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353rd Infantry at Camp Funston, Kansas

353rd Infantry at Camp Funston, Kansas
Creator: Powell, Eyre
Date: 1918
This is a photograph showing the Red Cross practicing with members of the 353rd Infantry at Camp Funston, Kansas. Camp Funston was located on the Fort Riley military reservation near Junction City, Kansas. The facility, named after Brigadier General Frederick Funston, was the largest of 16 divisional cantonment training camps built during World War I to house and train soldiers for military duty.


American Red Cross

American Red Cross
Creator: Kansas. Governor (1915-1919: Capper)
Date: 1912-1915
This file includes a printed booklet by The American National Red Cross about the regulations for State Boards and Chapters. This is part of a bigger collection of Governor Arthur Capper correspondence.


Arthur Capper to Milton Tabor

Arthur Capper to Milton Tabor
Creator: Capper, Arthur, 1865-1951
Date: February 22, 1947
In this letter, Senator Capper responds to an earlier letter sent to him by Milton Tabor, the managing editor of The Topeka Daily Capital. In response to Tabor's comments regarding the rising racial tensions in Topeka, Capper argues that "we must protect these groups who are quite often discriminated against." Furthermore, Capper explains that Washington D.C. had many similar problems because "there is a strong prejudice among the whites here against the Negroes." He also mentions prohibition efforts and the American Red Cross.


Birgit Sabo

Birgit Sabo
Date: 1919
This photograph shows Birgit Sabo wearing a Red Cross Reserve Nurse's uniform. She was from Fargo, North Dakota, and was stationed at Fort Riley and overseas during World War I.


Board game set

Board game set
Date: between 1942 and 1945
Portable cardboard game board for playing Chinese Checkers, chess, and checkers. Colonel James C. Hughes received the game in a Red Cross box while being held as a Prisoner of War (POW) by the Japanese during World War II. Born in Topeka, Kansas, in 1888, Hughes served in the Mexican Border Conflict, World War I, and World War II. In 1942, he was captured by the Japanese on the Bataan peninsula and spent the next 41 months in various Japanese POW camps. He was liberated by Russian forces at Camp Hoten, Manchuria, in 1945. Hughes died in 1964 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.


Box part

Box part
Date: between 1942 and 1945
Part of a cardboard box that once held rations sent by the American Red Cross to Prisoners of War. Colonel James C. Hughes acquired this ration box while being held as a Prisoner of War (POW) by the Japanese during World War II. Born in Topeka, Kansas, in 1888, Hughes served in the Mexican Border Conflict, World War I, and World War II. In 1942, he was captured by the Japanese on the Bataan peninsula and spent the next 41 months in various Japanese POW camps. He was liberated by Russian forces at Camp Hoten, Manchuria, in 1945. Hughes died in 1964 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.


Children in costume, Clay Center, Kansas

Children in costume, Clay Center, Kansas
Date: Between 1914 and 1916
This postcard shows two children dressed as a World War I soldier and a Red Cross nurse in Clay Center, Kansas. The back of the postcard identifies them as the Wilson children.


Deck of cards

Deck of cards
Date: between 1942 and 1945
Standard deck of playing cards. Colonel James C. Hughes acquired these cards, possibly in a Red Cross box, while being held as a Prisoner of War (POW) by the Japanese during World War II. Born in Topeka, Kansas, in 1888, Hughes served in the Mexican Border Conflict, World War I, and World War II. In 1942, he was captured by the Japanese on the Bataan peninsula and spent the next 41 months in various Japanese POW camps. He was liberated by Russian forces at Camp Hoten, Manchuria, in 1945. Hughes died in 1964 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.


Emily Morgan

Emily Morgan
Date: Between 1900 and 1929
These two black and white photographs show Emily Morgan (1878-1960). The first image is Emily's 1908 graduation from the Methodist Hospital, formally the Ensworth Nurses Training School, in St. Joseph, Missouri. The second photograph shows Emily dressed in a fur parka and wearing mukluks. A native of Leon, Kansas, and a World War I and II nurse, Emily was assigned in 1923 to work as a public nurse in Nome, Alaska. When the town was stricken in 1925 with a diphtheria epidemic, she risked her life by walking in subzero weather to vaccinate the townspeople. The epidemic eventually subsided, and Emily returned to Kansas to resume her career as a Red Cross nurse. Over the years, she returned to Alaska to care for the sick, always returning to Kansas. On May 8, 1960, "The Angel of the Yukon", as Emily was called by The Anchorage Times, passed away at the age of eighty-two in El Dorado, Kansas. In 2013 Morgan was inducted into the Alaska Women's Hall of Fame for her heroic efforts in 1925.


Esther Anna Brown Murtha Hulse

Esther Anna Brown Murtha Hulse
Date: 1933
A black and white photograph of Esther Anna Brown Murtha Hulse(1844-1938), a survivor of Quantrill's Raid, taken from the book "Illustriana Kansas". Esther, the daughter of Mathew R. Brown and Nancy Jane Fuller Brown, was born November 4, 1844 in Richmond, Indiana. She later moved with her family to Lawrence, Kansas where her father Mathew Brown was killed in 1861 by Missouri bushwhackers. Within a month of Esther's marriage to Thomas Eugene Murtha on July 4, 1863, he and nearly 200 people were killed on August 22, 1863 during Quantrill's raid on Lawrence. Now a young widow, Esther worked as a dress marker at the Crane General Store in Lawrence until she moved to Chanute, Kansas. There, she met and married her second husband, Civil War veteran Richard James Hulse, on March 4, 1875. The couple remained in Chanute for a few years before moving to Cherryvale, Kansas, where Esther became an active member in the community. For three years she managed the New York Drygoods Store and was instrumental in organizing a Red Cross chapter. When her second husband died on March 15, 1901, Esther continued to serve her community as a member of the Women's Relief Corps and the Ladies of the Grand Army of the Republic.


F.A. Winfrey to Governor Alfred Mossman Landon

F.A. Winfrey to Governor Alfred Mossman Landon
Creator: Winfrey, F. A.
Date: June 17, 1933
F. A. Winfrey, Director of the Red Cross office in St. Louis, Missouri, responds to a request by Governor Alfred Landon of Topeka, Kansas, for assistance with drought conditions in Southwest Kansas. A survey of conditions in drought stricken areas had revealed desperate conditions in at least four Kansas counties with assistance needed, in some cases, as soon as twenty-four hours. The Governor had already negotiated emergency freight rates with railroad companies operating within the state. The area seriously effected by the drought involved at least three states including Oklahoma, Texas, and Kansas.


First & Broadway, Wichita, Kansas

First & Broadway, Wichita, Kansas
Date: 1950
This photograph shows an unidentified liquor store along the northwest corner of First & Broadway Street in Wichita, Kansas. At the top of the building signs for the American Red Cross and the Crawford Theatre are visible.


Governor Alfred Mossman Landon to Red Cross

Governor Alfred Mossman Landon to Red Cross
Creator: Landon, Alfred Mossman, 1887-1987
Date: June 17, 1933
Governor Alfred Landon of Topeka, Kansas, appeals to the Red Cross office in St. Louis, Missouri, for drought relief assistance. A survey of drought conditions in Southwest Kansas had revealed desperate conditions. Landon, 1887-1987, had already negotiated emergency freight rates with railroads operating within the state. See F. A. Winfrey, Red Cross, to Governor Alfred Landon, dated June 17, 1933.


Governor Arthur Capper's slackers file

Governor Arthur Capper's slackers file
Creator: Kansas. Governor (1915-1919: Capper)
Date: 1917-1918
During American involvement in World War I, Kansas Governor Arthur Capper kept this file of correspondence on suspected German sympathizers and persons thought to be disloyal to the U.S. government. Such persons were commonly referred to as "slackers." The file includes letters from Kansas residents informing the governor of suspected sympathizers or dissidents, letters from Governor Capper to accused residents, letters from accused residents to the governor denying such charges, and letters between the governor's office and various local and federal agencies. Early and widespread, public opposition to American involvement in WWI gave way to fervent patriotism and intolerance of dissent shortly after America entered the conflict in April of 1917. Several federal initiatives under President Woodrow Wilson (such as the Committee on Public Information, the Espionage Act of 1917, and the Sedition Act of 1918) contributed to the domestic war hysteria and placed severe limits on individual civil liberties.


Governor Arthur Capper to Phil Crab

Governor Arthur Capper to Phil Crab
Creator: Kansas. Governor (1915-1919: Capper)
Date: June 11, 1918
Governor Arthur Capper of Topeka (Shawnee County) writes to Phil Crab of Ada (Ottawa County) requesting that he donate to the Red Cross. The Governor's request was prompted by a letter from Ottawa County Attorney, Lee Jackson, who informed the Governor of the resident's refusal to donate and the subsequent threats made by local residents against him. During WWI, persons whose allegiance to the United States was suspect were often referred to as "slackers." In his letter, the Governor encourages Mr. Crab to support the war by donating to the Red Cross and assures him that he will be considered a "disloyal citizen" or "slacker" if he does not. See Lee Jackson to Governor Arthur Capper, 8 June 1918.


Governor Clyde M. Reed correspondence, Red Cross

Governor Clyde M. Reed correspondence, Red Cross
Creator: Kansas. Governor (1929-1931 : Reed)
Date: 1929-1931
This file includes subject correspondence relating to the Red Cross. Topics in the correspondence cover but is not limited to disaster relief plans, Mississippi Valley Flood relief in 1927, and tornado disaster relief. This file is part of a bigger collection of Governor Clyde M. Reed correspondence.


Governor Clyde M. Reed correspondence, proclamations

Governor Clyde M. Reed correspondence, proclamations
Creator: Kansas. Governor (1929-1931 : Reed)
Date: 1929-1931
This file includes subject correspondence relating to proclamations. Topics in the correspondence cover but is not limited to the American Red Cross, Armistice Day and Arbor Day. This file is part of a bigger collection of Governor Clyde M. Reed correspondence.


Governor Harry H. Woodring, Correspondence Files, Box 16

Governor Harry H. Woodring, Correspondence Files, Box 16
Creator: Kansas. Governor (1931-1933 : Woodring)
Date: 1931
These folders contain correspondence state agency files and subject files from the Governor Woodring collection. Some subjects included are the American Legion, American Red Cross, American-War Mothers, Betsy Ross Corps, Boy Scouts, Child Welfare, and Coal.


Hand mirror

Hand mirror
Date: between 1941 and 1945
Small mirror in celluloid case. Hinged metal stand attached to the back. The mirror has a Japanese label on the back. It was housed in a wooden Red Cross box, presumably to transport it without breaking it. Colonel James C. Hughes acquired this mirror while being held as a Prisoner of War (POW) by the Japanese during World War II. The label on the back indicates that he probably purchased it at an exchange or canteen in one of the camps. Born in Topeka, Kansas, in 1888, Hughes served in the Mexican Border Conflict, World War I, and World War II. In 1942, he was captured by the Japanese on the Bataan peninsula and spent the next 41 months in various Japanese POW camps. He was liberated by Russian forces at Camp Hoten, Manchuria, in 1945. Hughes died in 1964 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.


Henry J. Allen, World War I correspondence

Henry J. Allen, World War I correspondence
Creator: Allen, Henry Justin, 1868-1950
Date: September 20, 1917 - October 11, 1918
This series of fifteen letters was sent by Henry J. Allen to his wife Elsie Jane Allen and his daughter Henrietta Allen. Subjects broached in the letters concern family, friends, Wichita community news, the Allens' new home at 225 Roosevelt, the horrors of war, innocence of youth, France and Italy. Allen was strongly affected by the horrors of the battlefields of World War I.


Henry Justin Allen's World War I notebooks

Henry Justin Allen's World War I notebooks
Date: May 1, 1918 - December 31, 1918
Henry J. Allen used these three notebooks while working with the American Red Cross and the YMCA in France. Starting in July of 1918, Allen was embedded with the 35th Division of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) on the front lines of World War I.


Lee Jackson to Governor Arthur Capper

Lee Jackson to Governor Arthur Capper
Creator: Kansas. Governor (1915-1919: Capper)
Date: June 8, 1918
Ottawa County Attorney, Lee Jackson, writes Governor Arthur Capper of Topeka (Shawnee County) requesting that he ask Phil Crab an Ada (Ottawa County) resident to donate to the Red Cross. Mr. Crab's refusal to donate to the Red Cross made him the object of ridicule and harassment by other local residents. During WWI, the domestic effort to support the war created an expectation that every citizen would contribute in various ways, including cash donations. Persons who did not meet this expectation, who were critical of the government, or were suspected of being German sympathizers were often referred to as "slackers." Governor Arthur Capper maintained a "slacker" file in his office and frequently appealed to individual Kansas citizens to support the war. See Governor Arthur Capper to Phil Crab, June 11, 1918.


Lucy Urban

Lucy Urban
Date: 1919
This photograph shows Lucy Urban wearing a Red Cross Reserve Nurse's uniform. She was from Newton, Kansas, and was stationed at Fort Riley and overseas during World War I.


Marthe E. Keaton

Marthe E. Keaton
Date: 1919
This is a photograph of Marthe E. Keaton wearing her Red Cross Reserve Nurse's uniform. She was stationed at Fort Riley during World War I.


Mary Bailey Sweet

Mary Bailey Sweet
Date: Between 1900 and 1919
This black and white photograph shows Mary Bailey Sweet benefactress of Washburn University in Topeka Kansas. The daughter of Timothy Bailey Sweet and Annie Brown Sweet she graduated from the College of Sisters of Bethany in Topeka and was valedictorian of the class of 1898. Mary attended Washburn College from 1900-1901, as a music student before graduating from the University of Kansas in 1903. After graduation, she taught at the Methodist Deaconess Training School in Chicago from 1903 to 1910 and later at the Methodist School for Girls in Rome, Italy from 1912 to 1914. During her stay in Italy Mary also worked with the Red Cross assisting with World War I efforts. At the close of the war, Mary returned to the United States to teach at the Methodist Deaconess school in Seattle, Washington where she taught for several years before returning to Topeka, Kansas. Mary became an active member of the community and to Washburn College. In 1952, Mary and her sisters Susie and Annie established the Sweet Foundation in memory of their brother Paul. The endowment provides scholarships to young men and women who attend Washburn. In 1955 Mary established the Sweet Summer Sabbatical Fund. With this endowment faculty at the university are given the opportunity to broaden their teaching experiences during the summer months through travel and research. Mary's commitment to education also extended into the community. She taught adult Sunday School classes at the First Methodist Church and was a member of numerous organizations including the Kansas Authors Club, and the Topeka Art Guild. Mary died on April 3, 1964 at the age of eighty-five.


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