislature, probably in 1858. They established the legitimacy of the state government under the Topeka Constitution, and "respectfully urge[d] the Territorial Legislature, now in session, at Lawrence, to take immediate steps for removing the present forms of a territorial government, so that the legitimate government of the people may become the only government in Kansas."


Constitution Hall, Topeka, Kansas

Constitution Hall, Topeka, Kansas
Date: 1855
An illustration depicting the building where theTopeka Constitutional Convention met in 1855. Delegates assembled at Topeka on October 23, 1855, to draft a constitution. The document was approved on December 15 by a vote of 1,731 to 46. The proslavery--"Law and Order"--party did not participate in the voting on the document. Although Congress rejected this constitution and the request for admission to the Union, the Topeka government kept operating even though its legislature was closed down by U. S. troops on July 4, 1856. This building housed the Kansas legislature in 1864-1869 while the east wing of the state capitol was being built.


Constitution Hall, Topeka, Kansas Territory

Constitution Hall, Topeka, Kansas Territory
Date: 1856
An exterior view of Constitution Hall in Topeka, Kansas Territory, in 1856. The Constitutional Convention met here in 1855, and the Topeka Legislature was expelled from the building by Col. Edwin Vose Sumner in 1856.


Constitutional Convention Proclamation

Constitutional Convention Proclamation
Creator: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: 1855
This broadside signed by J. H. Lane was addressed "to the legal voters of Kansas Territory." It contained a great deal of free state rhetoric about the failure of the territorial government. The proclamation was issued in support of the elections that were to be held by the Topeka Movement to elect delegates to a constitutional convention. This document listed the polling places, instructions to elections judges and qualification for legal voters. J. K. Goodin was listed as secretary.


Cyrus Kurtz Holliday

Cyrus Kurtz Holliday
Cyrus Kurtz Holliday came to Kansas Territory from Meadville, Pennsylvania. He was the first president of the Topeka Town Association and was involved in founding and settling Topeka. He was an agent for the New England Emigrant Aid Company. He was very active in territorial political activities including the Topeka movement. He was a delegate to the Topeka Constitutional Convention.


Cyrus Kurtz Holliday

Cyrus Kurtz Holliday
Date: Between 1850 and 1855
A formal portrait of Cyrus Kurtz Holliday (1826-1900), of Topeka, Kansas. Holliday came to Kansas Territory in 1854 from Meadville, Pennsylvania. He was an agent for the New England Emigrant Aid Company, one of the founders of Topeka, and was the first president of the Topeka Town Association. He was very active in territorial political activities, including the Topeka movement, he was a delegate to the Topeka Constitutional Convention, and served in the Kansas State Senate in 1861. Holliday was also the first president of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, and served as one of the railroad's directors for nearly 40 years.


Cyrus Kurtz Holliday

Cyrus Kurtz Holliday
Date: Between 1880 and 1890
Cyrus Kurtz Holliday, a Kansas pioneer and businessman. He came to the Kansas Territory as an agent for the New England Aid Company. In December of 1854, he helped organize the Topeka Town Association and took an active role in founding and settling Topeka. He served in both the territorial and state legislatures and was a delegate to the Topeka Constitutional Convention. His most notable venture was the construction of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad. Holliday served as president and director of the ATSF from 1860 to 1863. He stepped down as president in 1863, but remained on the board until his death in 1900.


Cyrus Kurtz Holliday

Cyrus Kurtz Holliday
Creator: Bogardus
Date: Between 1870 and 1880
Cyrus Kurtz Holliday a Kansas pioneer and businessman. He came to the Kansas Territory as an agent for the New England Aid Company. In December of 1854, he helped organize the Topeka Town Association and took an active role in founding and settlingTopeka. He served in both the territorial and state legislatures and was a delegate to the Topeka Constitutional Convention. His most notable venture, was the construction of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad. Holliday served as president and director of the ATSF from 1860 to1863. He stepped down as president in 1863, but remained on the board until his death in 1900.


Cyrus Kurtz Holliday to Mary Dillon Holliday

Cyrus Kurtz Holliday to Mary Dillon Holliday
Creator: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: June 16, 1856
Cyrus K. Holliday of Topeka, Kansas Territory advised his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania, to read northern papers for news of Kansas. He repeated that she wait to come. Troops from Fort Riley and Fort Leavenworth led by Colonel Edwin V. Sumner gathered to battle proslavery forces led by General John W. Whitfield. Cyrus also mentioned a house and crops, receiving Mary's money and, despite difficulties, he praised Kansas as a home for settlers.


Cyrus Kurtz Holliday to Mary Dillon Holliday

Cyrus Kurtz Holliday to Mary Dillon Holliday
Creator: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: October 7, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday, founder of Topeka, Kansas Territory, advised his wife in Meadville, Pennsylvania concerning travel. He restated advice from his much longer letter of September 26th. He wrote of his nomination, yet to be confirmed by vote, as a delegate to the Topeka Constitutional Convention. Holliday decided to decline the editorship of The Kansas Freeman. He expressed sympathy for Lizzie Holliday, his wife's sister, and suggested boarding when Mary Holliday and their daughter Lillie arrived, as he had not yet built a house.


Cyrus Kurtz Holliday to Mary Dillon Holliday

Cyrus Kurtz Holliday to Mary Dillon Holliday
Creator: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: August 12, 1855
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania of his journey to Kansas City to obtain a land warrant for Topeka and to attend the Free State Convention. Two of his articles had been published in The Herald of Freedom, a Lawrence newspaper, and he sent copies. Mentioning political difficulties, Holliday suggested that his wife wait until fall to travel to Kansas. He rented out his cabin in Topeka for profit. A deadly cholera epidemic at Fort Riley had ended.


Cyrus Kurtz Holliday to Mary Dillon Holliday

Cyrus Kurtz Holliday to Mary Dillon Holliday
Creator: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: July 2, 1856
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from Topeka, Kansas Territory, where hundreds of free state supporters were gathering for a Mass Convention on the 3rd and meeting of the free state legislature on the 4th, to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. Cyrus reported that U. S. dragoons from Fort Leavenworth and Fort Riley were camped around Topeka, since difficulty was expected. [In fact, U. S. and proslavery troops dispersed the free state legislature on the 4th.) Two companies of northern immigrants had been turned back at the Missouri River. Cyrus seemed skeptical that effective action would be taken against this outrage.


Cyrus Kurtz Holliday to Mary Dillon Holliday

Cyrus Kurtz Holliday to Mary Dillon Holliday
Creator: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: June 22, 1856
During a lull, Cyrus K. Holliday reported from Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania that Colonel Edwin V. Sumner had forced proslavery troops back to Missouri and camped on the border. Two free state men from Wisconsin had killed proslavery supporters near Osawatomie. Governor Wilson Shannon had resigned. A "large mass convention" was planned for July 2nd and 3rd, with a meeting of the free state legislature on the 4th. Cyrus advised Mary and Mr. Nichols to wait until after the 4th to travel to the territory.


Daniel Boone Delaney, pamphlet "The Issue Fairly Presented"

Daniel Boone Delaney, pamphlet "The Issue Fairly Presented"
Creator: Delaney, Daniel Boone, 1877-1956
Date: ca. 1856
This pamplet, voicing the opinions of the Democratic National Committee, charged Black Republicans with inciting violence by their opposition to Kansas' admission to the Union under the Lecompton Constitution. As abolitionists, their "fanatical organization" purposely prolonged the conflict by promoting chaotic Territorial politics via their support of the Topeka movement. The document pointed out the role of emigrant aid societies in settling Kansas, blaming them as a source of conflict since Nebraska had had no aid sociey assistance and was not experiencing violence. Also included in the pamphlet was a summary of a debate in which Michigan's settlement and admission to the Union was compared to the current situation in Kansas Territory.


Election, location of capital of Kansas, Topeka Convention, 1855

Election, location of capital of Kansas, Topeka Convention, 1855
Date: October 23, 1855
The Free-State government held a constitutional convention in Topeka, Kansas Territory, from October 23 through November 11, 1855. One of its actions was to vote on the location for the capital of Kansas. According to these tally sheets, Topeka defeated Lawrence on the second ballot, 20 to 16. Numerous other towns received votes from the convention delegates on the first ballot.


Ephraim Nute to Edward Everett Hale

Ephraim Nute to Edward Everett Hale
Creator: Nute, Ephraim
Date: August 3, 1857
Rev. Ephraim Nute, minister of the Lawrence Unitarian Church, wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Edward Everett Hale, a member of the New England Emigrant Aid Company's Executive Committee. Nute described efforts to establish a high school in Lawrence as well as a university in Kansas Territory. He also advised Hale to pay close attention to the activities of Francis Serenbetz, a German Congregational minister who was the leader of a group of German immigrants who settled in Humboldt, Kansas Territory. In Nute's opinion, Serenbetz was an "unmitigated humbug and nuisance" who came to Kansas for self-interested reasons. Nute urged Hale to stop sending settlers to Kansas who lacked financial resources or a willingness to work to support themselves.


Gen. Lane's Answer to the President's Message, Lawrence Republican Extra

Gen. Lane's Answer to the President's Message, Lawrence Republican Extra
Creator: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: February 13, 1858
This address by General James Lane rebukes President James Buchanan's message about Lane and Kansas Territory. Lane describes the many elections that Kansas had gone through and the intrusions of Missourians into Kansas Territory to rig those elections.


General Order No. 2, Headquarters Kansas Volunteers, For the Protection of the Ballot Box

General Order No. 2, Headquarters Kansas Volunteers, For the Protection of the Ballot Box
Date: July 20, 1857
The 1857 General Order No. 2 established militia divisions and brigades which were to protect the ballot box in Topeka, Kansas Territory. It lists the divisions, brigades, and the superintendents of the divisions and brigades.


George W. Brown named agent for the Kansas Executive Committee

George W. Brown named agent for the Kansas Executive Committee
Creator: Free State Party. Executive Committee
Date: December 10, 1855
Certificate issued by the Free State Executive Committee appointing George Washington Brown, editor of the "Herald of Freedom" newspaper, as its agent to pursue immediate admission of Kansas Territory as a state under the provisions of the Topeka Constitution. James H. Lane signed the certificate as chairman of the Executive Committee.


George W. Smith, et al, to the Friends of Law and Order convened at Topeka

George W. Smith, et al, to the Friends of Law and Order convened at Topeka
Creator: Smith, G.W. (George W.) 1806-1878
Date: July 1, 1856
From a "camp near Lecompton," George W. Smith and the other Free State captives, including Charles Robinson and John Brown, Jr., write to state their views on issues facing the Topeka legislature as it convened. Smith and company argue that the freestaters had a "right to meet as a Legislature, complete the State organization and pass all laws necessary to the successful administration of Justice," but the assembly should not resist "Federal officer in the service of the legal process" unless they threaten the state organization. Smith, et al, believe success of the cause depends upon "a right position and, second upon calm, and unflinching firmness."


Goddess of Liberty being stabbed by the powers that rule the land and Effulgent from the central source

Goddess of Liberty being stabbed by the powers that rule the land and Effulgent from the central source
Creator: Worrall, Henry, 1825-1902
Date: Between 1856 and 1860
A cabinet card containing two paintings "Goddess of Liberty being stabbed by powers that rule the land". Topeka Constitution Hall is visible in the painting. The second painting is "Effulgent from the central source. The rays of light extend and bows of promise that the course of progress shall not end."


Henry Hudson Williams

Henry Hudson Williams
Creator: Wertz, G., proprietor of Kansas City Photograph Rooms
Date: Between 1861 and 1865
Ths is a carte-de-visite of Major Henry Hudson Williams. He was born in Hudson, New York, September 28, 1828. Williams came to Kansas in the spring of 1855, and was the third settler on Pottawatomie Creek in Anderson County. He became closely associated with John Brown and other free-state men. Williams was sent as a delegate to the Big Springs convention in September, 1855, and marched to the defense of Lawrence in December, 1855. During this time, he was made second lieutenant of the Pottawatomie Rifles. Williams was a member of the Kansas House of Representatives elected under the Topeka Constitution. He was one of the free-state prisoners at Lecompton with Charles Robinson, Gaius Jenkins and others. Williams was sheriff of Miami County in 1857 and reelected in 1859 and served until 1861 when he enlisted in the Third Kansas Regiment. He later served in the 10th Kansas Volunteer Infantry headquarters. At the close of the Civil War, Major Williams went to Kansas City where he was appointed sheriff of Jackson County, but in April 1867, he returned to Kansas settling in Osawatomie, Kansas. Williams was elected to the Kansas House of Representatives in 1868 and the Senate in 1869 and 1870 and appointed one of the railroad assessors on March 24, 1871. He served on the statehouse commission from 1879 to 1883 and 1886-1887. Williams married Mary A. Carr in Osawatomie, February 23, 1858. He died in San Diego, California on March 28, 1906.


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