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A Lithic Collection from 14CT312

A Lithic Collection from 14CT312
Date: 1-1000 CE
These three chipped stone tools were collected from an Early Ceramic period archeological site in Chautauqua County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1976. Shown from left to right is an alternately beveled knife, a scraper, and a large corner-notched dart point fragment. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. Scrapers, such as this one would have been hafted onto a handle and used to scrape hides. The scraper would have required periodic resharpening. The dart point and the alternately beveled knife were heat treated, a method to improve the knapping qualities of a chert which results in the pinkish color. Dart points would be mounted to the dart foreshaft, which would in turn be connected to the dart shaft. The assembled dart would then be thrown with an atlatl (spearthrower).


Adze or Axe from 14MN328

Adze or Axe from 14MN328
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This chipped stone tool, possibly either an adze or an axe, was most likely used for woodworking. A fossil embedded in the chert was not removed by the original flintknapper. It was excavated in 1986 by Kansas Historical Society archeologists from 14MN328, a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) site in Marion County.


Adze or Axe from the Curry Site, 14GR301

Adze or Axe from the Curry Site, 14GR301
Date: 1200-1400 CE
This chipped stone tool, possibly either an adze or an axe, was most likely used for woodworking. It was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1984. The Curry site in Greenwood County was a multicomponent (multiple occupations) site occupied periodically during the Archaic, Early Ceramic and Middle Ceramic Periods.


Adze or Axe from the Wullscheleger Site, 14MH301

Adze or Axe from the Wullscheleger Site, 14MH301
Date: 1-1800 CE
This chipped stone tool, made of Florence chert that outcrops in the Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma, may have been used as an adze or axe. Artifacts like this one were likely used for wood working. It was collected from the Wullscheleger site in Marshall County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1961. The site was occupied periodically throughout the Early, Middle and Late Ceramic periods.


Alibates Flakes from 14KW401

Alibates Flakes from 14KW401
Date: Unknown
These six flakes of Alibates chert were recovered from a hill top camp site, 14KW401, in Kiowa County. The debitage, waste flakes from tool making, were made on Alibates chert, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River in the Texas panhandle. The dark piece has been burned in a fire.


Alibates Scrapers from the Saxman Site, 14RC301

Alibates Scrapers from the Saxman Site, 14RC301
Date: 1500-1650 CE
Shown are five scrapers that were collected from the Saxman site in Rice County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. Scrapers such as these would have been hafted on a handle and used to scrape hides. They would have required periodic resharpening. All five scrapers were made of Alibates flint, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. The Saxman site, a large Great Bend aspect village, was occupied by ancestral Wichita peoples.


Alibates Scrapers from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Alibates Scrapers from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1600 CE
These seven scrapers were recovered from the excavations during the 1977 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. Scrapers such as these would have been hafted on a handle and used to scrape hides. They would have required periodic resharpening. All seven scrapers were made of Alibates flint, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits (including chain mail brought to Kansas by sixteenth-century Spanish explorers), house remains and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Alternately Beveled Knife from 14EK308

Alternately Beveled Knife from 14EK308
Date: 1-1000 CE
This alternately beveled knife was recovered from the surface of an Early Ceramic period archeological site in Elk County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1972. Archeologists believe that knives shaped like this would have been used for bison butchering. Repeated sharpening on alternate sides created bevels. Knives with the general diamond shape are also sometimes called Harahey knives.


Alternately Beveled Knife from 14MO433

Alternately Beveled Knife from 14MO433
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This knife fragment was recovered from an archeological site in Morris County with occupations in the Archaic, Early Ceramic, and Late Ceramic periods. It was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. The Great Bend aspect style knife would have been hafted to a handle.


Alternately Beveled Knife from 14RC418

Alternately Beveled Knife from 14RC418
Date: 1350-1650 CE
This alternately beveled knife was recovered by Kansas Historical Society archeologists during a pipeline survey. It was discovered on the surface of 14RC418, a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) site in Rice County. The two notches near the base indicate that the knife was most likely hafted.


Alternately Beveled Knife from 14SA407

Alternately Beveled Knife from 14SA407
Date: 1000-1500 CE
This alternately beveled knife was found on the surface of a Middle Ceramic period Smoky Hill aspect camp site in Saline County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels.


Alternately Beveled Knife from Montgomery County

Alternately Beveled Knife from Montgomery County
Date: Unknown
This alternately beveled knife fragment was recovered from Montgomery County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1975. The knife was reconstructed by the donor. The pinkish color of the Florence chert indicates that it had been heat treated to improve knapping quality of the chert. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels.


Alternately Beveled Knife from Wabaunsee County

Alternately Beveled Knife from Wabaunsee County
Date: Unknown
This alternately beveled knife was found in Wabaunsee County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1925. Archeologists believe that a knife shaped like this one would have been used for bison butchering. Sometimes these knives are alternately sharpened on four sides, but this specimen has been sharpened on only two alternate sides. Knives with the general diamond shape are also sometimes called Harahey knives. One side of the knife is nearly covered with the original collector's notes (some erroneous).


Alternately Beveled Knife from the Across the Creek Site, 14JO406

Alternately Beveled Knife from the Across the Creek Site, 14JO406
Date: 1-1500 CE
This alternately beveled knife was collected from a multicomponent site in Johnson County with occupations in both the Early and Middle Ceramic periods. It was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. The knife was manufactured on Winterset chert, which outcrops in eastern Kansas and Missouri. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels.


Alternately Beveled Knife from the Hays Lankard Site, 14AD353

Alternately Beveled Knife from the Hays Lankard Site, 14AD353
Date: 1-1800 CE
This knife was collected from the Hays Lankard site, an archeological site in Anderson County and donated in 1961 to the Kansas Historical Society. The knife gets its pinkish color as a result of the flintknapper heat treating the material to improve the chert's knapping qualities. Repeated sharpening on alternate sides created bevels. The two notches near the base indicate that the knife was mostly likely hafted. One side is nearly covered with the collector's notes.


Alternately Beveled Knife from the Mallow Site, 14DP1312

Alternately Beveled Knife from the Mallow Site, 14DP1312
Date: Unknown
This alternately beveled knife was collected from an archeological site in Doniphan County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1925. Knives with the general diamond shape are also sometimes called Harahey knives. Archeologists believe that a knife shaped like this one would have been used for bison butchering.


Alternately Beveled Knives from 14EK304

Alternately Beveled Knives from 14EK304
Date: Unknown
These three alternately beveled knife fragments were collected from a multicomponent (multiple occupations) camp site in Elk County and, in 1975, donated to the Kansas Historical Society. All three artifacts were manufactured on Permian chert. The pinkish color of one indicates that it had been heat treated to improve knapping quality of the chert. Repeated sharpening on the knives alternate sides created the bevels.


Alternately Beveled Knives from 14EK318

Alternately Beveled Knives from 14EK318
Date: 1-1500 CE
These three alternately beveled knife fragments were recovered from an archeological site in Elk County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1974 and 1975. Knives with a general diamond shape, as is the white fragment, are sometimes called Harahey knives. Archeologists believe that a knife shaped like this would have been used for bison butchering. The other two knife fragments are alternately beveled on two sides. The pinkish color of one knife fragment is a result of the flintknapper heat treating the material to improve the Permian chert's knapping qualities. The remaining alternately beveled knife fragment was manufactured on Smoky Hill silicified chalk.


Alternately Beveled Knives from 14MY316

Alternately Beveled Knives from 14MY316
Date: 800-1000 CE
These two alternately beveled knife fragments were recovered from an Early Ceramic village in Montgomery County. The site had at least one house and may represent a Pomona occupation. Radiocarbon dating on a burned post gave a date of 800-1000 CE. Archeologists believe that knives shaped like these would have been used for bison butchering. They can be alternately sharpened on all four sides or on two alternate sides. One knife has an exposed portion of a fossilized segmented worm, Spriggina floudersi. The other knife was manufactured on a chert called Tahlequah, that outcrops in eastern Oklahoma.


Alternately Beveled Knives from 14MY383

Alternately Beveled Knives from 14MY383
Date: 6000- 4000 BCE
These two alternately beveled knife fragments were recovered from a Middle Archaic site in Montgomery County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1976. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels.


Alternately Beveled Knives from Elk County

Alternately Beveled Knives from Elk County
Date: Unknown
These alternately beveled knives were collected in Elk County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1959. Both knives were manufactured on Permian chert. The knives gets their pinkish color as a result of the flintknapper heat treating the material to improve the chert's knapping qualities. Repeated sharpening on alternate sides created bevels.


Alternately Beveled Knives from Russell County

Alternately Beveled Knives from Russell County
Date: Unknown
These five alternately beveled knives were found in Russell County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2015. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. There is one heat treated Florence chert knife (top row, right). All of the other knives were manufactured on Smoky Hill silicified chalk, which outcrops in western Kansas. All of the knives are fragments with the exception of the pink colored one on the bottom row.


Alternately Beveled Knives from the Griffing Site, 14RY21

Alternately Beveled Knives from the Griffing Site, 14RY21
Date: 1000-1500 CE
These two alternately beveled knives were recovered from the Griffing site and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1902. The Griffing site, in Riley County, had numerous lodges present and likely represents a scatter of farmsteads from the Central Plains tradition occupied during the Middle Ceramic period. Based on pottery recovered at the site it is likely that at least a portion of the site was occupied by Smoky Hill aspect peoples. Archeologists believe that knives shaped like these would have been used for bison butchering. Repeated sharpening on alternate sides created bevels. Knives with the general diamond shape are also sometimes called Harahey knives.


Alternately Beveled Knives from the Pratt/Wing Site, 14PT1

Alternately Beveled Knives from the Pratt/Wing Site, 14PT1
Date: 1300-1500 CE
These two alternately beveled knives were recovered from the Pratt/Wing site in Pratt County. The Pratt site is the type site of the Pratt Complex which occurred during the Middle Ceramic Period. Knives such as these gained their distinctive beveled appearance by repeated sharpening on alternate sides.


Alternately Beveled Knives from the Saxman Site, 14RC301

Alternately Beveled Knives from the Saxman Site, 14RC301
Date: 1500-1650 CE
Shown are four alternately beveled knives that were collected from the Saxman site in Rice County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. Three of the knives are made on Smoky Hill silicified chalk, which outcrops in western Kansas. The slight pinkish color of the fourth knife indicates that it had been heat treated, prior to knapping, to improve knapping quality of the chert. The Saxman site, a large Great Bend aspect village, was occupied by the ancestral Wichita peoples.


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