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A. Curtis to William Hutchinson

A. Curtis to William Hutchinson
Creator: Curtis, A.
Date: December 21, 1856
Curtis reports on the conflict between the Kansas Central Committee and W. F. M. Arny, general agent for the National Kansas Committee, over the distribution of supplies. Curtis claims that Arny issued supplies to individuals who were engaged in speculative ventures and who were not in need of relief. Curtis attaches an itemized list of the supplies that he believes were inappropriately issued by Arny.


A. Finch to Thaddeus Hyatt

A. Finch to Thaddeus Hyatt
Creator: Finch, H.
Date: December 22, 1856
This letter, written from Osawatomie by A. Finch to Thaddeus Hyatt, chairman of the National Kansas Committee, provided general information about the inhabitants of Osawatomie and neighboring areas. It included a list of about half of the settlers residing in Osawatomie at this time, including the four pro-slavery voters. Mr. Finch went into detail about the most fertile areas that would be excellent sites for free state settlements, and about the economic conditions and financial needs of the settlers.


A.S. Harris to Thaddeus Hyatt

A.S. Harris to Thaddeus Hyatt
Creator: Harris, A S.
Date: September 22, 1856
A.S. Harris wrote from New York to Thaddeus Hyatt regarding an article in the Journal of Commerce that dealt with the upcoming Presidential election and the strife in Kansas. The clipping was attached to the letter, and it included a rather lengthy attack on emigrant aid societies.


Aaron Dwight Stevens

Aaron Dwight Stevens
Creator: Hinton, Richard J. (Richard Josiah), 1830-1901
Date: 1856
A pen sketch of Aaron Dwight Stevens, 1831-1860, published in Richard Hinton's book, "John Brown and His Men." Stevens, reported to be one of abolitionist John Brown's bravest men, used the alias Captain Charles Whipple while following Brown. Stevens was convicted of treason and conspiring with slaves for his part in Brown's October 16, 1859 raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia, and was hung at Charles Town, Virginia on March 16, 1860.


Aaron Dwight Stevens

Aaron Dwight Stevens
Creator: Reader, Samuel James, 1836-1914
Date: 1856
A cyanotype of Aaron Dwight Stevens, 1831-1860, from a drawing made by Samuel J. Reader of Shawnee County, Kansas Territory. Stevens, reported to be one of abolitionist John Brown's bravest men, used the alias Captain Charles Whipple while following Brown. Stevens was convicted of treason and conspiring with slaves for his part in Brown's October 16, 1859 raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia, and was hung at Charles Town, Virginia on March 16, 1860.


Aaron Dwight Stevens

Aaron Dwight Stevens
Creator: Moore, J. S.
Date: 1856
A cabinet card of Aaron Dwight Stevens, 1831-1860. Stevens, reported to be one of abolitionist John Brown's bravest men, used the alias Captain Charles Whipple while following Brown. Stevens was convicted of treason and conspiring with slaves for his part in Brown's October 16, 1859 raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia, and was hung at Charles Town, Virginia on March 16, 1860.


Admit Me Free flag

Admit Me Free flag
Date: 1856
In 1856 this cotton and wool flag was used by Walter Whitehead in a rally at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, for Republican presidential nominee John C. Fremont. The oversized 33rd star and the words, "Admit Me Free" in the canton of the flag are in support of Kansas admittance as a free state. It was also used in the 1860 presidential campaign for Abraham Lincoln and other political campaigns.


Affidavits concerning William and Henry Sherman, and Allen Wilkinson

Affidavits concerning William and Henry Sherman, and Allen Wilkinson
Creator: Grant, John T.
Date: June 12, 1856
This document contains brief affidavit statements made by several free state supporters of the character and personal habits of William and Henry Sherman, and Allen Wilkinson, who were described as "intemperate" men. William Sherman and Allen Wilkinson were among the five pro-slavery settlers killed in the Pottawatomie Massacre in May, 1856. The document is written in the same hand (suggesting that its statements were either recorded or copied by the same person), and is identified as "Potawatomie, Franklin County, Kansas Territory, June 12, 1856."


Albert D. Searl to Thaddeus Hyatt

Albert D. Searl to Thaddeus Hyatt
Creator: Searl, Albert D
Date: August 21, 1856
The author wrote from Tabor, Iowa to Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee. He began the letter by mentioning a skirmish between pro-slavery and free state forces somewhere between Lawrence and Topeka. This correspondence also deals with emigrant settlements within the territory, the shipment of weapons and provisions, and the morale among the emigrants as they struggled to make ends meet. Furthermore, Searl mentioned a great deal about James Lane and his activities within Kansas Territory.


Amos A. Lawrence to Charles Robinson

Amos A. Lawrence to Charles Robinson
Creator: Lawrence, Amos Adams
Date: January 31, 1856
Amos Lawrence writes from Boston, Massachusetts, to advise his friend, Charles Robinson, to submit to the authority of recognized officers of the U.S. government, no matter how unjust their actions appeared. Lawrence suggests that Robinson follow the "Fabian policy" of non-violent, peaceful resistance, and do what he could to discourage "all aggression" on the part of free-state men.


Amos A. Lawrence to Sara Robinson

Amos A. Lawrence to Sara Robinson
Creator: Lawrence, Amos Adams
Date: June 26, 1856
Amos A. Lawrence writes from New York to state that he believes "Gov. Robinson cannot be harmed by any action of law," but thinks it wise for Sara T. D. Robinson to write a letter to Lawrence's mother "to be kept in reserve." Lawrence included a draft version of that letter but it has not been digitized. Lawrence mentions visits with Congressmen William Howard and John Sherman (Howard Commission) and testimony before a congressional committee. He seems optimistic about the situation in Kansas. [Reprinted in Blackmar, "Life of Charles Robinson," 434.]


An Appeal for Kansas

An Appeal for Kansas
Creator: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: October 10, 1856
Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee,writes this published "appeal" to the New York Tribune editor. It is subtitled "with practical suggestions for its relief." This committee, also known as the Kansas Relief Committee in its early years, worked to send free state settlers into Kansas Territory and to obtain support for Kansas Territory from the Northeast.


An Appeal from the Merchants of Lawrence, Kansas Territory to the Chamber of Commerce, St. Louis, Missouri

An Appeal from the Merchants of Lawrence, Kansas Territory to the Chamber of Commerce, St. Louis, Missouri
Creator: Merchants of Lawrence
Date: 1856
Lawrence merchants appeal to the St. Louis business community to take steps to prevent Missourians from invading Kansas Territory. They base their request on the negative impact that the invasions would have on commerce between Missouri and Kansas Territory.


An appeal to the women of the State of New York

An appeal to the women of the State of New York
Creator: Nichols, Clarinda I. Howard
Date: Between 1855 and 1857
This circular is written by Clarina Nichols to the women of New York. In her eloquent letter, she attempts to persuade them to send support to the people of Kansas, appealing to their hearts and their experiences as mothers.


Andrew H. Reeder to Charles Robinson

Andrew H. Reeder to Charles Robinson
Creator: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: February 16, 1856
From "Washington City" on February 16, 1856, former Kansas Territory governor Andrew H. Reeder wrote Charles Robinson regarding Reeder's efforts to influence Kansas Territory policy in the nation's capital. Reeder was working through friends, since he no longer had personal influence with President Pierce, and he was not pleased with the president's February 11 proclamation, which he called "the low contemptible trickstering affair which might expected from Pierce, and is like the Special Message [of January 24] a slander on the Free State Party." Nevertheless, Reeder thought it could have been worse and insisted that Robinson and the other free-state leaders "should not organize the State Govt" as Pierce would just use that action to justify aggressive moves to suppress the free state movement.


Andrew H. Reeder to Charles Robinson

Andrew H. Reeder to Charles Robinson
Creator: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: February 18, 1856
On February 18, 1856, former Kansas Territorial governor, Andrew Reeder, writes Charles Robinson to advise Robinson of the current situation in Washington, D.C., and to urge caution. Reeder believes that Robinson, and the Topeka movement and legislature, must clearly state that they are organizing a "state government" solely for the purpose of being ready to assume authority if and when Congress admits Kansas Territory to the Union. Reeder believes the "state movement" was on solid constitutional ground if this is its official position in the meantime, and cautions Robinson that they must take care not to usurp the power and authority of the territorial government.


Andrew H. Reeder to John A. Haldeman

Andrew H. Reeder to John A. Haldeman
Creator: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: August 11, 1856
In this letter to John A. Haldeman, Andrew H. Reeder discusses the "sacking of Lawrence," the loss of papers related to the sale on lands that once belonged to Indians, and the use of Haldeman as his agent for his lots in Leavenworth, Kansas. As Reeder's letter indicates, the transition of Indian lands into the hands of white settlers was often quite difficult and added to tension levels in Kansas in the wake of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854.


Andrew H. Reeder to John A. Halderman

Andrew H. Reeder to John A. Halderman
Creator: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: August 11, 1856
The former governor writes this letter from Easton, Pennsylvania, to his former secretary and attorney, John A. Halderman, in order to secure Halderman's services to retrieve some personal papers and settle some matters of business pertaining to town lots and shares. According to Reeder, "the Sheriff posse at the sacking of Lawrence broke open my trunk and stole the contents. The clothing is probably by this time worn out," and he is not concerned about other contents, with the exception of "some private papers" that someone had informed him could be retrieved. He asks Halderman to get the papers, which included "certificates of stock in Leavenworth, Tecumseh, Lecompton, Lawrence, Easton, Pawnee" etc., and then take care of business matters that are reflected therein. Reeder also asks Halderman "to attend to my Leavenworth lots" and explains in considerable detail about these matters.


Andrew H. Reeder to John A. Halderman

Andrew H. Reeder to John A. Halderman
Creator: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: October 22, 1856
Former Kansas Territory Governor Andrew H. Reeder writes to John Halderman from Easton, Pennsylvania, regarding his business affairs and his desire to have Halderman act as his attorney and agent. Reeder also gives brief attention to the political situation in Kansas Territory and the nation, mentioning the congressional committee investigating the Kansas affairs, the "horrible state of things . . .in our unfortunate Territory," and his belief that, although James Buchanan would win the presidential contest in 1856, "the Republican party is bound to sweep the North within the next four years."


Andrew H. Reeder to William Hutchinson

Andrew H. Reeder to William Hutchinson
Creator: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: August 25, 1856
This letter from Andrew H. Reeder to William Hutchinson describes Reeder's efforts to raise money for the Free State cause in his travels through the northern states.


Andrew Horatio Reeder

Andrew Horatio Reeder
Date: 1856
Portrait of Andrew Horation Reeder, governor of Kansas Territory.


Andrew Horatio Reeder

Andrew Horatio Reeder
Date: 1856
A photograph of a painting depicting Andrew Horatio Reeder as he escaped from Kansas Territory disguised as a woodchopper. The artist probably painted this from a photograph taken upon Reeder's arrival in Chicago, Illinois. Reeder was appointed to serve as territorial governor of Kansas on June 29, 1854, took the oath of office on July 7, 1854, and arrived in Kansas Territory on October 7, 1854. He served to April 17, 1855, and then again from June 23 to August 16, 1855. In 1854, Reeder called for an election to choose a delegate to Congress. On election day, Missourians came in great numbers and, voting illegally, elected a proslavery candidate. This same situation occurred in March, 1855, when an election was called to form a legislature. Early in 1856, Lecompton was designated the territorial capital of Kansas. Sheriff Samuel Jones, a strong proslavery supporter, arrested several free-staters in Lawrence. Several people for whom Jones was looking escaped, including Reeder, who left Kansas dressed as a woodchopper.


Andrew Horatio Reeder to Franklin Crane

Andrew Horatio Reeder to Franklin Crane
Creator: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: December 23, 1856
This letter by Andrew Reeder, former governor of Kansas Territory, was written from Easton, Pennsylvania, where both Reeder and Crane had lived before coming to Kansas. Reeder encloses payment for the taxes on his Topeka lots. He also reports that he has been in Washington, D. C. lobbying for the free-state cause and informs Crane of various issues being discussed in the capitol.


Andrew J. Mead to John A. Haldeman

Andrew J. Mead to John A. Haldeman
Date: July 12, 1856
In this letter to John A. Haldeman, Andrew J. Mead asks if he knows of a portion of the Wyandotte Float that was available for sale. The Wyandotte Floats were originally set aside for the Wyandotte Tribe. However, the flexible nature of the Floats allowed them to be more easily transferred to white settlers once the U.S. Government decided to remove Native Indians from the newly created territories of Kansas and Nebraska.


Andrew Reeder

Andrew Reeder
Date: May 1856
Copy of a photograph taken of Andrew H. Reeder in May, 1856 upon his escape from KS disguised as a wood choper. Taken in the city of Chicago.


Showing 1 - 25
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