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Objects and Artifacts - Archeological Artifacts - Artifact Class - Chipped Stone

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14MP1, Paint Creek Site Effigy or Chipped Stone Tool?

14MP1, Paint Creek Site Effigy or Chipped Stone Tool?
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This artifact was found at the Paint Creek village in McPherson County. It was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1971. Archeologists sometimes ponder how to classify an artifact: is this an effigy or a chipped stone tool? The Paint Creek site is what archeologists call part of the Little River Focus of the Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


A Lithic Collection from 14CT312

A Lithic Collection from 14CT312
Date: 1-1000 CE
These three chipped stone tools were collected from an Early Ceramic period archeological site in Chautauqua County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1976. Shown from left to right is an alternately beveled knife, a scraper, and a large corner-notched dart point fragment. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. Scrapers, such as this one would have been hafted onto a handle and used to scrape hides. The scraper would have required periodic resharpening. The dart point and the alternately beveled knife were heat treated, a method to improve the knapping qualities of a chert which results in the pinkish color. Dart points would be mounted to the dart foreshaft, which would in turn be connected to the dart shaft. The assembled dart would then be thrown with an atlatl (spearthrower).


Adze or Axe from 14MN328

Adze or Axe from 14MN328
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This chipped stone tool, possibly either an adze or an axe, was most likely used for woodworking. A fossil embedded in the chert was not removed by the original flintknapper. It was excavated in 1986 by Kansas Historical Society archeologists from 14MN328, a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) site in Marion County.


Adze or Axe from the Country Club Site, 14CO3

Adze or Axe from the Country Club Site, 14CO3
Date: 1400-1725 CE
This chipped stone tool, either an adze or an axe, was most likely used for woodworking. It was excavated from a Great Bend aspect village site (ancestral Wichita) in Cowley County during Phase IV archeological investigations in 1995. The site had been much impacted by a water line, golf greens, roads, and highways. Excavations had been occurring at the site since 1916.


Adze or Axe from the Curry Site, 14GR301

Adze or Axe from the Curry Site, 14GR301
Date: 1200-1400 CE
This chipped stone tool, possibly either an adze or an axe, was most likely used for woodworking. It was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1984. The Curry site in Greenwood County was a multicomponent (multiple occupations) site occupied periodically during the Archaic, Early Ceramic and Middle Ceramic Periods.


Adze or Axe from the Wullscheleger Site, 14MH301

Adze or Axe from the Wullscheleger Site, 14MH301
Date: 1-1800 CE
This chipped stone tool, made of Florence chert that outcrops in the Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma, may have been used as an adze or axe. Artifacts like this one were likely used for wood working. It was collected from the Wullscheleger site in Marshall County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1961. The site was occupied periodically throughout the Early, Middle and Late Ceramic periods.


Alibates Core from 14PT420

Alibates Core from 14PT420
Date: 1300-1500 CE
Shown is a core, a stone from which flakes are removed to make chipped stone tools. The core was recovered in 1994 by Kansas Historical Society archeologists at a Middle Ceramic period Pratt complex village in Pratt County. The parent material for this core is Alibates agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. This suggests either trade with people further south or travel by Pratt complex people to the Texas panhandle.


Alibates Flakes from 14KW401

Alibates Flakes from 14KW401
Date: Unknown
These six flakes of Alibates chert were recovered from a hill top camp site, 14KW401, in Kiowa County. The debitage, waste flakes from tool making, were made of Alibates chert, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River in the Texas panhandle. The dark piece has been burned in a fire.


Alibates Scrapers from 14WC408

Alibates Scrapers from 14WC408
Date: 1000-1500 CE
These scrapers were collected from an archeological site near the Smoky Hill River in Wallace County and donated in 2018 to the Kansas Historical Society. Scrapers such as these would have been hafted on a handle and used to scrape hides. They would have required periodic resharpening. All five scrapers were made of Alibates flint, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle.


Alibates Scrapers from the Saxman Site, 14RC301

Alibates Scrapers from the Saxman Site, 14RC301
Date: 1500-1650 CE
Shown are five scrapers that were collected from the Saxman site in Rice County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. Scrapers such as these would have been hafted on a handle and used to scrape hides. They would have required periodic resharpening. All five scrapers were made of Alibates flint, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. The Saxman site, a large Great Bend aspect village, was occupied by ancestral Wichita peoples.


Alibates Scrapers from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Alibates Scrapers from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
These seven scrapers were excavated during the 1977 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. Scrapers such as these would have been hafted on a handle and used to scrape hides. They would have required periodic resharpening. All seven scrapers were made of Alibates agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Alternately Beveled Knife from 14AT448

Alternately Beveled Knife from 14AT448
Date: 1-1000 CE
This alternately beveled knife was collected from an Early Ceramic archeological site in Atchison County and donated in 2018 to the Kansas Historical Society. Repeated sharpening on alternate sides created the bevels. The knife was mostly likely hafted.


Alternately Beveled Knife from 14EK308

Alternately Beveled Knife from 14EK308
Date: 1-1000 CE
This alternately beveled knife was recovered from the surface of an Early Ceramic period archeological site in Elk County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1972. Archeologists believe that knives shaped like this would have been used for bison butchering. Repeated sharpening on alternate sides created bevels. Knives with the general diamond shape are also sometimes called Harahey knives.


Alternately Beveled Knife from 14MO433

Alternately Beveled Knife from 14MO433
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This knife fragment was recovered from an archeological site in Morris County with occupations in the Archaic, Early Ceramic, and Late Ceramic periods. It was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. The Great Bend aspect style knife would have been hafted to a handle.


Alternately Beveled Knife from 14RC418

Alternately Beveled Knife from 14RC418
Date: 1350-1650 CE
This alternately beveled knife was recovered by Kansas Historical Society archeologists during a pipeline survey. It was discovered on the surface of 14RC418, a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) site in Rice County. The two notches near the base indicate that the knife was most likely hafted.


Alternately Beveled Knife from 14SA407

Alternately Beveled Knife from 14SA407
Date: 1000-1500 CE
This alternately beveled knife was found on the surface of a Middle Ceramic period Smoky Hill aspect camp site in Saline County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels.


Alternately Beveled Knife from Montgomery County

Alternately Beveled Knife from Montgomery County
Date: Unknown
This alternately beveled knife fragment was recovered from Montgomery County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1975. The knife was reconstructed by the donor. The pinkish color of the Florence chert indicates that it had been heat treated to improve knapping quality of the chert. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels.


Alternately Beveled Knife from Morris County

Alternately Beveled Knife from Morris County
Date: Unknown
This alternately beveled knife was found along the Santa Fe trail near Wilsey, in Morris County. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. It is likely that the knife was hafted.


Alternately Beveled Knife from Wabaunsee County

Alternately Beveled Knife from Wabaunsee County
Date: Unknown
This alternately beveled knife was found in Wabaunsee County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1925. Archeologists believe that a knife shaped like this one would have been used for bison butchering. Sometimes these knives are alternately sharpened on four sides, but this specimen has been sharpened on only two alternate sides. Knives with the general diamond shape are also sometimes called Harahey knives. One side of the knife is nearly covered with the original collector's notes (some erroneous).


Alternately Beveled Knife from the Across the Creek Site, 14JO406

Alternately Beveled Knife from the Across the Creek Site, 14JO406
Date: 1-1500 CE
This alternately beveled knife was collected from a multicomponent site in Johnson County with occupations in both the Early and Middle Ceramic periods. It was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. The knife was made of Winterset chert, which outcrops in eastern Kansas and Missouri. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels.


Alternately Beveled Knife from the Hays Lankard Site, 14AD353

Alternately Beveled Knife from the Hays Lankard Site, 14AD353
Date: 1-1800 CE
This knife was collected from the Hays Lankard site, an archeological site in Anderson County and donated in 1961 to the Kansas Historical Society. The knife gets its pinkish color as a result of the flintknapper heat treating the material to improve the chert's knapping qualities. Repeated sharpening on alternate sides created bevels. The two notches near the base indicate that the knife was mostly likely hafted. One side is nearly covered with the collector's notes.


Alternately Beveled Knife from the Mallow Site, 14DP1312

Alternately Beveled Knife from the Mallow Site, 14DP1312
Date: Unknown
This alternately beveled knife was collected from an archeological site in Doniphan County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1925. Knives with the general diamond shape are also sometimes called Harahey knives. Archeologists believe that a knife shaped like this one would have been used for bison butchering.


Alternately Beveled Knife from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Alternately Beveled Knife from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
This alternately beveled knife was recovered from excavations during the 1977 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. The knife is made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, a good quality knapping material that is exposed in linear beds in northwestern Kansas and western Nebraska. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Alternately Beveled Knife from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Alternately Beveled Knife from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
This alternately beveled knife was recovered from excavations during the 2019 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. The knife is made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, a good quality knapping material that is exposed in linear beds in northwestern Kansas and western Nebraska. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Alternately Beveled Knives from 14EK304

Alternately Beveled Knives from 14EK304
Date: Unknown
These three alternately beveled knife fragments were collected from a multicomponent (multiple occupations) camp site in Elk County and, in 1975, donated to the Kansas Historical Society. All three artifacts were made of Permian chert. The pinkish color of one indicates that it had been heat treated to improve knapping quality of the chert. Repeated sharpening on the knives alternate sides created the bevels.


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