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Charles Hadsall house at the Marais des Cygnes Massacre State Historic Site, Linn County, Kansas Charles Hadsall house at the Marais des Cygnes Massacre State Historic Site, Linn County, Kansas

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Adze or Axe from the Wullscheleger Site, 14MH301

Adze or Axe from the Wullscheleger Site, 14MH301
Date: 1-1800 CE
This chipped stone tool, made of Florence chert that outcrops in the Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma, may have been used as an adze or an axe used for wood working. It was collected from the Wullscheleger site in Marshall County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1961. The site was occupied periodically throughout the Early, Middle and Late Ceramic periods.


Adze or Axe from the Wullscheleger Site, 14MH301

Adze or Axe from the Wullscheleger Site, 14MH301
Date: 1-1800 CE
This chipped stone tool, made of Florence chert that outcrops in the Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma, may have been used as an adze or axe. Artifacts like this one were likely used for wood working. It was collected from the Wullscheleger site in Marshall County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1961. The site was occupied periodically throughout the Early, Middle and Late Ceramic periods.


Alternately Beveled Knife from the Hays Lankard Site, 14AD353

Alternately Beveled Knife from the Hays Lankard Site, 14AD353
Date: 1-1800 CE
This knife was collected from the Hays Lankard site, an archeological site in Anderson County and donated in 1961 to the Kansas Historical Society. The knife gets its pinkish color as a result of the flintknapper heat treating the material to improve the chert's knapping qualities. Repeated sharpening on alternate sides created bevels. The two notches near the base indicate that the knife was mostly likely hafted. One side is nearly covered with the collector's notes.


Alternately Beveled Knives from Russell County

Alternately Beveled Knives from Russell County
Date: Unknown
These five alternately beveled knives were found in Russell County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2015. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. There is one heat treated Florence chert knife (top row, right). All of the other knives were made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, which outcrops in western Kansas. All of the knives are fragments with the exception of the pink colored one on the bottom row.


Alternately Beveled Knives from the Mulcahy Site, 14AD19

Alternately Beveled Knives from the Mulcahy Site, 14AD19
Date: Unknown
These two knives were collected from the Mulcahy site in Anderson County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society. Repeated sharpening on alternate sides created the knife bevels. Both knives are made of Florence chert and the diamond shaped knife has been heat treated to improve its knapping qualities. Knives with this general diamond shape are also sometimes called Harahey knives. Archeologists believe that knives shaped like this were used for bison butchering.


Archaic Projectile Point from 14GR324

Archaic Projectile Point from 14GR324
Date: 8000 BCE - 1 CE
This Archaic period dart point was recovered from 14GR324, a Native American site in Greenwood County. The pinkish color of the chert is a result of the flintknapper heat treating the material to improve the chert's knapping qualities. Dart points would be mounted to the dart foreshaft, which would in turn be connected to the dart shaft. The assembled dart would then be thrown with an atlatl (spearthrower).


Arrow Point from 14DN302

Arrow Point from 14DN302
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This arrow point was collected from an archeological site in Dickinson County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2010. The small, triangular arrow point with a slightly concave base is made of Florence chert from the Flint Hills region. Archeologists identify this projectile point style as Fresno arrow points: unnotched with a triangular shape. Though small and thin, they would have been extremely effective on the hunt.


Arrow Points from 14MY316

Arrow Points from 14MY316
Date: 700-1500 CE
These four arrow points were recovered from an archeological site along the Elk River in Montgomery County. All are made of Florence chert which outcrops in the Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma. All were heat treated, a method to improve the knapping qualities of a chert which results in a pinkish color. Two of the arrow points are triangular and two are corner-notched. The site had house remains and is considered to be part of the Pomona focus of the Early and Middle Ceramic periods. Pomona focus sites are located in eastern Kansas and western Missouri.


Arrow Points from the Stricker Site, 14DP1319

Arrow Points from the Stricker Site, 14DP1319
Date: 1-1800 CE
These four arrow points were collected from a multicomponent camp site in Doniphan County and donated in 2018 to the Kansas Historical Society. The site had occupations from the Archaic through the Historic periods. Three were made of Florence chert (gray) from the Flint Hills region and one was made of chalcedony. Two points are corner-notched, more typical of the Early Ceramic period. Two are unnotched with a triangular shape, what archeologists call Fresno arrow points. Though small, they all would have been extremely effective on the hunt.


Artifact Collection from 14JW304

Artifact Collection from 14JW304
Date: Unknown
These five artifacts show the variety of the collection from an archeological site in Jewell County. On the top row, from left to right, is a scraper and modified flake made of Florence chert and a biface made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk. On the bottom row, left to right, is a beveled knife, a projectile point preform, and an expanding stemmed dart point fragment, all made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk. Florence chert outcrops in the Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma. Smoky Hill silicified chalk is a good quality knapping material that is exposed in linear beds in northwestern Kansas and western Nebraska.


Artifact Collection from 14OB302

Artifact Collection from 14OB302
Date: 1000-1500 CE
Sometimes even a small collection of artifacts can help Archeologists learn about what activities occurred at a site. For example, the artifact collection from 14OB302 only contains three artifacts: a flake, an endscraper and a pottery rim. The flake is of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, which outcrops in western Kansas. The endscraper, however, is made Florence chert, which outcrops in the Flint Hills to the east of Osborne county. Finally, a rim sherd from a ceramic vessel was also recovered. The collared rim was cord marked on the exterior and had a series of parallel lines on the interior. Archeologists can use the rim sherd to date the site to the Middle Ceramic period. Perhaps the people at the site used (or lost) the endscraper to process a hide, in addition to making and discarding a large flake of the local material.


Biface from 14HV302

Biface from 14HV302
Date: Unknown
This biface was recovered from the surface of an archeological site in Harvey County by Kansas Historical Society archeologists. It is made of local Florence chert from the Flint Hills.


Biface from the Country Club Site, 14CO3

Biface from the Country Club Site, 14CO3
Date: 1400-1725 CE
This large chipped stone biface was excavated from a Great Bend aspect village site in Cowley County during Phase IV archeological investigations in 1995. The biface, made of Florence chert, may have been stored for future use (what Archeologists call a cache), been meant for trade, or had some other significance we today do not know. The site had been much impacted by a water line, golf greens, roads, and highways. Excavations had been occurring at the site since 1916.


Bifaces from 14EK311

Bifaces from 14EK311
Date: 1-1000 CE
These four bifaces were among the many that were collection from an Early Ceramic period site in Elk County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1972 and 1975. All four were made of Permian chert. The pink color is the result of having been heat-treated, prior to their completion, in order to make a better knappable chert. Bifaces like these could have been used as a cutting tool or, with more work, turned into a specific tool.


Bifaces from Riley County

Bifaces from Riley County
Date: Unknown
These two large bifaces were both recovered from Riley County. The largest biface was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1880 and is made from Florence chert. Its pink cast comes from being heat-treated, a process to improve the knapping qualities of a chert. The small biface, though thicker and not heat-treated, is also made of Florence chert. It was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1925 and carries a label which reads "Spearhead found on the (unreadable word) on College Hill Riley Co KS."


Bifaces from the Doolin Site, 14AD302

Bifaces from the Doolin Site, 14AD302
Date: 1-1000 CE
These two bifaces (a biface is worked on both sides of the chipped stone tool) made of Florence chert, have been heat treated prior to manufacture to improve the knapping qualities of the chert. They were collected from an Early Ceramic site in Anderson County and donated in 1930 to the Kansas Historical Society. The bifaces may have been stored for future use (what Archeologists call a cache), been meant for trade, or had some other significance we today do not know.


Bifaces from the William Young Site, 14MO304

Bifaces from the William Young Site, 14MO304
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
Munkers Creek bifaces, like these four recovered from the William Young site in Morris County, could have been used as cutting tools, or, with more work, turned into more specialized tools. The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that some archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they had to adapt by using many different types of animals and plants for food in a less productive environment.


Bifaces from the William Young Site, 14MO304

Bifaces from the William Young Site, 14MO304
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
These three bifaces were among the many that were recovered from the William Young site in Morris County by Kansas Historical Society Archeologists. The bifaces were created by people whose way of living and tool complex is called the Munkers Creek phase by archeologists. In addition to hunting, the Munkers Creek people were harvesting wild plants. Bifaces like these could have been for cutting grass.


Chipped Stone Axe from 14WN353

Chipped Stone Axe from 14WN353
Date: 1-1500 CE
This chipped stone axe was recovered from an archeological site in Wilson County, Kansas that dates to the Early to Late Ceramic periods. The axe could have been hafted onto a handle and used for working wood. It is likely made of Florence chert from the Flint Hills.


Dart Point from 14GR420

Dart Point from 14GR420
Date: 6000 BCE-1 CE
This contracting stem dart point was recovered from 14GR420 in Greenwood County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2006. The location was a camp or village site that had multiple occupations throughout the Archaic and Early to Late Ceramic periods. Dart points would be mounted to the dart foreshaft, which would in turn be connected to the dart shaft. The assembled dart would then be thrown with an atlatl (spearthrower).


Dart Points from 14DP407

Dart Points from 14DP407
Date: Unknown
These two dart points were collected from an Archaic period archeological site in Doniphan County and donated in 2018 to the Kansas Historical Society. The projectile points are made of Florence chert, which outcrops in the Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma. After knapping, dart points would be mounted to the dart foreshaft, which would in turn be connected to the dart shaft. The assembled dart would then be thrown with an atlatl (spearthrower).


Dart Points from 14EK309

Dart Points from 14EK309
Date: 4000 BCE-1000 CE
These two dart point fragments were recovered from the surface of a multicomponent (multiple occupations) site in Elk County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1975. Both fragments were made of Permian chert and both have been heat treated prior to their completion in order to make a better knappable chert. Dart points would be mounted to the dart foreshaft, which would in turn be connected to the dart shaft. The assembled dart would then be thrown with an atlatl (spearthrower).


Drill from 14DN404

Drill from 14DN404
Date: 7000-1 BCE
This drill was collected from an Archaic period kill site in Dickinson County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2016. Drills were used to bore holes in materials softer than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone. The drill is made of Florence chert which outcrops in the Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma.


Drill from the Woods Site, 14CY30

Drill from the Woods Site, 14CY30
Date: 1000-1500 CE
This drill was recovered from a Clay County Middle Ceramic period village with at least two houses. The drill is made of Florence cert which outcrops in the Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma. Drills were used to bore holes in materials softer than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone.


Drills from 14CO1502

Drills from 14CO1502
Date: Unknown
These two drills were collected from a Cowley County archeological site and donated in 2018 to the Kansas Historical Society. Both drills are made of local Florence chert from the Flint Hills and have been heat treated prior to knapping to improve their knapping qualities. Drills were used to bore holes in softer materials (hides, shell, or soft stone) than the drill material itself.


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