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Objects and Artifacts - Archeological Artifacts - Material/Stone Type - Hematite

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Carved Hematite Rabbit from 14CO385

Carved Hematite Rabbit from 14CO385
Date: 1400-1700 CE
This is a rendering of a rabbit carved into a concretion of hematite recovered from archeological site number 14CO385, a village near Arkansas City, Kansas occupied between 1400 CE and 1700 CE by the ancestors of the modern-day Wichita and Affiliated Tribes. It was found in the 1990s by Kansas Historical Society archeologists excavating a large, deep food storage pit that later was filled with village trash. The specimen is 20.97 mm long, 11.12 mm high, 6.42 mm thick, and weighs 1.6 grams. Apparently, the artist saw the image of a rabbit in the naturally formed concretion and improved on it with a few well-placed modifications. It is unique for this site, this time period, and this group of people. There is no clear evidence that would suggest how it was used by the person that possessed it.


Hematite Artifact from 14CF411

Hematite Artifact from 14CF411
Date: 1-1500 CE
The function of this hematite artifact, donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2015, is unknown. It was recovered from an Early to Middle Ceramic Period campsite in Coffey County. Hematite is a relatively soft and fine-grained mineral form of iron oxide. It is easily carved and polished, enabling the artifact's carver to shape the piece.


Hematite Artifact from 14DP380

Hematite Artifact from 14DP380
Date: 1000-1500 CE
This hematite artifact was collected from the surface of a Middle Ceramic period camp site by a Kansas Historical Society archeologist during a survey. Hematite is a relatively soft and fine-grained mineral form of iron oxide. The artifact has been polished in some areas and series of small lines have been incised on its surface. It use is unknown.


Hematite Artifact from Johnson County

Hematite Artifact from Johnson County
Date: Unknown
The function of this hematite artifact, donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017, is unknown. Hematite is a relatively soft and fine-grained mineral form of iron oxide. It is easily carved and polished, as is seen on this example.


Hematite Artifact from Morris County

Hematite Artifact from Morris County
Date: Unknown
Both ends of this hematite artifact appear to be broken, though the function of this artifact, donated to the Kansas Historical Society, is unknown. Hematite is a relatively soft and fine-grained mineral form of iron oxide. It is easily carved and polished, as is seen on this example. This piece may have been collected from Morris County.


Hematite Artifact from the Canville Trading Post, 14NO396

Hematite Artifact from the Canville Trading Post, 14NO396
Date: 1847-1872
The function of this hematite artifact fragment, donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1994, is unknown. It was recovered at the Canville Trading Post in Neosho County near the Osage Reservation. Hematite is a relatively soft and fine-grained mineral form of iron oxide. It is easily carved and polished, enabling the artifact's carver to shape the piece. The Canville Trading Post was established in 1847 by A. B. Canville. When the Osage reservation land was ceded to the United States in 1870, the Osage left for Oklahoma and Canville followed in 1872.


Hematite Artifact from the Doniphan Site, 14DP2

Hematite Artifact from the Doniphan Site, 14DP2
Date: 1723-1750
The function of this hematite artifact is unknown. Hematite is a mineral form of iron oxide and the soft fine grained material enable the artifact's carver to shape the piece. This piece was polished, scored, and snapped off on one end. The artifact was recovered from the Doniphan site in Doniphan County where a large Kansa village was shown on early historic maps. There was also an earlier occupation during the Middle Ceramic period at the site.


Hematite Artifact from the Fanning Site, 14DP1

Hematite Artifact from the Fanning Site, 14DP1
Date: 1500-1700 CE
This hematite artifact was recovered from the Fanning site in Doniphan County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1981. Hematite is a relatively soft and fine-grained mineral form of iron oxide. The artifact has been polished and shaped on all of its sides. It use is unknown. The Fanning site was a Late Ceramic to early Contact Period Kansa village.


Hematite Artifact from the Killdeer Site, 14CO501

Hematite Artifact from the Killdeer Site, 14CO501
Date: 1500-1750 CE
This unusual hematite artifact could have been used as a source of pigment. Hematite is a relatively soft and fine-grained mineral form of iron oxide. It was recovered during the 1994 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Killdeer site, since destroyed by construction. The Killdeer site was a Lower Walnut focus Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) site in Cowley County with numerous pits, basins and post molds.


Hematite Artifacts from 14MY312

Hematite Artifacts from 14MY312
Date: 1-1000 CE
These two worked hematite artifacts were collected from an Early Ceramic period camp site in Montgomery County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1975. The function of these artifacts is unknown, though one, with a partially drilled hole, may have been a pendant or ornament. Hematite is a relatively soft and fine-grained mineral form of iron oxide. It is easily carved and polished.


Hematite Axe from 14LV331

Hematite Axe from 14LV331
Date: 6000 BCE-1 CE
This nearly complete hematite axe or celt was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. Hematite is a relatively soft and fine-grained mineral form of iron oxide. It is easily carved and polished. A celt is an unnotched axe and this one was created by grinding away unwanted material and then polishing. Likely this celt was only used for special purposes or occasions.


Hematite Biface from 14EK318

Hematite Biface from 14EK318
Date: 1-1500 CE
This biface made of hematite was collected from a multicomponent archeological site near the Elk River in Elk County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1975. Hematite is a mineral form of iron oxide and the soft fine grained material enable the artifact's carver to shape the piece. The donor glued the two fragments together prior to donating them. The biface may have been stored for future use (what Archeologists call a cache), meant for trade, or had some other significance we today do not know.


Hematite Celt from 14CF411

Hematite Celt from 14CF411
Date: 1 - 1500 CE
This hematite celt was recovered from a Early to Middle Ceramic Period campsite in Coffey County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2015. Hematite is a relatively soft and fine-grained mineral form of iron oxide. It is easily carved and polished. A celt is an unnotched axe and this one was created by grinding away unwanted material and then polishing. Striations appear on the two beveled edges, but likely this celt was only used for special purposes or occasions.


Hematite Celt from 14DO317

Hematite Celt from 14DO317
Date: Unknown
This battered celt was recovered by Kansas Historical Society archeologists during an investigation of a multicomponent (multiple occupations) site impacted by road construction in Douglas County. Hematite is a relatively soft and fine-grained mineral form of iron oxide. It is easily carved and polished, enabling the artifact's carver to shape the piece. That this was once a celt is discernable by the finished edges yet visible.


Hematite Celt from 14MY312

Hematite Celt from 14MY312
Date: 1-1000 CE
This unusual hematite celt was collected from an Early Ceramic period camp site in Montgomery County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1975. Hematite is a relatively soft and fine-grained mineral form of iron oxide. It is easily carved and polished. A celt is an unnotched axe and this one was created by grinding away unwanted material and then polishing, though not much polishing did occur. The bit end has been sharpened, but likely this celt was only used for special purposes or occasions.


Kansas Pipestone, Pipestone and Hematite from Blue Earth Village, 14PO24

Kansas Pipestone, Pipestone and Hematite from Blue Earth Village, 14PO24
Date: 1795-1830
These three artifacts were donated in 1880 and 1925 to the Kansas Historical Society. They were collected from the Blue Earth village site, a Kansa Indian village in Pottawatomie County. Many lodge depressions were still visible on the surface of the site in the 1880s. All three artifacts may have been at the start of modification. The smallest, a piece of hematite, has scratch marks on the smoothed end. The medium-sized is made of pipestone, while the largest is of Kansas pipestone. The soft fine grain material of these pieces would have enabled them to be shaped and smoothed if desired.


Pipe Blank from Atchison County

Pipe Blank from Atchison County
Date: Unknown
This hematite pipe was found in Atchison County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1925. Hematite is a relatively soft and fine-grained mineral form of iron oxide. It is easily carved and polished. The pipe is in the early stages of pipe production: the bowl and stem holes were just begun and an incised line had been cut three-quarters of the way around the pipe. Additionally, the pipe is decorated with rows of zig zags. Pipes were used during trade negotiations and to mark special occasions.


Polished Groundstone Artifacts from 14EK309

Polished Groundstone Artifacts from 14EK309
Date: Unknown
These two artifacts were recovered from the surface of a multicomponent (multiple occupations) site in Elk County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1972. Hematite is a relatively soft and fine-grained mineral form of iron oxide. It is easily carved and polished. The larger piece is likely the bit end of a polished hematite celt. This woodworking tool would have been made by grinding or pecking it into general shape followed by polishing. It would have been hafted onto a handle and required periodic resharpening. The smaller shaped and polished artifact, also made of hematite, had an unknown function.


Polished Hematite and Pipestone Artifacts from the Collins Site, 14DP1306

Polished Hematite and Pipestone Artifacts from the Collins Site, 14DP1306
Date: Unknown
The function of these hematite and pipestone artifacts are unknown. The pieces were recovered from the surface of an archeological site in Doniphan County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1925. Hematite is a mineral form of iron oxide and the soft fine grained material enabled the carver to shape the pieces. The pipestone is also a soft fine grain material that enables shaping and smoothing.


Showing 1 - 19

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