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Adze or Axe from the Wullschleger Site, 14MH301

Adze or Axe from the Wullschleger Site, 14MH301
Date: 1-1800 CE
This chipped stone tool, made of Florence chert that outcrops in the Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma, may have been used as an adze or axe. Artifacts like this one were likely used for wood working. It was collected from the Wullscheleger site in Marshall County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1961. The site was occupied periodically throughout the Early, Middle and Late Ceramic periods.


Adze or Axe from the Wullschleger Site, 14MH301

Adze or Axe from the Wullschleger Site, 14MH301
Date: 1-1800 CE
This chipped stone tool, made of Florence chert that outcrops in the Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma, may have been used as an adze or an axe used for wood working. It was collected from the Wullscheleger site in Marshall County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1961. The site was occupied periodically throughout the Early, Middle and Late Ceramic periods.


A Lithic Collection from the Elliott Site, 14GE303

A Lithic Collection from the Elliott Site, 14GE303
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
These eight lithic artifacts were collected from an archeological site in Geary County with a Munkers Creek component. They were donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1925. The artifacts shown here are eight large thick bifaces that may have been used as woodworking tools. The upper left artifact has silica gloss from use on plant materials. The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that some archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they had to adapt by using many different types of animals and plants for food in a less productive environment.


Alternately Beveled Knife and Drill from the Anthony Site, 14HP1

Alternately Beveled Knife and Drill from the Anthony Site, 14HP1
Date: 1100-1300 CE
This knife and drill were recovered from the Anthony site in Harper County. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. It is made of Florence chert from the Flint Hills region and gets its pinkish color as a result of the material being carefully heated before manufacturing to improve the chert's knapping qualities. Drills were used to bore holes in materials softer than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone. The drill is made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, a type of chert that outcrops in western Kansas and north into Nebraska. The Anthony site dates to the Bluff Creek complex in the Middle Ceramic period. Bluff Creek people practiced a mixed economy of hunting, gathering, and some horticulture.


Alternately Beveled Knife from the Hays Lankard Site, 14AD353

Alternately Beveled Knife from the Hays Lankard Site, 14AD353
Date: 1-1800 CE
This knife was collected from the Hays Lankard site, an archeological site in Anderson County and donated in 1961 to the Kansas Historical Society. The knife get its pinkish color as a result of the material being carefully heated before manufacturing to improve the chert's knapping qualities. Repeated sharpening on alternate sides created bevels. The two notches near the base indicate that the knife was mostly likely hafted. One side is nearly covered with the collector's notes.


Alternately Beveled Knife from the Shrope Site, 14CO331

Alternately Beveled Knife from the Shrope Site, 14CO331
Date: 1400-1725 CE
This alternately beveled knife was recovered from the Shrope village site in Cowley County. The knife gets its pinkish color as a result of the material being carefully heated before manufacturing to improve the chert's knapping qualities. Repeated sharpening on alternate sides created bevels and the two notches near the base indicate that the knife was most likely hafted. The Shrope site, a large Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village, was excavated by Kansas Historical Society archeologists and crew in 1995. Forty-one archeological features, such as storage pits, hearths, and post molds, were uncovered at the site.


Alternately Beveled Knives from Russell County

Alternately Beveled Knives from Russell County
Date: Unknown
These five alternately beveled knives were found in Russell County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2015. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. There is one heat treated Florence chert knife (top row, right). All of the other knives were made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, which outcrops in western Kansas. All of the knives are fragments with the exception of the pink colored one on the bottom row.


Alternately Beveled Knives from the Mulcahy Site, 14AD19

Alternately Beveled Knives from the Mulcahy Site, 14AD19
Date: Unknown
These two knives were collected from the Mulcahy site in Anderson County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society. Repeated sharpening on alternate sides created the knife bevels. Both knives are made of Florence chert and the diamond shaped knife has been heat treated to improve its knapping qualities. Knives with this general diamond shape are also sometimes called Harahey knives. Archeologists believe that knives shaped like this were used for bison butchering.


Alternately Beveled Knives from the Radio Lane Site, 14CO385

Alternately Beveled Knives from the Radio Lane Site, 14CO385
Date: 1400-1725 CE
These alternately beveled knives were recovered at the Radio Lane site, a large Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village in Cowley County. The knives are made of local Florence chert from the Flint Hills region. The knives get their pinkish color as a result of the material being carefully heated before manufacturing to improve the chert's knapping qualities. Repeated sharpening on alternate sides created bevels. The two notches near the base of two knives indicates that they were likely hafted. Kansas Historical Society archeologists and crew excavated at the site during 1995.


Archaic Projectile Point from 14GR324

Archaic Projectile Point from 14GR324
Date: 8000 BCE - 1 CE
This Archaic period dart point was recovered from 14GR324, a Native American site in Greenwood County. The chert get its pinkish color as a result of the material being carefully heated before manufacturing to improve the chert's knapping qualities. Dart points would be mounted to the dart foreshaft, which would in turn be connected to the dart shaft. The assembled dart would then be thrown with an atlatl (spearthrower).


Arrow Point from 14DN302

Arrow Point from 14DN302
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This arrow point was collected from an archeological site in Dickinson County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2010. The small, triangular arrow point with a slightly concave base is made of Florence chert from the Flint Hills region. Archeologists identify this projectile point style as Fresno arrow points: unnotched with a triangular shape. Though small and thin, they would have been extremely effective on the hunt.


Arrow Points from 14MY316

Arrow Points from 14MY316
Date: 700-1500 CE
These four arrow points were recovered from an archeological site along the Elk River in Montgomery County. All are made of Florence chert which outcrops in the Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma. All were heat treated, a method to improve the knapping qualities of a chert which results in a pinkish color. Two of the arrow points are triangular and two are corner-notched. The site had house remains and is considered to be part of the Pomona focus of the Early and Middle Ceramic periods. Pomona focus sites are located in eastern Kansas and western Missouri.


Arrow Points from the Stricker Site, 14DP1319

Arrow Points from the Stricker Site, 14DP1319
Date: 1-1800 CE
These four arrow points were collected from a multicomponent camp site in Doniphan County and donated in 2018 to the Kansas Historical Society. The site had occupations from the Archaic through the Historic periods. Three were made of Florence chert (gray) from the Flint Hills region and one was made of chalcedony. Two points are corner-notched, more typical of the Early Ceramic period. Two are unnotched with a triangular shape, what archeologists call Fresno arrow points. Though small, they all would have been extremely effective on the hunt.


Artifact Collection from 14JW304

Artifact Collection from 14JW304
Date: Unknown
These five artifacts show the variety of the collection from an archeological site in Jewell County. On the top row, from left to right, is a scraper and modified flake made of Florence chert and a biface made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk. On the bottom row, left to right, is a beveled knife, a projectile point preform, and an expanding stemmed dart point fragment, all made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk. Florence chert outcrops in the Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma. Smoky Hill silicified chalk is a good quality knapping material that is exposed in linear beds in northwestern Kansas and western Nebraska.


Artifact Collection from 14OB302

Artifact Collection from 14OB302
Date: 1000-1500 CE
Sometimes even a small collection of artifacts can help Archeologists learn about what activities occurred at a site. For example, the artifact collection from 14OB302 only contains three artifacts: a flake, an endscraper and a pottery rim. The flake is of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, which outcrops in western Kansas. The endscraper, however, is made Florence chert, which outcrops in the Flint Hills to the east of Osborne county. Finally, a rim sherd from a ceramic vessel was also recovered. The collared rim was cord marked on the exterior and had a series of parallel lines on the interior. Archeologists can use the rim sherd to date the site to the Middle Ceramic period. Perhaps the people at the site used (or lost) the endscraper to process a hide, in addition to making and discarding a large flake of the local material.


Biface from 14HV302

Biface from 14HV302
Date: Unknown
This biface was recovered from the surface of an archeological site in Harvey County by Kansas Historical Society archeologists. It is made of local Florence chert from the Flint Hills.


Biface from the Country Club Site, 14CO3

Biface from the Country Club Site, 14CO3
Date: 1400-1725 CE
This large chipped stone biface was excavated from a Great Bend aspect village site in Cowley County during Phase IV archeological investigations in 1995. The biface, made of Florence chert, may have been stored for future use (what Archeologists call a cache), been meant for trade, or had some other significance we today do not know. The site had been much impacted by a water line, golf greens, roads, and highways. Excavations had been occurring at the site since 1916.


Biface from the Wullschleger Site, 14MH301

Biface from the Wullschleger Site, 14MH301
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
This biface was recovered from the Wullschleger site in Marshall County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1961. A biface like this one could have been used as a chopping tool or, with more work, turned into a specific tool. The style is similar to a type of biface archeologists call Munkers Creek bifaces. The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills from 4000 to 3800 BCE.


Biface from the Wullschleger Site, 14MH301

Biface from the Wullschleger Site, 14MH301
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
This biface was collected from the Wullschleger site in Marshall County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1961. It is made of local chert from the Flint Hills region. A biface like this one could have been used as a chopping tool or a core that with more work could be turned into a specific tool. The Wullschleger site is a multicomponent (multiple occupations) site with a Munkers Creek phase, which describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that some archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed. Munkers Creek sites often contain similar large, crude bifaces, but such artifacts are also found in other places and from other times.


Bifaces from 14DN404

Bifaces from 14DN404
Date: 7000-1 BCE
These bifaces were collected from an Archaic period kill site in Dickinson County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2016. Bifaces like these could have been used as cutting tools or, with more work, turned into specific tools. The two on the left are made of Florence chert which outcrops in the Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma. The one on the right is made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, a good quality knapping material that is exposed in linear beds in western Kansas and Nebraska.


Bifaces from 14EK311

Bifaces from 14EK311
Date: 1-1000 CE
These four bifaces were among the many that were collection from an Early Ceramic period site in Elk County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1972 and 1975. All four were made of Permian chert and get their pinkish color as a result of the material being carefully heated before manufacturing to improve the chert's knapping qualities. Bifaces like these could have been used as a cutting tool or, with more work, turned into a specific tool.


Bifaces from Morris County

Bifaces from Morris County
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
These bifaces were collected from Morris County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1980. They are made of local chert from the Flint Hills region. Bifaces like these could have been used as a chopping tool or a blank intended to be turned into a specific tool at a later date. Munkers Creek sites often contain similar large, crude bifaces, but such artifacts are also found in other places and times. The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that some archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they had to adapt by using many different types of animals and plants for food in a less productive environment.


Bifaces from Riley County

Bifaces from Riley County
Date: Unknown
These two large bifaces were both recovered from Riley County. The largest biface was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1880 and is made from Florence chert. Its pink cast comes from being heat-treated, a process to improve the knapping qualities of a chert. The small biface, though thicker and not heat-treated, is also made of Florence chert. It was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1925 and carries a label which reads "Spearhead found on the (unreadable word) on College Hill Riley Co KS."


Bifaces from the Doolin Site, 14AD302

Bifaces from the Doolin Site, 14AD302
Date: 1-1000 CE
These two bifaces (a biface is worked on both sides of the chipped stone tool) made of Florence chert, have been heat treated prior to manufacture to improve the knapping qualities of the chert. They were collected from an Early Ceramic site in Anderson County and donated in 1930 to the Kansas Historical Society. The bifaces may have been stored for future use (what Archeologists call a cache), been meant for trade, or had some other significance we today do not know.


Bifaces from the Elliott Site, 14GE303

Bifaces from the Elliott Site, 14GE303
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
These bifaces were collected from a multicomponent (multiple occupations) archeological site in Geary County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1925. Bifaces like these could have been used as cutting tools and are made of local chert from the Flint Hills region. The bifaces were created by people whose way of living and tool complex is called the Munkers Creek phase by archeologists. In addition to hunting, the Munkers Creek people were harvesting wild plants.


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