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Alternately Beveled Knife and Drill from the Anthony Site, 14HP1

Alternately Beveled Knife and Drill from the Anthony Site, 14HP1
Date: 1100-1300 CE
This knife and drill were recovered from the Anthony site in Harper County. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. It is made of Florence chert from the Flint Hills region and gets its pinkish color as a result of the material being carefully heated before manufacturing to improve the chert's knapping qualities. Drills were used to bore holes in materials softer than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone. The drill is made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, a type of chert that outcrops in western Kansas and north into Nebraska. The Anthony site dates to the Bluff Creek complex in the Middle Ceramic period. Bluff Creek people practiced a mixed economy of hunting, gathering, and some horticulture.


Chipped Stone Tools from the Pratt/Wing Site, 14PT1

Chipped Stone Tools from the Pratt/Wing Site, 14PT1
Date: 1300-1500 CE
Shown in this slide is some of the chipped stone tools that were recovered from the Pratt/Wing Archeological Site. The Pratt site was a Pratt Complex Middle Ceramic Period village in Pratt County. The slide shows an assortment of chipped stone tools including side notched arrow points, drills, scrapers, hafted knives, alternately beveled knives and Harahey knives.


Drill Fragment from 14PT420

Drill Fragment from 14PT420
Date: 1300-1500 CE
This drill fragment was recovered in 1994 by Kansas Historical Society archeologists at a Middle Ceramic period Pratt complex village in Pratt County. Drills were used to bore holes in softer material than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone. The drill is made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, a type of chert that outcrops in western Kansas and Nebraska.


Drill Fragments from Blue Earth Village, 14PO24

Drill Fragments from Blue Earth Village, 14PO24
Date: 1790-1830
This base and shaft portion of a drill is missing its tip. Drills were used to bore holes in softer materials than the drill material itself, such as hides, shells, or soft stone. The drill was recovered from the Blue Earth village site, a Kansa Indian village in Pottawatomie County. Many lodge depressions were still visible on the surface of the site in the 1880s.


Drill from 14DN404

Drill from 14DN404
Date: 7000-1 BCE
This drill was collected from an Archaic period kill site in Dickinson County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2016. Drills were used to bore holes in softer material than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone. The drill is made of Florence chert which outcrops in the Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma.


Drill from 14EK319

Drill from 14EK319
Date: 1000-1500 CE
This drill was recovered from the surface of a possible Middle Ceramic period archeological site in Elk County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1972. Drills were used to bore holes in softer material than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone.


Drill from 14WY408

Drill from 14WY408
Date: 4550-2900 BCE
This drill was repurposed from a Nebo Hill dart point. The artifact was collected from a multicomponent site in Wyandotte County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2018. Nebo Hill folk gathered plants and hunted game. They had a distinctive style of projectile points.


Drill from Fool Chief's Village, 14SH305

Drill from Fool Chief's Village, 14SH305
Date: 1830-1844 CE
This nearly complete drill was found on the surface during an archeological survey at Fool Chief's Village, a Kansa village site in Shawnee County. Drills were used to bore holes in softer material than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone.


Drill from Hard Chief's Village, 14SH301

Drill from Hard Chief's Village, 14SH301
Date: 1830-1847 CE
This drill, made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, was recovered during the 1987 Kansas Archeology Training Program at Hard Chief's Village. Drills were used to bore holes in softer materials than the drill material itself, such as hides, shells, or soft stone. Hard Chief's village was a Kansa site in Shawnee County.


Drill from the Doolin Site, 14AD302

Drill from the Doolin Site, 14AD302
Date: 1-1000 CE
This drill was collected from an Early Ceramic period site in Anderson County by a Kansas Historical Society archeologist documenting the site in 1968. Drills were used to bore holes in softer materials than the drill material itself, such as hides, shells, or soft stone.


Drill from the Larcom-Haggard Site, 14CO1

Drill from the Larcom-Haggard Site, 14CO1
Date: 1400-1750 CE
This drill was recovered from the Larcom-Haggard archeological site in Cowley County. Drills were used to bore holes in materials softer (hides, shell, or soft stone) than the drill material itself. The drill is made of local Florence chert from the Flint Hills and gets its pinkish color as a result of the material being carefully heated before manufacturing to improve the chert's knapping qualities. The Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village was discovered in a bend of the Walnut River. A modern gravel quarry destroyed much of the site. Kansas Historical Society archeologists and crew excavated there as the final stage of a salvage project in 1996.


Drill from the Larcom-Haggard Site, 14CO1

Drill from the Larcom-Haggard Site, 14CO1
Date: 1400-1750 CE
This drill was recovered from the Larcom-Haggard site in Cowley County. Drills were used to bore holes in softer materials than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone. This drill is made of local Florence chert from the Flint Hills region that was carefully heated before manufacturing to improve the chert's knapping qualities. The drill was modified from a Great Bend aspect knife and notched to aid in hafting. The Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village was discovered in an old river meander with a modern gravel quarry greatly impacting the site. Kansas Historical Society archeologists and crew excavated there in 1996 as the final stage of a salvage project.


Drill from the Woods Site, 14CY30

Drill from the Woods Site, 14CY30
Date: 1000-1500 CE
This drill was recovered from a Clay County Middle Ceramic period village with at least two houses. The drill is made of Florence cert which outcrops in the Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma. Drills were used to bore holes in softer material than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone.


Drills from 14CO1502

Drills from 14CO1502
Date: Unknown
These two drills were collected from a Cowley County archeological site and donated in 2018 to the Kansas Historical Society. Both drills are made of local Florence chert from the Flint Hills and have been heat treated prior to knapping to improve their knapping qualities. Drills were used to bore holes in softer materials than the drill material itself, such as hides, shells, or soft stone.


Drills from 14DN414

Drills from 14DN414
Date: 7000 BCE-500 CE
These four drill fragments were collected from an Archaic period site in Dickinson County and donated in 2010 to the Kansas Historical Society. All are made of Permian chert. Drills were used to bore holes in softer materials than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone.


Drills from 14EK304

Drills from 14EK304
Date: Unknown
These seven drills were collected from an archeological site in Elk County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1975. Drills such as these, also called perforators, are sometimes are made from remnants of other tools. They are used to bore holes in softer material than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone. Three of the drills had been heat treated to improve knapping quality of the chert.


Drills from 14EK311

Drills from 14EK311
Date: 1000-1500 CE
These four drills were just a few of those collected from an American Indian camp site in Elk County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1972 and 1975, by the same donor. All of the drills may have been modified (reworked) from other chipped stone tools. Two drills get their pinkish color as a result of the material being carefully heated before manufacturing to improve the chert's knapping qualities. Drills were used to bore holes in softer material than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone.


Drills from 14LY414

Drills from 14LY414
Date: Unknown
These drills were collected from a multicomponent (multiple occupations) site in Lyon County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1958. Drills were used to bore holes in softer materials than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone. These drills are made of Permian chert.


Drills from 14MY312

Drills from 14MY312
Date: 1-1000 CE
These four drill fragments were collected from an Early Ceramic period site in Montgomery County and, in 1964 and 1972, were donated to the Kansas Historical Society. All of the drills were made of Permian chert. One drill, pink colored, was heat treated prior to knapping to improve the knapping qualities of the chert. The three drill bases may have been modified (reworked) from dart points. Drills were used to bore holes in softer material than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone.


Drills from 14WC408

Drills from 14WC408
Date: 1000-1500 CE
These three drills were collected from an archeological site near the Smoky Hill River in Wallace County and donated in 2018 to the Kansas Historical Society. Drills were used to bore holes in softer material than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, or soft stone. The broken drill on the far left was made of Alibates chert, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. The nearly complete drill in the center, chert type unknown, may have been reworked from a dart point into a drill. The complete drill on the right was made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, which outcrops in western Kansas and Nebraska.


Drills from Allen County

Drills from Allen County
Date: 11000 BCE-1000 CE
These five drills were part of a large collection of lithic material from a camp site in Allen County that was occupied periodically from the Archaic to the Early Ceramic Periods. They were donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2015. Drills were used to bore holes in softer material than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone. The drill on the far left was possibly modified (reworked) from a Dalton projectile point. The drill on the far right was reworked from a corner notched dart point.


Drills from El Cuartelejo, 14SC1

Drills from El Cuartelejo, 14SC1
Date: 1650-1750 CE
Shown are ten of the drills that were recovered from the El Cuartelejo site in Scott County. These drills were recovered during the 1976 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school. Drills were used to bore holes in softer material than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone. The site, unique in Kansas, is the location of a seven room pueblo occupied by refugees from the Taos and Picuris pueblos in New Mexico in addition to Dismal River aspect groups (Apache). El Cuartelejo, also called the Scott County Pueblo, has been excavated and studied by many archeologists since 1898.


Drills from Kearny County

Drills from Kearny County
Date: Unknown
These two drills, collected from Kearny County, were donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2016. The lighter colored drill may be made from Alibates flint, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. The darker drill is made of an unknown chert type. Drills were used to bore holes in softer material than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone.


Drills from Lyon County

Drills from Lyon County
Date: Unknown
These four drills were found in Lyon County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1958. Drills were used to bore holes in softer materials than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone.


Drills from the Albert Bell Site, 14SD305

Drills from the Albert Bell Site, 14SD305
Date: 1212-1400 CE
These drills were recovered from the Albert Bell site during an excavation in 1990 by Kansas Historical Society Archeologists and volunteers at the Kansas Archeological Training Program field school. Drills were used to bore holes in softer materials than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone. The site, in Sheridan County, is an Upper Republican phase Middle Ceramic period house site with a radiocarbon date of 710 +/- 60 years CE.


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