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Winter 1977, Volume 43, Number 4

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Kathryn Zerbe, M.D., with her book at the Menninger Clinic, Topeka, Kansas Kathryn Zerbe, M.D., with her book at the Menninger Clinic, Topeka, Kansas

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Date - 1854-1860 - 1854

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A. Oestreicher to Eli Thayer

A. Oestreicher to Eli Thayer
Creator: Oestreicher, A.
Date: September 23, 1854
Oestreicher, writing from Cincinnati, Ohio, informed Thayer of the establishment of a Kansas Actual Settler's Association in that city. He indicated that the association, which was comprised primarily of German-Americans, planned to create a settlement in Kansas in the spring of 1855.


Alden G. Tucker to Edward Everett Hale

Alden G. Tucker to Edward Everett Hale
Creator: Tucker, Alden G.
Date: January 20, 1854
Tucker, a twenty-three year old printer writing from Taunton, Massachusetts, to Edward Everett Hale, volunteered to go to Kansas as part of the "Emigration Association" about which he had heard rumors. Hale later became a leader of the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company that was chartered in April 1854.


An act to incorporate the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company

An act to incorporate the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company
Creator: Massachusetts. Legislature. House of Representatives
Date: April 13, 1854
This law was passed by the Massachusetts House of Representatives, declaring that the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company was an official company in the state of Massachusetts. It describes the purpose of the company and lists the men involved in its operation. The Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company was the predecessor to the New England Emigrant Aid Company, which was founded in March, 1855.


Annie Simerwell to Sallie Simerwell

Annie Simerwell to Sallie Simerwell
Creator: Simerwell, Ann
Date: June 18, 1854
In this letter to her sister Sallie, Annie Simerwell explains that she has received news from their parents regarding the passage of the "Nebraska Kansas bill."


Certificate appointing James S. Emery as a Justice of the Peace for the First District, Kansas Territory

Certificate appointing James S. Emery as a Justice of the Peace for the First District, Kansas Territory
Creator: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: November 8, 1854
Kansas Territorial Governor Andrew Reeder issued this certificate appointing James S. Emery as a justice of the peace for the Kansas Territory's First District. The boundaries of the First District are described in the document based on various geographic landmarks. The district includes the town of Lawrence and runs along the south side of the Kansas River to the Missouri state line. Its southern boundary is the Santa Fe road.


Certificate for town lots, Leavenworth, Kansas Territory

Certificate for town lots, Leavenworth, Kansas Territory
Creator: Leavenworth Association,
Date: October 17, 1854
The certificate, issued to Henry Miles Moore, secretary of the Kansas Territory's Leavenworth Town Association, details the town lots distributed to Moore as a town association shareholder. Moore holds four shares in the Leavenworth Association and is entitled to thirty-two town lots.


Certificate of recommendation for Sutomoni

Certificate of recommendation for Sutomoni
Creator: Hatterscheidt, John G.
Date: July 1854
This item, which contains the original document and a more-legible copy of the original, is a certificate written by John P. Hatterscheidt that vouches for the character of Indian Chief Sutomoni, who was recommended to Hatterscheidt by W. Quicke.


Charles Robinson to Amos Adams Lawrence

Charles Robinson to Amos Adams Lawrence
Creator: Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894
Date: December 18, 1854
Transcription of a letter from the Amos Adams Lawrence Collection, Massachusetts Historical Society. Charles Robinson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Amos A. Lawrence in Massachusetts. Robinson thanked Lawrence for his unfailing support of the enterprise of the Territory and claimed his devotion to work done in his interest. He discussed Lawrence's development, having secured the offices of three free state newspapers, but expressed anxiety about the upcoming territorial election. However, Robinson vowed that his men would not resort to fraudulent voting to win the majority over proslavery supporters.


Charles Robinson to Amos Adams Lawrence

Charles Robinson to Amos Adams Lawrence
Creator: Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894
Date: October 16, 1854
Transcription of a letter from the Amos Adams Lawrence Collection, Massachusetts Historical Society.Charles Robinson wrote from Kansas Territory to Amos A. Lawrence in Massachusetts. Robinson recounted to Lawrence the recent discussion of the new settlement's name, believing "Wakarusa" to be inappropriate and rejecting the names of Eastern cities already in existence. There appeared to be unanimous support for the name "Lawrence", which had fallen into common use, though it had not been officially adopted. Robinson advised Lawrence that a naming committee would be in contact with him soon to give him formal notice of the adoption of "Lawrence" as the settlement's official name.


Christopher C. Andrews to John A. Halderman

Christopher C. Andrews to John A. Halderman
Creator: Andrews, Christopher C.
Date: June 27, 1854
From Fort Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, C. C. Andrews writes a short letter to inform John Halderman that "nothing has transpired" at that location during the past week or so, but he is certain "that the territory will be populated with a rapidity unparralleled [sic] in the rise of states." Andrews also is sure that men in the legal profession, such as Andrews and Halderman, would do quite well financially.


Chronology of the Iowa and Sac and Fox Indians in Doniphan County, Kansas

Chronology of the Iowa and Sac and Fox Indians in Doniphan County, Kansas
Date: 1882
This chronology details major events occurring between 1837-1855 among the Iowa and Sac and Fox Indians who had been relocated to Kansas after the Indian Removal Act of 1830. Topics mentioned within the chronology include warfare among relocated tribes, the arrival of white emigrants, disease, mission buildings, and treaties ceding land to the United States government.


Coins from the Iowa and Sac and Fox Mission, 14DP384

Coins from the Iowa and Sac and Fox Mission, 14DP384
Date: 1854-1864
Shown are two coins that were recovered from the excavations at the Iowa and Sac and Fox Mission in Doniphan County by Kansas Historical Society archeologists and Kansas Anthropological Association volunteers. The Presbyterian Mission was built in 1845 and closed in 1863. After that, part of the building was razed, the rest was used as a residence until 1905. The State of Kansas acquired to property in 1941. The 1854 half dime shows a seated Liberty, 13 stars, and an arrow on each side of the year on the obverse side. The arrows indicate that that the coin weight had been reduced. The reverse of the half dime shows the face value of the coin, a wreath, and the words "UNITED STATES of AMERICA." The 2¢ coin's obverse side shows a shield with "IN GOD WE TRUST" on the banner and the mint date of 1864. The reverse side is too corroded to discern what was present.


Courthouse in Independence, Missouri

Courthouse in Independence, Missouri
Creator: Meyer, Herrmann J.
Date: 1854
A copy of an engraving of the courthouse in Independence, Missouri. The reproduction first appeared in "United States Illustrated" and depicts the early settlement of Independence and its courthouse. Located along the Kansas and Missouri border, the town was considered the "Queen City of Trails" because it was the point of departure for the Santa Fe, Oregon and California Trails.


Currency

Currency
Creator: W. L. Ormsby
Date: 1854
Ten dollar note issued by Merchants Bank of Fort Leavenworth. White paper with black printing on front only. Cameo head of George Washington in oval flanked by fruit and flowers at right. Spread eagle perched on elaborately framed arm holding hammer at bottom left, and seated woman with spinning wheel at center. This is an example of a "wildcat" note. Wildcat banks were situated in remote areas (in this case, Kansas Territory), making it almost impossible for their notes to be redeemed. The banks' inaccessibility was important because these notes were neither guaranteed nor backed by adequate securities. Bank president Lucien Ayer had traveled to Ft. Leavenworth during the fall of 1854 and announced his intentions of establishing a bank there. The bank was never opened but a large quantity of notes were printed and apparently circulated in the east before the fraud was discovered.


Cyrus K. Holliday diary

Cyrus K. Holliday diary
Creator: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: November - December, 1854
In this diary, Cyrus K. Holliday records his trip to Kansas Territory and his first impressions. Upon arrival in the territory, he stayed in Lawrence where he purchased interests in the town. Holliday makes several references to the first Congressional election and the three candidates. On December 6, he reported that he was the claimant to a new city site [probably Topeka], and Holliday was chosen president. The diary entries begin at the back of the booklet and proceed in reverse order (from right page to left page) toward the front. It is not always clear what the date is. For example, there is an entry for November 7 on pages 9 and 10 but the first date listed on page 4 is November 8. A complete, searchable transcription is available by clicking "Text Version" below.


Cyrus Kurtz Holliday to Mary Dillon Holliday

Cyrus Kurtz Holliday to Mary Dillon Holliday
Creator: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: December 10, 1854
Cyrus K. Holliday, founder of Topeka, Kansas Territory, wrote from "Up the River," Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania, describing the difficult living conditions for him and the other men at the future site of Topeka, where they had been visited by Governor Andrew H. Reeder. Holliday assured his wife of his health and requested that she explain to Mr. Drew Lowry and Mr. McFarland in Pennsylvania why he had not written. He praised the beauty of the country and expressed his vision of its future, ending with a request that she write to him.


Cyrus Kurtz Holliday to Mary Dillon Holliday

Cyrus Kurtz Holliday to Mary Dillon Holliday
Creator: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: December 31, 1854
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from Topeka, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. He described living conditions in Topeka. Holliday expressed his intent to write to Mr. McFarland and his thanks for letters recently received. He mentioned Samuel Y. Lum, a Congregational minister, who was sleeping in his cabin. He also mentioned his presidency with the Topeka Town Association, agency with the New England Emigrant Aid Company, and his own business. Finally, Holliday expressed hopes of a sawmill and referred to the possibility of trouble with Missourians. A few lines have been cut and removed from the lower part of pages 7 and 8.


Cyrus Kurtz Holliday to Mary Dillon Holliday

Cyrus Kurtz Holliday to Mary Dillon Holliday
Creator: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: December 3, 1854
Cyrus K. Holliday, the founder of Topeka, Kansas Territory, wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. He told her of his planned trip up the Kansas River, his pleasure in the people of Kansas Territory, and a Thanksgiving dinner he attended. Unwilling to return to Pennsylvania, Holliday expressed desire that Mary come to Kansas Territory and described the construction of a friend's sod-covered "mansion," one such as Clarina I. H. Nichols, a lecturer and writer, inhabited.


Cyrus Kurtz Holliday to Mary Dillon Holliday

Cyrus Kurtz Holliday to Mary Dillon Holliday
Creator: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: November 18, 1854
Cyrus K. Holliday wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. This letter was to be delivered by Mr. Ingrams, and Holliday expressed the possibilities of following shortly or of staying in Lawrence to make business arrangements and put up a building in the spring. He expressed his delight in the country of Kansas and the site of a new city (not named, but likely Topeka). A Pennsylvania company of emigrants, unprepared for the journey and now suffering, had settled in Lawrence and Council Grove.


Cyrus Kurtz Holliday to Mary Dillon Holliday

Cyrus Kurtz Holliday to Mary Dillon Holliday
Creator: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: December 17, 1854
Cyrus K. Holliday, the founder of Topeka, wrote from Topeka, Kansas Territory to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania, mentioning difficulties but emphasizing his love for her and his desire that they be reunited soon. He compared the local landscape to the Italian countryside. Uncertain as to the time of his return, he wrote that he must stay to oversee business.


Cyrus Kurtz Holliday to Mary Dillon Holliday

Cyrus Kurtz Holliday to Mary Dillon Holliday
Creator: Holliday, Cyrus Kurtz, 1826-1900
Date: December 24, 1854
Cyrus K. Holliday, founder of Topeka, Kansas Territory, wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Mary Holliday, in Meadville, Pennsylvania. After three weeks at the future site of Topeka, Holliday was glad for city comforts. He mentioned the site's beauty, the prospect of building a house on his farm claim, and his personal success since leaving Meadville. On December 18, 1854, he had been unanimously elected President of the Topeka Town Association and appointed temporary agent of the New England Emigrant Aid Company. The bottom two-thirds of page 3 and 4 (which contained Holliday's signature) have been cut and removed.


Dandridge E. Kelsey's 1854 diary

Dandridge E. Kelsey's 1854 diary
Creator: Kelsey, Dandridge Eliphalet, 1818-1904
Date: 1854
Dandridge E. Kelsey's diary for the year 1854 is the first in a series that covers consistently the years 1853-1876. This 1854 volume begins with some personal and family history (D. E. Kelsey was born March 27, 1818, and had four children with his wife, Mercy Lacock, who had died the day before on December 31, 1853. The January 1, 1854, entry began: "Mercy Kelsey my Wife was buried and the funeral preached by the reverend Mr. Mellender at Coles Chapel . . . ). Kelsey had not yet moved to Kansas Territory in 1854.


Discourse of Mr. Benton, of Missouri: before the Maryland Institute

Discourse of Mr. Benton, of Missouri: before the Maryland Institute
Creator: Benton, Thomas Hart, 1782-1858
Date: 1854
The discourse of Mr. Benton of Missouri, before the Maryland Institute, on the physical geography of the country between Missouri and California, with viewpoints on its adoption to settlement and the construction of a railroad. This lecture was delivered at Baltimore, Maryland, on December, 1854.


Document affirming that James S. Emery was sworn in as Justice of the Peace

Document affirming that James S. Emery was sworn in as Justice of the Peace
Creator: Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864
Date: November 9, 1854
This is a follow up document to James Emery's appointment as Justice of the Peace for the First District, Kansas Territory. It is signed by Andrew Reeder, Territorial Governor.


Eastman's map of Kansas and Nebraska territories showing the location of the Indian reserves according to the treaties of 1854

Eastman's map of Kansas and Nebraska territories showing the location of the Indian reserves according to the treaties of 1854
Date: Between 1854 and 1856
This map shows the locations of the new or reduced lands of Indian tribes according to the treaties of 1854. With the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, the former Indian Territory was opened to white settlement, and the government looked for ways to relocate the native tribes who had made their homes in Kansas. To create more land for white settlement, George Manypenny, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, negotiated treaties with Indian tribes that ceded much of the Indians' lands to the government. This land could then be sold to white emigrants. Naturally, these events helped to exacerbate existing tensions between settlers and Native Americans, contributing to the Indian Wars that occupied the U.S. Army during and after the American Civil War.


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