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Alibates Core from 14PT420

Alibates Core from 14PT420
Date: 1300-1500 CE
Shown is a core, a stone from which flakes are removed to make chipped stone tools. The core was recovered in 1994 by Kansas Historical Society archeologists at a Middle Ceramic period Pratt complex village in Pratt County. The parent material for this core is Alibates agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. This suggests either trade with people further south or travel by Pratt complex people to the Texas panhandle.


Alibates Flakes from 14KW401

Alibates Flakes from 14KW401
Date: Unknown
These six flakes of Alibates chert were recovered from a hill top camp site, 14KW401, in Kiowa County. The debitage, waste flakes from tool making, were made of Alibates chert, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River in the Texas panhandle. The dark piece has been burned in a fire.


Alibates Flint from 14RC410

Alibates Flint from 14RC410
Date: 1400-1499 CE
These fragments of flint were recovered in 1981 by Kansas Historical Society archeologists at an archeological site in Rice County. They are made of Alibates flint, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. This suggests either trade with people further south or travel by the ancestral Wichita people living at the site to the Texas panhandle. The site is what archeologists call part of the Little River focus of the Great Bend aspect, whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Alibates Scrapers from 14WC408

Alibates Scrapers from 14WC408
Date: 1000-1500 CE
These scrapers were collected from an archeological site near the Smoky Hill River in Wallace County and donated in 2018 to the Kansas Historical Society. Scrapers such as these would have been hafted on a handle and used to scrape hides. They would have required periodic resharpening. All five scrapers were made of Alibates flint, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle.


Alibates Scrapers from the Saxman Site, 14RC301

Alibates Scrapers from the Saxman Site, 14RC301
Date: 1500-1650 CE
Shown are five scrapers that were collected from the Saxman site in Rice County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. Scrapers such as these would have been hafted on a handle and used to scrape hides. They would have required periodic resharpening. All five scrapers were made of Alibates flint, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. The Saxman site, a large Great Bend aspect village, was occupied by ancestral Wichita peoples.


Alibates Scrapers from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Alibates Scrapers from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
These seven scrapers were excavated during the 1977 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. Scrapers such as these would have been hafted on a handle and used to scrape hides. They would have required periodic resharpening. All seven scrapers were made of Alibates agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Alternately Beveled Knives from Anderson County

Alternately Beveled Knives from Anderson County
Date: Unknown
These four knives were collected from Anderson County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society. From left to right are shown a knife made of Alibates chert, an agatized dolomite from the Canadian River Valley in Texas, a knife made of heat treated Permian chert, a knife that may have once been hafted, and a knife in the style archeologists call Harahey.


Alternately Beveled Knives from the Lewis Site, 14PA307

Alternately Beveled Knives from the Lewis Site, 14PA307
Date: 1000-1700 CE
These four alternately beveled knives were recovered from excavations in 1966 at the Lewis site in Pawnee County by Kansas Historical Society archeologists. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. Three of the knives are made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, a good quality knapping material that is exposed in linear beds in northwestern Kansas and western Nebraska. The fourth knife is made of Alibates agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. The Lewis site is multiple occupation habitation site with Pratt Complex (Middle Ceramic period), Smoky Hill aspect (Middle Ceramic period), and Great Bend aspect (Late Ceramic period) occupations.


Alternately Beveled Knives from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1

Alternately Beveled Knives from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1
Date: 1500-1800 CE
These alternately beveled knives were collected from the Paint Creek village site in McPherson County, Kansas. Four were donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1971 and the other was excavated by Kansas Historical Society archeologists. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. Four of the knives were made Permian chert with the fifth knife of Alibates Agatized Dolomite. The Paint Creek site is what archeologists call part of the Little River Focus of the Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Arrow Point from the Ehmke Site, 14LA311

Arrow Point from the Ehmke Site, 14LA311
Date: 1000-1500 CE
This arrow point was recovered from a camp and kill site in Lane County during excavation by Kansas Historical Society Archeologists. The site seems to have had multiple occupations from the Paleoindian period through the Late Ceramic period. The feature this arrow point was recovered in was believed to be associated with an Upper Republican occupation. The side-notched point is possibly made of Alibates flint, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle.


Arrow Points from 14WC408

Arrow Points from 14WC408
Date: 1000-1500 CE
These five arrow points were collected from an archeological site near the Smoky Hill River in Wallace County and donated in 2018 to the Kansas Historical Society. All five are corner-notched. The notches aided in hafting the point to the arrow shaft. The three arrow points on the top row were made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, which outcrops in western Kansas and Nebraska. The two on the bottom row were made of Alibates flint, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle.


Arrow Points from the Malone Site, 14RC5

Arrow Points from the Malone Site, 14RC5
Date: 1432-1651 CE
These arrow points were collected from the Malone village site in Rice County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2001 and 2005. The two on the top row are triangular points made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, which outcrops in western Kansas and Nebraska. The three points on the bottom row are side-notched: the one on the left is made of Alibates flint, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle and the two on the right are made of local chert from the Flint Hills region. The Malone site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits.


Artifact Collection from 14SD341

Artifact Collection from 14SD341
Date: Unknown
Shown are four of the five items collected from the surface of a small lithic workshop site in Sheridan County. The site was discovered by Kansas Historical Society Archeologists in 1990. The artifact on the left is a large flake made from Smoky Hill silicified chalk, all of the others are modified flakes made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, a chalcedony-like material, and Alibates flint from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle.


Calf Creek Dart Points from the Grouse Creek Site, 14CO120

Calf Creek Dart Points from the Grouse Creek Site, 14CO120
Date: 4800-4200 BCE
These seven Calf Creek dart points were collected from an Archaic camp site in Cowley County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2013. The site was associated with both Calf Creek (a distinctive dart point that is generally found in eastern Kansas and states to the east and south during the late Paleoindian Period) and Munkers Creek (a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills from 4000 to 3800 BCE). The top row shows (from left to right) a nearly complete dart of an unknown chert type, a modified Calf Creek dart point mad of Woodford chert from Oklahoma, and a dart stem made of Wreford chert from Kansas and Oklahoma. The middle row shows two Calf Creek points made of Ozark cherts. The bottom row (from left to right) shows a modified dart point made of Alibates flint, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle, and a Calf Creek point made of Foraker chert, a type of chert found often in northeast Kansas.


Diminutive Biface from the Sharps Creek Site, 14MP408

Diminutive Biface from the Sharps Creek Site, 14MP408
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This biface, extremely small yet quite refined, was recovered during excavations at the Sharps Creek site at the 1993 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school. A biface is a chipped stone tool that has been modified on both faces, or sides. This example may have been made a chert type called Alibates agatized dolomite, which outcrops in the Texas panhandle at the Canadian River valley. The Sharps Creek site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village in McPherson County.


Drills from 14WC408

Drills from 14WC408
Date: 1000-1500 CE
These three drills were collected from an archeological site near the Smoky Hill River in Wallace County and donated in 2018 to the Kansas Historical Society. Drills were used to bore holes in softer material than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, or soft stone. The broken drill on the far left was made of Alibates chert, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. The nearly complete drill in the center, chert type unknown, may have been reworked from a dart point into a drill. The complete drill on the right was made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, which outcrops in western Kansas and Nebraska.


Drills from El Cuartelejo, 14SC1

Drills from El Cuartelejo, 14SC1
Date: 1650-1750 CE
Shown are ten of the drills that were recovered from the El Cuartelejo site in Scott County. These drills were recovered during the 1976 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school. Drills were used to bore holes in softer material than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone. The site, unique in Kansas, is the location of a seven room pueblo occupied by refugees from the Taos and Picuris pueblos in New Mexico in addition to Dismal River aspect groups (Apache). El Cuartelejo, also called the Scott County Pueblo, has been excavated and studied by many archeologists since 1898.


Drills from the Majors Site, 14RC2

Drills from the Majors Site, 14RC2
Date: 1650-1700 CE
These three drills were recovered from the Majors site in Rice County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1982. Drills were used to bore holes in softer material than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone. Two of the drills are made of Alibates agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. This suggests either trade with people further south or travel by people living at the Majors site to the Texas panhandle. The Majors site was a Great Bend aspect, Little River focus (ancestral Wichita) village that was occupied during the late 17th century based on southwestern pottery styles found at the site.


Drills from the Saxman Site, 14RC301

Drills from the Saxman Site, 14RC301
Date: 1500-1650 CE
Shown are six of the numerous drills that were collected from the Saxman site in Rice County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. Drills were used to bore holes in softer materials than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone. All of these drills have an expanding base. Those on each end of the top row were made on Permian chert. One the bottom row the two on the left are made on heat-treated Permian chert and the one on the right of Alibates flint from the Canadian River valley in Texas. The Saxman site, a large Great Bend aspect village site, was occupied by the ancestral Wichita.


Drills from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Drills from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
These six drills were used to bore holes in softer materials than the drill material itself, such as hides, shells, or soft stone. Those on the top row were made of Alibates flint, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. The drill on the bottom left was made of Tahlequah chert, that outcrops in eastern Oklahoma. The drill on the center bottom row is made of heat-treated Permian chert and the drill on the bottom right was made of an unknown chert type. All six drills were recovered from the excavations at the 1977 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. It is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Drills from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Drills from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
These four drills were recovered at the Tobias site in Rice County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2020. Drills were used to bore holes in softer materials than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that has dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Fresno Arrow Points from the Anthony Site, 14HP1

Fresno Arrow Points from the Anthony Site, 14HP1
Date: 1100-1300 CE
These four arrow points were recovered from the Anthony site in Harper County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2012. Archeologists identify this projectile point style as Fresno arrow points: unnotched with a triangular shape. Though small and thin, they would have been extremely effective on the hunt. The Anthony site dates to the Bluff Creek complex in the Middle Ceramic period. Bluff Creek people practiced a mixed economy of hunting, gathering, and some horticulture.


Fresno Arrow Points from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1

Fresno Arrow Points from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1
Date: 1500-1800 CE
These Fresno arrow points were collected at the Paint Creek site, a village in McPherson County, Kansas. They were donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1971. Archeologists identify Fresno points as being unnotched with a triangular shape. The Paint Creek site is what archeologists call part of the Little River Focus of the Great Bend Aspect (ancestral Wichita), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Harrell Arrow Point from 14BN30

Harrell Arrow Point from 14BN30
Date: 500-1800 CE
This arrow point was recovered from an archeological site in Brown County. Archeologists identify Harrell points by their single side and base notches. Alibates agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. This suggests either trade with people further south or travel by people to the Texas panhandle.


Lithic Collection from 14GL427

Lithic Collection from 14GL427
Date: Unknown
This collection of debitage was collected during a survey at an archeological site in Greeley County. The site had occupations in both the Archaic and Middle Ceramic periods. The chert types include Smoky Hill silicified chalk, which outcrops in western Kansas into western Nebraska, Alibates flint, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle, and an unidentified chert.


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