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A Lithic Collection from 14CT312

A Lithic Collection from 14CT312
Date: 1-1000 CE
These three chipped stone tools were collected from an Early Ceramic period archeological site in Chautauqua County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1976. Shown from left to right is an alternately beveled knife, a scraper, and a large corner-notched dart point fragment. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. Scrapers, such as this one would have been hafted onto a handle and used to scrape hides. The scraper would have required periodic resharpening. The dart point and the alternately beveled knife were heat treated, a method to improve the knapping qualities of a chert which results in the pinkish color. Dart points would be mounted to the dart foreshaft, which would in turn be connected to the dart shaft. The assembled dart would then be thrown with an atlatl (spearthrower).


Archaic Projectile Point from 14GR324

Archaic Projectile Point from 14GR324
Date: 8000 BCE - 1 CE
This Archaic period dart point was recovered from 14GR324, a Native American site in Greenwood County. The pinkish color of the chert is a result of the flintknapper heat treating the material to improve the chert's knapping qualities. Dart points would be mounted to the dart foreshaft, which would in turn be connected to the dart shaft. The assembled dart would then be thrown with an atlatl (spearthrower).


Arrow Point from 14AT327

Arrow Point from 14AT327
Date: 1-1000 CE
This arrow point was collected from an Early Ceramic period site in Atchison County and donated in 2018 to the Kansas Historical Society. The side-notched point made of Permian chert, is nearly complete. The site had been heavily collected and highly disturbed in the past.


Arrow Point from 14DN302

Arrow Point from 14DN302
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This arrow point was collected from an archeological site in Dickinson County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2010. The small, triangular arrow point with a slightly concave base is made of Florence chert from the Flint Hills region. Archeologists identify this projectile point style as Fresno arrow points: unnotched with a triangular shape. Though small and thin, they would have been extremely effective on the hunt.


Arrow Point from 14DN308

Arrow Point from 14DN308
Date: 2000 BCE-500 CE
This arrow point fragment was recovered from an archeological site in a creek meander in Dickinson County. The point is made of Permian chert that has been heat-treated prior to finishing to improve its knapping qualities. The point has an expanding stem. The site was occupied during the late Archaic to Early Ceramic period.


Arrow Point from 14DN423

Arrow Point from 14DN423
Date: 1-1000 CE
This arrow point was recovered from an Early Ceramic period archeological site in Dickenson County. It is side-notched with serrated edges. The notches aided in hafting the point to the arrow shaft.


Arrow Point from 14DP315

Arrow Point from 14DP315
Date: 1-1000 CE
This arrow point was recovered from an Early Ceramic period archeology site in Doniphan County. The nearly triangular arrow point has very slight side notches. The notches aided in hafting the point to the arrow shaft.


Arrow Point from 14MY302

Arrow Point from 14MY302
Date: 1000-1500 CE
This small side notched arrow point was recovered from the surface of 14MY302. The site was a multicomponent camp site in Montgomery County excavated in 1978 by Kansas Historical Society archeologists. Archeologists believe that side notched arrow points are typical of the Middle Ceramic period. The pinkish color of the projectile point indicates the arrow point was heat treated to improve the chert's knapping quality.


Arrow Point from 14PA320

Arrow Point from 14PA320
Date: 500-1100 CE
This arrow point was recovered from a Keith phase Early Ceramic period archeological site in Pawnee County. Archeologists consider corner-notched points to be the earliest form of arrow points that are found in the Great Plains. The notches aided in hafting the arrow point to the arrow shaft.


Arrow Point from 14PH342

Arrow Point from 14PH342
Date: 500-1100 CE
This arrow point was recovered from a Keith phase archeological site in Phillips County. The arrow point has corner-notches to aid in hafting the point to the arrow shaft. The Keith phase site would have been occupied sometime between 500 and 1100 CE. The people who lived here were semi-sedentary hunters and gatherers.


Arrow Point from the Ehmke Site, 14LA311

Arrow Point from the Ehmke Site, 14LA311
Date: 1000-1500 CE
This arrow point was recovered from a camp and kill site in Lane County during excavation by Kansas Historical Society Archeologists. The site seems to have had multiple occupations from the Paleoindian period through the Late Ceramic period. The feature this arrow point was recovered in was believed to be associated with an Upper Republican occupation. The side-notched point is possibly made of Alibates flint, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle.


Arrow Points from 14AT315

Arrow Points from 14AT315
Date: 1-1000 CE
These three arrow points were collected from an Early Ceramic period archeological site in Atchison County. They were donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2018. All three arrow points were made of Permian chert. Two are side-notched and one is corner-notched. The notches and the stem aided in hafting the arrow point to the arrow shaft.


Arrow Points from 14AT405

Arrow Points from 14AT405
Date: 1-1000 CE
These three arrow points were collected from an Early Ceramic period archeological site in Atchison County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1979. All three arrow points are side-notched. The notches and the stem aided in hafting the point to the arrow shaft.


Arrow Points from 14CF416

Arrow Points from 14CF416
Date: 1-1800 CE
This assortment of five arrow points was recovered from site 14CF416, in Coffey County, and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2015. The two corner notched points on the left date to the Early Ceramic Period (1-1000 CE). The two side notched points in the middle date to the Middle Ceramic Period (1000-1500 CE) and the Fresno point of the far right dates to the Late Ceramic Period (1500-1800 CE). The pinkish color of two of the points indicates they have been heat treated to improve their knapping qualities.


Arrow Points from 14CK306

Arrow Points from 14CK306
Date: 1-1000 CE
These arrow points were collected from a archeological site in Clark County. One arrow point has a corner-notched base, while the other is stemmed. Both would have been hafted to an arrow shaft and shot with a bow.


Arrow Points from 14CS355

Arrow Points from 14CS355
Date: 1695-1745 CE
These two arrow points were recovered from 14CS355, a multicomponent (multiple occupations) Native American site in Chase County. Two radiocarbon dates are associated with the site: a hearth that was dated to 500 - 1055 CE and some charcoal dated to 1695 - 1745 CE. The pinkish color of the arrow points is a result of the flintknapper heat treating the material to improve the chert's knapping qualities.


Arrow Points from 14MY312

Arrow Points from 14MY312
Date: 1-1000 CE
These two arrow points were collected from an Early Ceramic period site in Montgomery County and, in 1963, donated to the Kansas Historical Society. Both of the arrow points may have been heat-treated prior to knapping to improve their knapping qualities. Both corner-notched arrow points were made of Permian chert.


Arrow Points from 14MY316

Arrow Points from 14MY316
Date: 700-1500 CE
These four arrow points were recovered from an archeological site along the Elk River in Montgomery County. All are made of Florence chert which outcrops in the Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma. All were heat treated, a method to improve the knapping qualities of a chert which results in a pinkish color. Two of the arrow points are triangular and two are corner-notched. The site had house remains and is considered to be part of the Pomona focus of the Early and Middle Ceramic periods. Pomona focus sites are located in eastern Kansas and western Missouri.


Arrow Points from 14MY349

Arrow Points from 14MY349
Date: 1000-1800 CE
These six arrow points were collected from a multicomponent site in Montgomery County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1972, 1973, and 1975. Shown are side-notched, corner-notched, and triangular arrow points.


Arrow Points from 14SA402

Arrow Points from 14SA402
Date: 1000-1500 CE
These four arrow points recovered in 1963 from the surface of a Saline County site and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. All are side notched arrow points, two of which are complete. Two are missing their tips and both have a concave base.


Arrow Points from 14SA416

Arrow Points from 14SA416
Date: 1000-1500 CE
These three arrow points recovered in 1971 from the surface of a Saline County site and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. The camp site was occupied during the Middle Ceramic period by Smoky Hill phase peoples. Shown are two side notched arrow points and a single triangular arrow point. One of the side notched points has multiple notches.


Arrow Points from 14SA424

Arrow Points from 14SA424
Date: 1 CE-1500 CE
Shown are six of the many arrow points collected from a multicomponent (multiple occupations) camp site in Saline County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. Five of the arrow points are corner notched, typically used during the Early Ceramic period. The last arrow point is side notched, more typical of the Middle Ceramic period. The pink color of four of the arrow points is the result of having been heat-treated prior to their completion in order to make a better knappable chert.


Arrow Points from 14SA424

Arrow Points from 14SA424
Date: 1-1500 CE
Shown are six arrow points collected from a multicomponent (multiple occupations) archeological site in Saline County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. Five of the arrow points are corner-notched, typically used during the Early Ceramic period. The last arrow point is side-notched, more typical of the Middle Ceramic period. The pink color of four of the arrow points is the result of having been heat-treated prior to their completion in order to make a better knappable chert.


Arrow Points from 14WC408

Arrow Points from 14WC408
Date: 1000-1500 CE
These five arrow points were collected from an archeological site near the Smoky Hill River in Wallace County and donated in 2018 to the Kansas Historical Society. All five are corner-notched. The notches aided in hafting the point to the arrow shaft. The three arrow points on the top row were made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, which outcrops in western Kansas and Nebraska. The two on the bottom row were made of Alibates flint, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle.


Arrow Points from El Cuartelejo, 14SC1

Arrow Points from El Cuartelejo, 14SC1
Date: 1650-1750 CE
Shown are three of the many side notched arrow points that were recovered from the El Cuartelejo site in Scott County. The site, unique in Kansas, is the location of a seven room pueblo occupied by refugees from the Taos and Picuris pueblos in New Mexico in addition to Dismal River aspect groups (Apache). El Cuartelejo, also called the Scott County Pueblo, has been excavated and studied by many archeologists since 1898. These arrow points were recovered during the 1976 Kansas Archeology Training Program. The notches aided in hafting the point to the arrow shaft.


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