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Kansas Memory has been created by the Kansas State Historical Society to share its historical collections via the Internet. Read more.

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20th Kansas Artillery in Caloocan, Philippines

20th Kansas Artillery in Caloocan, Philippines
Creator: Rockett, P. Fremont
Date: 1899
This is a photograph of the 20th Kansas Artillery emplacement near the Old Cemetery at Caloocan, Philippines. The photograph is from the Metcalf album collection.


20th Kansas Infantry at Fort MacArthur, Caloocan, Philippines

20th Kansas Infantry at Fort MacArthur, Caloocan, Philippines
Creator: Rockett, P. Fremont
Date: 1899
A photograph of the 20th Kansas Infantry in Fort MacArthur, Caloocan, Philippines during the Spanish American War. This photograph is from the Metcalf album collection.


20th Kansas Regiment's band members at cemetery

20th Kansas Regiment's band members at cemetery
Date: March 29, 1899
View of three wounded members of the 20th Kansas Regiment's band at the grave of a fellow bandsman who had been killed at Bielew, Philippines, during the Spanish-American War.


20th Kansas Regiment Artillery Battery during the Spanish American War

20th Kansas Regiment Artillery Battery during the Spanish American War
Creator: Rockett, P. Fremont
Date: 1899
A photograph of the 20th Kansas Regiment Artillery Battery firing from an old Spanish Block House during the Spanish American War. This photograph is from the Metcalf album collection.


20th Kansas Regiment Band, Manila, Philippines

20th Kansas Regiment Band, Manila, Philippines
Date: Between 1898 and 1899
View of the 20th Kansas Regiment's band, standing in formation, in Manila, Philippines, sometime during or immediately following the Spanish-American War (1898-1899).


20th Kansas Regiment, Spanish American War

20th Kansas Regiment, Spanish American War
Creator: Rockett, P. Fremont
Date: 1899
A photograph of the 20th Kansas Regiment taking a meal in a trench while stationed in the Philippines. This photograph is from the Metcalf album collection.


20th Kansas Regiment, Spanish American War

20th Kansas Regiment, Spanish American War
Creator: Rockett, P. Fremont
Date: 1899
An photograph of the 20th Kansas Regiment arriving at Malolos, Philippines. This photograph came from the Metcalf album collection.


20th Kansas Regiment and 2nd Division headquarters, Caloocan, Philippines

20th Kansas Regiment and 2nd Division headquarters, Caloocan, Philippines
Creator: Rockett, P. Fremont
Date: 1899
A photograph of the 20th Kansas Regiment and the 2nd Division headquarters in Caloocan, Philippines during the Spanish American War. This photograph came from the Metcalf album collection.


20th Kansas Regiment outpost during the Spanish American War

20th Kansas Regiment outpost during the Spanish American War
Creator: Rockett, P. Fremont
Date: 1899
A photograph of a 20th Kansas Regiment outpost during the Spanish American War. This photograph is from the Metcalf album collection.


20th Kansas Volunteer Infantry flag

20th Kansas Volunteer Infantry flag
Date: between 1898 and 1899
Silk regimental flag of the Twentieth Kansas Volunteer Infantry, which served in the Spanish-American War from 1898 to 1899. The flag is blue with the State Seal in the center. Gold fringe is attached to three sides. The regiment saw service in the Philippines, both in combat and as an occupation force at the conclusion of the fighting. Frederick Funston served as its commander. The Twentieth was the only of the four Kansas regiments to see action during the war.


20th Kansas Volunteer Infantry in the Philippines

20th Kansas Volunteer Infantry in the Philippines
Date: 1899
Here are two photographs showing the 20th Kansas Volunteer Infantry in the Philippines. Photograph number *95 was taken in action at Caloocan on February 22, 1899. The officer observing the soldiers firing is the company commander. His mess kit is hanging up to dry as they fight. Photograph number *96 shows Company H, 20th Kansas Regiment in the field at Caloocan, Philippines on March 24, 1899.


Box part

Box part
Date: between 1942 and 1945
Part of a cardboard box that once held rations sent by the American Red Cross to Prisoners of War. Colonel James C. Hughes acquired this ration box while being held as a Prisoner of War (POW) by the Japanese during World War II. Born in Topeka, Kansas, in 1888, Hughes served in the Mexican Border Conflict, World War I, and World War II. In 1942, he was captured by the Japanese on the Bataan peninsula and spent the next 41 months in various Japanese POW camps. He was liberated by Russian forces at Camp Hoten, Manchuria, in 1945. Hughes died in 1964 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.


Crossing the Rio Grande de la Pampanga during the Philippine Insurrection

Crossing the Rio Grande de la Pampanga during the Philippine Insurrection
Date: April 27, 1899
Four photographs showing Colonel Frederick Funston and his troops crossing the Rio Grande de la Pampanga during the Philippine Insurrection. While crossing the river under fire, two privates of the 20th, Edward White and William B. Trembly, were awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for their heroism.


Dr. Ada Rice to Senator Arthur Capper

Dr. Ada Rice to Senator Arthur Capper
Creator: Rice, Ada
Date: July 13, 1947
In this letter to Senator Arthur Capper, Kansas State College of Agriculture and Applied Science professor Ada Rice explains that her brother in Manilla has seen many U.S. civilians who had been in Japanese prison camps during the war. Asserting that they need assistance from the U.S. Government, Rice asks Senator Capper to vote for House Resolution 1823, a bill introduced by Congressman Carl Hinshaw of California that provided money to former U.S. civilian prisoners of war.


Filipino flag

Filipino flag
Date: between 1898 and 1899
Tattered red, white, and blue Filipino flag. The flag was found in a footlocker that belonged to Claude Spurlock (1877-1953), who was born in Perry, Kansas. Spurlock probably acquired the flag while fighting with the 20th Kansas Infantry Regiment in the Philippines during the Spanish-American War. While there, Spurlock worked as an instructor to Filipino forces. He later returned to Kansas and worked in the meatpacking industry in Kansas City.


Gear bag

Gear bag
Date: between 1942 and 1945
Olive green cotton bag with flap closure. Hand lettered "H" characters on front and back of bag; Japanese characters handprinted on back. The bag belonged to Colonel James C. Hughes, whom the Japanese held as a prisoner of war (POW) during World War II. Hughes had few possessions while in the camps; this bag was among them. He used it to carry his cup, bowls, and other personal items. Born in Topeka, Kansas, in 1888, Hughes served in the Mexican Border Conflict, World War I, and World War II. In 1942, he was captured by the Japanese on the Bataan peninsula and spent the next 41 months in various Japanese POW camps. He was liberated by Russian forces at Camp Hoten, Manchuria, in 1945. Hughes died in 1964 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.


Guy Alfred Coover

Guy Alfred Coover
Creator: Fotogralia Espanola
Date: 1899
This carte-de-visite shows Corporal Guy Alfred Coover, who was a member of Company D, 20th Kansas Volunteer Infantry. He was mustered in on June 14, 1898 as a private, promoted to corporal on July 27, 1899 and mustered out with his regiment. The photograph was taken in Manila when Coover was 20 years old. Coover was living in Walnut, Kansas when he enlisted in the Army.


Homer M. Limbird collection

Homer M. Limbird collection
Date: February 12, 1898-October 13, 1964
These materials pertaining to Homer Martin Limbird's service in Company L, 20th Kansas Volunteer Infantry, during the Philippine American War (1899-1902). The bulk of the collection consists of letters written by Limbird to family members in Gardner, Kansas, between June 1898 and October 1899. He describes his experiences in camp in San Francisco and in engagements with insurgents in the Philippines. Two diaries also cover Limbird's experiences in the Philippines in 1899. In addition, the collection contains newspaper articles concurrent with the conflict and later articles pertaining to Limbird's service. Researchers are advised that some of the language in these materials may be considered offensive.


Independence of the Philippine Islands - Debate Material

Independence of the Philippine Islands - Debate Material
Creator: Kansas. Governor (1915-1919: Capper)
Date: February 1915
To support Frank Zlatnik in his high school debate, Zlatnik writes to Governor Capper asking for information about the Philippines applying for independence. This file is part of a bigger collection of Governor Arthur Capper correspondence.


Japanese flag

Japanese flag
Date: 1944
White silk inscribed Japanese flag. These flags were given to Japanese soldiers during World War II. Carried for good luck, the flags were adorned with patriotic phrases by family and friends. Allied soldiers in the Pacific Theater often captured the flags and brought them home as trophies. Markings indicate this flag belonged to a Japanese Naval officer stationed at Nanjing, China, and Kure Naval Base, Japan. The flag was acquired in Leyte, Philippines, site of a major battle between Japanese and Allied forces in 1944.


Jesse E. Garver

Jesse E. Garver
Date: 1899
A photograph of Jesse E. Garver, Larned, Kansas, a member of Company B, United States 44th Infantry, playing Reveille. This photograph was taken at Tubigon Bohol, Philippine Islands during the Philippine Insurrection.


John Clifford video interview on experiences in World War II (transcript)

John Clifford video interview on experiences in World War II (transcript)
Creator: Clifford, John
Date: August 28, 2007
John Clifford was inducted into the United States Army in 1941 and served until 1946. Clifford wanted to be a writer before being drafted into the Army in 1941 and pursued various efforts related to writing--before, during, and after the war. He was stationed at Fort Monmouth, Ne Jersey, as a clerk and at Camp Crowder, Missouri. He met his wife to be at a USO dance in Joplin, Missouri. He served in hospitals in New Guinea and the Philippines. Interviewed by Pattie Johnston on Aug 28, 2007, Clifford talked about military experiences in the Second World War. He was born in Sprinfield, Illinois, November 19, 1918. After the war, he attended Emporia State Teachers College on the G.I. Bill. After a couple of different jobs, he joined the staff of Centron Films in Lawrence and worked there for 23 years. The 2005 Kansas Legislature passed a bill funding the WWII Veterans Oral History grant program. This transcript is from one of the community institutions receiving grants. The transcript of the interview is presented here; the original video copy of the interview is available through the Watkins Community Museum of History (Lawrence) and through the Kansas State Historical Society.


Kansas Adjutant General miscellaneous correspondence

Kansas Adjutant General miscellaneous correspondence
Creator: Kansas. Adjutant General's Office
Date: 1901
Correspondence sent and received by Kansas Adjutant General Simeon M. Fox. Topics include the discharge, enlistment, and resignations of national guard members. Includes a sketch of events of the Battle of Marilao River. Frequent correspondence was exchanged with George B. Donavin & Company regarding the supply of military goods from Columbus, Ohio, and Captain Andrew Hudson of Company M, First Regiment from Fredonia, Kansas.


Knife

Knife
Date: between 1942 and 1945
Simple homemade knife constucted of a razor blade mounted in a wooden handle. Col. James C. Hughes made or acquired the knife while being held as a Japanese Prisoner of War during World War II. Born in Topeka, Kansas, in 1888, Hughes served in the Mexican Border Conflict, World War I, and World War II. During the latter conflict, he commanded a Philippine regiment (Filipino soldiers led by American officers), which surrendered in 1942 on the Bataan peninsula. Hughes spent the next 41 months in various Japanese P.O.W. camps. He was liberated by Russian forces at Camp Hoten, Manchuria, in 1945. Hughes died in 1964 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.


Knife

Knife
Date: between 1942 and 1945
Simple homemade knife constucted of a razor blade mounted in a wooden handle. Col. James C. Hughes made or acquired the knife while being held as a Japanese Prisoner of War during World War II. Born in Topeka, Kansas, in 1888, Hughes served in the Mexican Border Conflict, World War I, and World War II. During the latter conflict, he commanded a Philippine regiment (Filipino soldiers led by American officers), which surrendered in 1942 on the Bataan peninsula. Hughes spent the next 41 months in various Japanese P.O.W. camps. He was liberated by Russian forces at Camp Hoten, Manchuria, in 1945. Hughes died in 1964 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.


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