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14MP1, Paint Creek Site Effigy or Chipped Stone Tool?

14MP1, Paint Creek Site Effigy or Chipped Stone Tool?
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This artifact was found at the Paint Creek village in McPherson County. It was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1971. Archeologists sometimes ponder how to classify an artifact: is this an effigy or a chipped stone tool? The Paint Creek site is what archeologists call part of the Little River Focus of the Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


1819 One cent coin from Fort Hays, 14EL301

1819 One cent coin from Fort Hays, 14EL301
Date: 1867-1889
This one cent coin was recovered by Kansas Historical Society archeologists during excavation at historic Fort Hays in Ellis County. The cent, now commonly called a penny, was also called a large cent. The Matron head design shown here was minted between 1816 and 1839. Fort Hays was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1971 and is a State Historic Site.


1823 Liberty Dime from Soldier Creek Crossing, 14OS1302

1823 Liberty Dime from Soldier Creek Crossing, 14OS1302
Date: 1823
This Liberty dime was recovered at a Santa Fe trail stream crossing site in Osage County. The silver dime, minted in 1823, is a type called "Capped Bust," meaning it was struck over a 1822 Liberty dime with the "3" of 1823 directly on top of the "2" of the 1822 date. The site was the focus of a 1995 Kansas Archeology Training Program event with Kansas Historical Society archeologists and volunteers from the Kansas Anthropological Association.


1844 Quarter from the Last Chance Store, 14MO367

1844 Quarter from the Last Chance Store, 14MO367
Date: 1844
This quarter was minted in 1844 in New Orleans. It was recovered from the site of the 2016 Kansas Archeology Training Program, the Last Chance Store in Council Grove. It shows a seated Liberty on one side and an eagle on the other. The Last Chance Store was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1971.


1853 Half Dime from Fort Zarah, 14BT301

1853 Half Dime from Fort Zarah, 14BT301
Date: 1853-1868
This silver half dime was recovered from Fort Zarah during the 1969 Kansas Archeological Training Program field school, a joint project undertaken by Kansas Historical Society archeologists and Kansas Anthropological Association volunteers. The obverse side shows a Seated Liberty with her right hand resting on a striped shield and her left hand holding a Liberty pole. Six-pointed stars surround Liberty and arrows are present on each side of the date of 1853. The reverse side has the words "HALF DIME" and "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" surrounded by a wreath of laurel leaves. Fort Zarah, located along the Santa Fe trail in Barton County, was active from 1864 to 1869.


1856 One-Cent Coin from the Canville Trading Post, 14NO396

1856 One-Cent Coin from the Canville Trading Post, 14NO396
Date: 1856-1872
This one-cent coin was found at the Canville Trading Post in Neosho County near the Osage Reservation and was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1994. The obverse of the coin shows Liberty with braided hair surrounded by stars and the date 1856. The reverse side shows an oak leaf wreath surrounding the words "ONE CENT." Large one-cent coins were discontinued in 1857 and replaced with smaller one-cent coins of the size we use today. The Canville Trading Post was established in 1847 by A. B. Canville. When the Osage reservation land was ceded to the United States in 1870, the Osage left for Oklahoma and Canville followed in 1872.


1866 Three cent coin from Fort Hays, 14EL301

1866 Three cent coin from Fort Hays, 14EL301
Date: 1867-1889
This three cent coin was recovered by Kansas Historical Society archeologists during excavation at historic Fort Hays in Ellis County. The three cent coin was minted from 1851 to 1889, first in silver and then in 1865, in nickel. This coin was minted in 1866 and has a Liberty head on the obverse side and a Roman numeral III on the reverse. Fort Hays was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1971 and is a State Historic Site.


1876 Liberty Quarter from Fort Hays, 14EL301

1876 Liberty Quarter from Fort Hays, 14EL301
Date: 1876-1889
This seated Liberty quarter was recovered by Kansas Historical Society archeologists during excavation at historic Fort Hays in Ellis County. On the obverse side of the quarter Liberty is seated on a rock holding a liberty pole, resting her hand on a shield and surrounded above by 13 stars. On the reverse side is an eagle with a ribbon with the words "IN GOD WE TRUST" on it. An olive branch and arrows are positioned in the eagle's talons and there is a shield on its breast. The quarter was minted in 1876 in Carson City, Nevada. Fort Hays was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1971 and is a State Historic Site.


1876 Penny from the Kaw Mission, 14MO368

1876 Penny from the Kaw Mission, 14MO368
Date: 1876
The 1876 penny was recovered during excavations at the 2018 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Kaw Mission. The penny, sometimes called an Indian Head cent or Indian Head penny shows Liberty with a head dress on the obverse side. The reverse side shows an oak wreath and shield surrounding the words "ONE CENT." The Mission was built over the winter of 1850 - 1851 by the Methodist Episcopal Church South as a school for boys in the Kaw (or Kansa) tribe. The site was acquired by the state of Kansas in 1951 and it was listed in 1971 to the National Register of Historic Places.


1878 Penny from the Mine Creek Civil War Battlefield, 14LN337

1878 Penny from the Mine Creek Civil War Battlefield, 14LN337
Date: 1878
This penny dates to 14 years later than the Battle of Mine Creek, but still can help archeologists understand activity or disturbance at the site. The site was the location where on October 25, 1864 Union and Confederate forces fought one of the largest cavalry battles in the Civil War. The penny, sometimes called an Indian Head cent or Indian Head penny shows Liberty with a head dress on the obverse side. The reverse side shows an oak wreath and shield surrounding the words "ONE CENT."


1880 Liberty Head Half Eagle from Fort Hays, 14EL301

1880 Liberty Head Half Eagle from Fort Hays, 14EL301
Date: 1880-1889
This coin was recovered during excavation at historic Fort Hays in Ellis County. The $5.00 coin is 90% gold and 10% copper. Minted in 1880, the coin has a Liberty or Coronet head on the obverse side and an eagle with shield on the reverse side. Fort Hays was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1971 and is a State Historic Site.


1897 Liberty Head V Nickel from 14WY408

1897 Liberty Head V Nickel from 14WY408
Date: 1897
This 1897 nickel was collected from a multicomponent camp site in Wyandotte County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2018. On the obverse is Liberty wearing a coronet and wreath with the date. On the reverse is "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA V E PLURIBUS UNUM."


1966 Excavations at Fort Hays, 14EL301

1966 Excavations at Fort Hays, 14EL301
Date: 1966
These photographs were taken by Kansas Historical Society archeological staff during excavation at historic Fort Hays in Ellis County in 1966. The excavations took place in the area of the sutler's store and house. Shown is the archeological excavations in progress, a group of square bricks, a trash pit, and an aerial view showing the excavations, golf course, historic trails, and modern roads. Fort Hays was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1971 and is a State Historic Site.


1967 Excavations at Fort Hays, 14EL301

1967 Excavations at Fort Hays, 14EL301
Date: 1967
These photographs were taken by Kansas Historical Society archeological staff during excavation at historic Fort Hays in Ellis County in 1967. The excavations took place in the area of the Commanding Officer's Quarters and a fort dump. Shown is an excavated foundation, artifacts at the bottom of one of the fort's dumps, and a view of the excavations in progress. Fort Hays was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1971 and is a State Historic Site.


1968 Excavations at Fort Hays, 14EL301

1968 Excavations at Fort Hays, 14EL301
Date: 1968
These photographs were taken by Kansas Historical Society archeological staff during excavation at historic Fort Hays in Ellis County in 1968. The excavations took place in the area of the officer's quarters (Officer's Row). Shown are two views of the House 4 cellar excavation, the archeological excavations of the foundations for Houses 2 through 6 in progress, and a toy dish discovered in the House 5 excavations. Fort Hays was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1971 and is a State Historic Site.


1969 Excavation at Fort Hays, 14EL301

1969 Excavation at Fort Hays, 14EL301
Date: 1969
These photographs were taken by Kansas Historical Society archeological staff during excavation at historic Fort Hays in Ellis County in 1969. The excavations took place in the area of the fort hospital. Shown are the southeast support of the east hospital wing, the east center support of the west hospital annex, the east drain into the hospital cistern, and a bayonet discovered during excavation. Fort Hays was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1971 and is a State Historic Site.


1970 Excavations at Fort Hays, 14EL301

1970 Excavations at Fort Hays, 14EL301
Date: 1970
These photographs were taken by Kansas Historical Society archeological staff during excavation at historic Fort Hays in Ellis County in 1969. Shown is a view of the completed excavation of the fort's coal shed foundation, a view of the main living area of the surgeon's quarters, and a young man drawing profiles of features 834 and 822 at the site. Fort Hays was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1971 and is a State Historic Site.


1995 Excavations at the Havana Stage Station, 14OS1301

1995 Excavations at the Havana Stage Station, 14OS1301
Date: 1995
Shown are eleven images taken during the excavation at the Havana Stage Station in Osage County during the Kansas Archeology Training Program field school in 1995. The Havana Stage Station was built along the Santa Fe trail in 1858 and by the early 1870s had ceased to function as station and became part of the outbuildings of a farm. Shown is a view of the former station taken in the 1950s, a sketch of the site in 1995, a sketch of the station ruins in 1995, five views of the station's foundations and walls, two views of mapping and recordkeeping, and the nearby stone corral.


3/4-Grooved Axe from 14AT444

3/4-Grooved Axe from 14AT444
Date: 1-1000 CE
This axe was collected from a possible Early Ceramic period site in Atchison County and donated in 2018 to the Kansas Historical Society. While 3/4-grooved axes are frequently recovered from late Archaic sites, their use is not restricted to that time period. They get their name from the hafting groove that encircles 3/4 of the body of the axe. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state.


3/4 Grooved Axe from 14WY308

3/4 Grooved Axe from 14WY308
Date: 1-1500 CE
This 3/4 grooved axe was collected from a multicomponent site in Wyandotte County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1973. While 3/4 grooved axes are frequently recovered from late Archaic sites, their use is not restricted to that time period. They get their name from the hafting groove that encircles 3/4 of the body of the axe. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state.


3/4 Grooved Axe from Douglas County

3/4 Grooved Axe from Douglas County
Date: Unknown
This 3/4 grooved axe was collected in Douglas County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1923. While 3/4 grooved axes are frequently recovered from late Archaic sites, their use is not restricted to that time period. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state. They get their name from the hafting groove the encircles 3/4 of its body.


3/4 Grooved Axe from Geary County

3/4 Grooved Axe from Geary County
Date: Unknown
This 3/4 grooved axe was found in Geary County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1963. While 3/4 grooved axes are frequently recovered from late Archaic sites, their use is not restricted to that time period. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state. They get their name from the hafting groove the encircles 3/4 of its body.


3/4 Grooved Axe from Jefferson County

3/4 Grooved Axe from Jefferson County
Date: 7000 BCE-1 CE
This 3/4 grooved axe was collected from a sand bar in Jefferson County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2015. While 3/4 grooved axes are frequently recovered from late Archaic sites, there use is not restricted to that time period. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state. As the axe was made seven small concavities were revealed in the stone. Axes like this one get their name from the hafting groove the encircles 3/4 of its body.


3/4 Grooved Axe from the Collins Site, 14DP1306

3/4 Grooved Axe from the Collins Site, 14DP1306
Date: Unknown
The 3/4 grooved axe shown here was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1979. It was collected from an archeological site in Doniphan County with multiple occupations. While 3/4 grooved axes are frequently recovered from late Archaic sites, there use is not restricted to that time period. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state. The groove would have been used to haft the axe to the handle.


3/4 Grooved Axe from the Plowboy Site, 14SH372

3/4 Grooved Axe from the Plowboy Site, 14SH372
Date: 2000 BCE-1850 CE
This 3/4 grooved axe was collected from the Plowboy site in Shawnee County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. The Plowboy site was home to the Kansa, the Potawatomi, and Euro-Americans. At various times, the site contained a farm, a trading post, and a post office with nearby military trails, Mormon routes, a railroad and the California-Oregon trail. Before all of this activity, other American Indians also occupied the site and created this groundstone axe. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state. They get their name from the hafting groove the encircles 3/4 of its body.


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