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Objects and Artifacts - Archeological Artifacts - Artifact Type - Axe

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3/4 Grooved Axe from 14WY308

3/4 Grooved Axe from 14WY308
Date: 1-1500 CE
This 3/4 grooved axe was collected from a multicomponent site in Wyandotte County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1973. While 3/4 grooved axes are frequently recovered from late Archaic sites, their use is not restricted to that time period. They get their name from the hafting groove that encircles 3/4 of the body of the axe. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state.


3/4 Grooved Axe from Geary County

3/4 Grooved Axe from Geary County
Date: Unknown
This 3/4 grooved axe was found in Geary County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1963. While 3/4 grooved axes are frequently recovered from late Archaic sites, their use is not restricted to that time period. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state. They get their name from the hafting groove the encircles 3/4 of its body.


3/4 Grooved Axe from the Collins Site

3/4 Grooved Axe from the Collins Site
Date: Unknown
The 3/4 grooved axe shown here was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1979. It was collected from a habitation site in Doniphan County with multiple occupations. While 3/4 grooved axes are frequently recovered from late Archaic sites, there use is not restricted to that time period. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state. The groove would have been used to haft the axe to the handle.


3/4 Grooved Axe from the Plowboy Site, 14SH372

3/4 Grooved Axe from the Plowboy Site, 14SH372
Date: 2000 BCE-1850 CE
This 3/4 grooved axe was collected from the Plowboy site in Shawnee County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. The Plowboy site was home to the Kansa, the Potawatomi, and Euro-Americans. At various times, the site contained a farm, a trading post, and a post office with nearby military trails, Mormon routes, a railroad and the California-Oregon trail. Before all of this activity, other American Indians also occupied the site and created this groundstone axe. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state. They get their name from the hafting groove the encircles 3/4 of its body.


3/4 Grooved Axe from the Stricker Site, 14DP1319

3/4 Grooved Axe from the Stricker Site, 14DP1319
Date: Unknown
This 3/4 grooved axe was collected from a multicomponent archeological site in Doniphan County and donated in 2018 to the Kansas Historical Society. The site had occupations from the Archaic through the Historic periods. The axe was from one of the older time periods. While 3/4 grooved axes are frequently recovered from late Archaic sites, their use is not restricted to that time period. Axes like this one are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state and get their name from the hafting groove the encircles 3/4 of its body.


3/4 Grooved Axes from the Dickerson Site, 14AT346

3/4 Grooved Axes from the Dickerson Site, 14AT346
Date: Unknown
These 3/4 grooved axes were recovered from the Dickerson site in Atchison County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1878. While 3/4 grooved axes are frequently recovered from late Archaic sites, their use is not restricted to that time period. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone, in this case igneous rock, into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state. These axes get their name from the hafting groove the encircles 3/4 of its body.


3/4 Grooved Axes from the Dickerson Site, 14AT346

3/4 Grooved Axes from the Dickerson Site, 14AT346
Date: Unknown
Little is known regarding these 3/4 grooved axes from the Dickerson site in Atchison County. They were donated in 1878 to the Kansas Historical Society. While 3/4 grooved axes are frequently recovered from late Archaic sites, their use is not restricted to that time period. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state. They get their name from the hafting groove the encircles 3/4 of the body.


Adze or Axe from 14MN328

Adze or Axe from 14MN328
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This chipped stone tool, possibly either an adze or an axe, was most likely used for woodworking. A fossil embedded in the chert was not removed by the original flintknapper. It was excavated in 1986 by Kansas Historical Society archeologists from 14MN328, a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) site in Marion County.


Adze or Axe from the Country Club Site, 14CO3

Adze or Axe from the Country Club Site, 14CO3
Date: 1400-1725 CE
This chipped stone tool, either an adze or an axe, was most likely used for woodworking. It was excavated from a Great Bend aspect village site (ancestral Wichita) in Cowley County during Phase IV archeological investigations in 1995. The site had been much impacted by a water line, golf greens, roads, and highways. Excavations had been occurring at the site since 1916.


Adze or Axe from the Curry Site, 14GR301

Adze or Axe from the Curry Site, 14GR301
Date: 1200-1400 CE
This chipped stone tool, possibly either an adze or an axe, was most likely used for woodworking. It was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1984. The Curry site in Greenwood County was a multicomponent (multiple occupations) site occupied periodically during the Archaic, Early Ceramic and Middle Ceramic Periods.


Adze or Axe from the Wullscheleger Site, 14MH301

Adze or Axe from the Wullscheleger Site, 14MH301
Date: 1-1800 CE
This chipped stone tool, made of Florence chert that outcrops in the Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma, may have been used as an adze or an axe used for wood working. It was collected from the Wullscheleger site in Marshall County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1961. The site was occupied periodically throughout the Early, Middle and Late Ceramic periods.


Adze or Axe from the Wullscheleger Site, 14MH301

Adze or Axe from the Wullscheleger Site, 14MH301
Date: 1-1800 CE
This chipped stone tool, made of Florence chert that outcrops in the Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma, may have been used as an adze or axe. Artifacts like this one were likely used for wood working. It was collected from the Wullscheleger site in Marshall County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1961. The site was occupied periodically throughout the Early, Middle and Late Ceramic periods.


Axe Head from Fool Chief's Village, 14SH305

Axe Head from Fool Chief's Village, 14SH305
Date: 1830-1844 CE
This axe head was recovered from Fool Chief's Village, a Kansa village in Shawnee County that was the site of the 2012 Kansas Archeology Training Program, though excavations continued through 2012 and 2013. As this axe shows evidence of battering on the top, it may have been used as an anvil. The axe head was cleaned by electrolysis which passes an electrical current through a liquid solution to separate the rust from the artifact.


Axe or Celt from the Trowbridge Site, 14WY1

Axe or Celt from the Trowbridge Site, 14WY1
Date: 1-250 CE
This partial axe or celt was found at the Trowbridge archeological site in Wyandotte County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1973. Trowbridge is a Kansas City Hopewell site from the Early Ceramic Period. During this time archeologists find evidence of houses, cultivated plants, and decorated pottery. Without the poll end of the artifact it is impossible to tell if it was an axe or a celt. Either way, this woodworking tool would have been manufactured by grinding or pecking it into a general shape followed by polishing. It would have been hafted onto a handle and required periodic resharpening.


Chipped Stone Axe from 14WN353

Chipped Stone Axe from 14WN353
Date: 1-1500 CE
This chipped stone axe was recovered from an archeological site in Wilson County, Kansas that dates to the Early to Late Ceramic periods. The axe could have been hafted onto a handle and used for working wood. It is likely made of Florence chert from the Flint Hills.


Chipped Stone Tool Cache from the Mem Site, 14MN328

Chipped Stone Tool Cache from the Mem Site, 14MN328
Date: 1500-1800 CE
These three tools from a cache were excavated in 1986 during a highway salvage project at the Mem site. The three tools were recovered from a large bell-shaped storage pit. Shown here is a biface, which with more work could have been turned into a specific tool, a chipped stone axe, a cutting tool that has two indented areas on either side of the middle where the tool was hafted to a handle, and a large scraper. Archeologists theorize that large scrapers such as this one may have been used when intensive hide scraping activities were occurring. The Mem site, in Marion County, is a Great Bend aspect, ancestral Wichita village. The project was undertaken by Kansas Historical Society archeologists and Kansas Anthropological Association volunteers.


Diminutive Fully-Grooved Axe from Elk County

Diminutive Fully-Grooved Axe from Elk County
Date: Unknown
This fully grooved axe, extremely small yet quite refined, was found in Elk County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1959. Larger examples of fully grooved axes are used as a woodworking tool and are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state. They get their name from the hafting groove, which fully encircles the axe body.


Double Grooved Axe from Doniphan County

Double Grooved Axe from Doniphan County
Date: 7000 BCE-1 CE
This unique double grooved axe was found in Doniphan County. Both of the grooves completely encircle the axe. While fully-grooved axes are frequently recovered from late Archaic sites, their use is not restricted to that time period. Axes are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state.


Double Grooved Axe from Pottawatomie County

Double Grooved Axe from Pottawatomie County
Date: 3500 BCE-1 CE
This double grooved axe was found in Pottawatomie County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1913. The grooves that completely (fully) encircle the axe were used to enable hafting the axe onto a handle. Fully-grooved axes often date to the Middle to Late Archaic period. Axes are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state.


Felling Axe Blade from Blue Earth Village, 14PO24

Felling Axe Blade from Blue Earth Village, 14PO24
Date: 1790-1830 CE
This felling axe blade was recovered from the Blue Earth village and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1880. The axe is designed for felling trees, with a thin sharp bit end that tapers out toward the head. The side and poll of the axe has been broken. It was cleaned by electrolysis which passes an electrical current through a liquid solution to separate the rust from the artifact. Blue Earth was a Kansa village in Pottawatomie County. Many lodge depressions were still visible on the surface in the 1880s.


Fully-Grooved Axe from Doniphan County

Fully-Grooved Axe from Doniphan County
Date: Unknown
This fully grooved axe was first discovered near Troy in Doniphan County in 1915. Since then, the artifact has changed hands several times before being donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1973. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state. They get their name from the hafting groove, which fully encircles the axe body.


Fully-Grooved Axe from Marshall County

Fully-Grooved Axe from Marshall County
Date: Unknown
This fully-grooved axe was found near Beattie, Kansas in Marshall County. The axe, used as a woodworking tool, was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1929. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state. They get their name from the hafting groove, which fully encircles the axe body.


Fully-Grooved Axe from Pottawatomie County

Fully-Grooved Axe from Pottawatomie County
Date: 3500 BCE-1 CE
This complete fully-grooved axe was found in Pottawatomie County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1904. Axes such as these were made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape then grinding and sometimes polishing it into its final state. The groove that completely (fully) encircles the axe was used to enable hafting the axe onto a handle. Fully-grooved axes often date to the Middle to Late Archaic period.


Fully-Grooved Axe from the Stricker Site, 14DP1319

Fully-Grooved Axe from the Stricker Site, 14DP1319
Date: Unknown
This well worn fully-grooved axe was collected from a multicomponent site in Doniphan County and donated in 2018 to the Kansas Historical Society. The site had occupations from the Archaic through the Historic periods. The axe was from one of the older time periods. Axes such as these were made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape then grinding and sometimes polishing it into its final state. The groove that fully encircles the axe was used to enable hafting the axe onto a handle. Fully-grooved axes often date to the Middle to Late Archaic period.


Fully-Grooved Axe from the Wullscheleger Site, 14MH301

Fully-Grooved Axe from the Wullscheleger Site, 14MH301
Date: 1-1800 CE
This fully-grooved axe was collected from the Wullscheleger site in Marshall County. The axe, used as a woodworking tool, was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1961. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state. They get their name from the hafting groove, which fully encircles the axe body. The site was occupied periodically throughout the Early, Middle and Late Ceramic periods. Axes such as this one are more frequently found during the Late Archaic-Early Ceramic periods.


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