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People - American Indians - Prehistoric Cultures - Oneota

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Abraders from the Fanning Site, 14DP1

Abraders from the Fanning Site, 14DP1
Date: 1500-1700 CE
These abraders were recovered from Doniphan County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1981. Archeologists call these abraders groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. The sandstone abraders could be used as pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood shaft or individually to sharpen or smooth other items. The Fanning site was a Late Ceramic to early Contact Period village occupied by the Kansa.


Celt from the Leary Site, 14BN1336 and 25RH1

Celt from the Leary Site, 14BN1336 and 25RH1
Date: 1194-1477 CE
This complete celt was collected from the Leary site and donated to the Kansas Historical Society. The Leary site was a large Oneota village that likely was periodically occupied by other groups. The site straddles the state line between Kansas and Nebraska, with a large portion on the Richardson County, Nebraska side and a smaller portion on the Brown County, Kansas side. The site was primarily occupied during the Late Prehistoric Period, with a few radiocarbon dates suggesting 1194 to 1477. This woodworking tool would have been manufactured by grinding or pecking it into a general shape followed by polishing. It would have been hafted onto a handle and required periodic resharpening.


Decorated Ceramic Pot Sherds from the Minneapolis Site, 14OT5

Decorated Ceramic Pot Sherds from the Minneapolis Site, 14OT5
Date: 1232-1409 CE
These partially reconstructed pot sherds were recovered from excavations in 1934 by the University of Nebraska and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1987. The Majors Diagonal Incised jar was decorated with alternating zones of oblique lines. This type of pottery is found at Central Plains tradition sites of the Late Prehistoric period. It was recovered from different features in House 8 of the Minneapolis site in Ottawa County, a Smoky Hill phase site occupied during the Middle Ceramic Period.


Decorated Ceramic Pot Sherds from the Minneapolis Site, 14OT5

Decorated Ceramic Pot Sherds from the Minneapolis Site, 14OT5
Date: 1232-1409 CE
These four sherds from the Minneapolis site in Ottawa County were excavated in 1934 by the University of Nebraska and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1987. They were excavated from House 8 and later refit into one rim, handle and body portion of a wide-mouthed jar. The Majors Diagonal Incised type pottery is decorated with four sets of opposed diagonals and is shell tempered. The Minneapolis site was a Smoky Hill phase site occupied during the Middle Ceramic Period.


Decorated Ceramic Rim Sherd from the Wullschleger Site, 14MH301

Decorated Ceramic Rim Sherd from the Wullschleger Site, 14MH301
Date: 1200-1400 CE
This fragment of a ceramic pot was recovered from the Wullschleger site in Marshall County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1960. The rim sherd, from an Oneota jar (a wide mouthed vessel), has shell temper and an outcurving rim that is decorated with punctates on the lip. Four zones of decoration are visible on the body of the sherd: oblique lines oriented left to right, nested chevrons with the apex up and a border of punctates, oblique lines orientated right to left, and nested chevrons with the apex down and a border of punctates.


Decorated Ceramic Vessel Handle from the Wullschleger Site, 14MH301

Decorated Ceramic Vessel Handle from the Wullschleger Site, 14MH301
Date: 1200-1400 CE
This ceramic strap style handle has shell tempering and would have once been attached to the lip of a vessel and molded onto the body. It is decorated on the rim with two incised lines, 10 horizontal incised lines on the tapering handle, and five incised lines that would have been part of the decoration of the vessel body. This type of pottery is similar to Allamakee Trailed from the Middle (Developmental) Horizon of the Oneota during the Middle Ceramic Period. The handle was recovered from the Wullschleger site in Marshall County, that was occupied periodically throughout the Early, Middle, and Late Ceramic Periods. The handle was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1960.


Diminutive Pipe from the Glen Elder Site, 14ML1

Diminutive Pipe from the Glen Elder Site, 14ML1
Date: 1300-1450 CE
This diminutive pipe was recovered from a site in Mitchell County that was occupied during the White Rock Oneota phase, an intrusive Late Prehistoric (1000-1650 CE) archeological complex. The pipestone pipe is decorated on two sides with incised diamond shapes and lines. The soft, fine-grained material of the pipestone enabled the carver to shape, smooth, and decorate the pipe. The site was excavated by the University of Nebraska and the collection was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1987.


Flywheels or Spindle Whorls from the Leary Site, 25RH1

Flywheels or Spindle Whorls from the Leary Site, 25RH1
Date: 1194-1477 CE
These two flywheels or spindle whorls were recovered from the Leary Site and donated to the Kansas Historical Society. The artifacts were likely used for spinning yarn or to help in drilling holes. They were made from broken pottery sherds and reshaped and repurposed for a new function. The Leary site was a large Oneota village that likely was periodically occupied by other groups. The site straddles the state line between Kansas and Nebraska, with a large portion on the Richardson County, Nebraska side and a smaller portion on the Brown County, Kansas side. The site was primarily occupied during the Late Prehistoric period, with a few radiocarbon dates suggesting 1194 to 1477 CE.


Gaming Piece from the Fanning Site, 14DP1

Gaming Piece from the Fanning Site, 14DP1
Date: 1500-1700 CE
This ceramic disk was made from a broken pottery sherd that was ground into a circular gaming piece. The piece may have then been used in games of chance such as the bowl and dice game played by the Kansa and other Siouan tribes. It was recovered from the Fanning site in Doniphan County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1981. The Fanning site was a Late Ceramic to early Contact Period village occupied by the Kansa.


Glass Bead and Turquoise Colored Glass from the Fanning Site, 14DP1

Glass Bead and Turquoise Colored Glass from the Fanning Site, 14DP1
Date: 1500-1700 CE
These turquoise colored glass artifacts, one a bead and the other a melted fragment, were recovered from the Fanning site in Doniphan County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1981. The melted fragment may have once formed a bead similar to the one shown. Beads such as this were widely traded until the 1850s. The Fanning site was a Late Ceramic to early Contact period Kansa village.


Grinding Slab from the Fanning Site, 14DP1

Grinding Slab from the Fanning Site, 14DP1
Date: 1500-1700 CE
This grinding slab was recovered from Doniphan County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1981. A grinding slab or metate is the lowermost millstone for grinding foods or pigments by hand. Traces of a red pigment remain on one side of this example. The Fanning site was a Late Ceramic to early Contact Period village occupied by the Kansa.


Grinding Slab from the Fanning Site, 14DP1

Grinding Slab from the Fanning Site, 14DP1
Date: 1500-1700 CE
This grinding slab was recovered from the Fanning site in Doniphan County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1981. Grinding slabs like this one are the lowermost millstone for grinding foods or pigments by hand. This one has been used on both sides. The Fanning site was a Late Ceramic to early Contact Period village occupied by the Kansa.


Hematite Artifact from the Fanning Site, 14DP1

Hematite Artifact from the Fanning Site, 14DP1
Date: 1500-1700 CE
This hematite artifact was recovered from the Fanning site in Doniphan County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1981. Hematite is a relatively soft and fine-grained mineral form of iron oxide. The artifact has been polished and shaped on all of its sides. It use is unknown. The Fanning site was a Late Ceramic to early Contact Period Kansa village.


Incised Plaque from the Leary Site, 14BN1336 and 25RH1

Incised Plaque from the Leary Site, 14BN1336 and 25RH1
Date: 1194-1477 CE
This pipestone fragment was recovered from the Leary site, an Oneota village, and was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1925. The plaque depicts the teeth of a water monster, numerous incised lines, and a teepee added shortly before it was donated. Oneota is the name of an archeological culture representing people who lived in villages across the Midwest and into the Plains region of Kansas. The Leary site straddles the state line between Kansas and Nebraska, with a large portion on the Richardson County, Nebraska side and a smaller portion on the Brown County, Kansas side. The Leary village was occupied primarily during the Late Prehistoric period, with radiocarbon dates indicating a date range of 1194 to 1477 CE.


Mano from the Fanning Site, 14DP1

Mano from the Fanning Site, 14DP1
Date: 1500-1700 CE
This mano was recovered from Doniphan County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1981. Manos were used as the upper, hand-held millstone for grinding foods and pigments. The Fanning site was a Late Ceramic to early Contact Period village occupied by the Kansa.


Metal Arrow Point from the Fanning Site, 14DP1

Metal Arrow Point from the Fanning Site, 14DP1
Date: 1630-1700
This brass arrow point was recovered from the Fanning site in Doniphan County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1981. The arrow point is made of rolled brass in a cone shape. This type of arrow point is rare at archeological sites. The Fanning site is a Late Ceramic to early Contact Period Kansa village. This arrow point would have dated to the latter period.


Modified Pipestone Artifact from the Glen Elder Site, 14ML1

Modified Pipestone Artifact from the Glen Elder Site, 14ML1
Date: 1000 - 1650 CE
This pipestone artifact was recovered from a site in Mitchell County that was occupied by people of the White Rock Oneota, a Late Prehistoric (1000-1650 CE) archeological complex. The soft, fine-grained material of the pipestone enabled the carver to shape and smooth the piece into a rectangle of unknown function. The site was excavated by the University of Nebraska and the collection was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1987.


Nutting Stone from the Fanning Site, 14DP1

Nutting Stone from the Fanning Site, 14DP1
Date: 1500-1700
This nutting stone was recovered from the Fanning site in Doniphan County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1981. Sometimes named anvil stones, cupstones, or pitted stones, artifacts such as this one are thought to hold a nut in place while the nutshell is cracked. However, as the dark red stain on the stones surface shows, this nutting stone was also used to crush a pigment such as hematite, a relatively soft and fine-grained mineral form of iron oxide. The Fanning site was a Late Ceramic to early Contact Period Kansa village.


Oneota Rim Sherd from the Cedar Creek Site, 14DP1318

Oneota Rim Sherd from the Cedar Creek Site, 14DP1318
Date: 1100-1450 CE
This rim sherd was recovered from 14DP1318, the Cedar Creek site, in Doniphan County. They were donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1925. The rim sherd is shell tempered with a small strap handle molded directly onto the lip and an outflaring rim. The zoned decoration consists of opposed diagonals with a slash punctate border. This type of decoration is similar to Perrot Punctate pottery from Wisconsin or Correctionville Trailed pottery from northwest Iowa. The Cedar Creek site was a multicomponent site, having both Kansas City Hopewell and Nebraska Aspect/Upper Republican occupations. The site had the remains of at least one house.


Oneota Rim Sherd from the Fanning Site, 14DP1

Oneota Rim Sherd from the Fanning Site, 14DP1
Date: 1400-1700 CE
This rim sherd was recovered from the Fanning Site in Doniphan County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1999. The rim sherd is tempered with shell and has decorations on the lip and opposed diagonal lines with a punctate border on the body. This style is similar to ceramics from the Middle/Developmental Horizon (1200 - 1400 CE) of the Oneota during the Middle Ceramic period. The Fanning village site was associated with the Oneota and Kansa peoples. It was described at the turn of the 19th- and 20th-century as having numerous "teepee sites" still visible.


Oneota Rim Sherd from the Leary Site, 14BN1336/25RH1

Oneota Rim Sherd from the Leary Site, 14BN1336/25RH1
Date: 1194-1477 CE
This rim sherd from a large Oneota jar was donated to the Kansas Historical Society. The vessel fragment was collected from the Leary site, a large Oneota village that likely was periodically occupied by other groups. The site straddles the state line between Kansas and Nebraska, with a large portion on the Richardson County, Nebraska side and a smaller portion on the Brown County, Kansas side. The site was primarily occupied during the Late Prehistoric Period, with a few radiocarbon dates suggesting 1194 to 1477. The sherd is shell tempered and shows a series of oblique tool impressions on the lip. Below the lip are zones of diagonals lines interspaced by nested chevrons, orientated down, and embellished with a punctate.


Oneota Rim Sherds from the Fanning Site, 14DP1

Oneota Rim Sherds from the Fanning Site, 14DP1
Date: 1500-1700 CE
These rim sherds were recovered from the Fanning Site in Doniphan County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1971 and 1991. The rim sherds are tempered with shell. The larger sherd has decoration on the interior rim and both are decorated with opposed diagonal lines. The smaller sherd also has a punctate border on the body. This style is similar to ceramics from the Middle/Developmental Horizon (1200 - 1400 CE) of the Oneota during the Middle Ceramic period. The Fanning site was a Late Ceramic to early Contact Period Kansa village. It was described at the turn of the 19th- and 20th-century as having numerous "teepee sites" still visible.


Pipe Drills from the Fanning Site, 14DP1

Pipe Drills from the Fanning Site, 14DP1
Date: 1500-1700 CE
These pipe drills were recovered from the Fanning site in Doniphan County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1981. Pipe drills, like all drills, were used to bore holes in materials softer than the drill material itself, such as soft stone. The Fanning site was a Late Ceramic to early Contact period Kansa village.


Pipestone Artifacts from the Fanning Site, 14DP1

Pipestone Artifacts from the Fanning Site, 14DP1
Date: 1500-1700 CE
These pipestone artifacts were recovered from the Fanning site in Doniphan County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1981 and 1987. The soft, fine-grained pipestone enable the artifacts to be shaped, polished, and as seen incised. Their use is unknown. The Fanning site is a Late Ceramic to early Contact Period Kansa village.


Pipestone Pipe Fragment from the Glen Elder Site, 14ML1

Pipestone Pipe Fragment from the Glen Elder Site, 14ML1
Date: 1000-1650 CE
This pipestone pipe fragment was recovered from a site in Mitchell County that was occupied by people of the White Rock Oneota, a Late Prehistoric (1000-1650 CE) archeological complex. The soft, fine-grained pipestone enabled the pipe's carver to shape and smooth the piece. The pipe had a squared exterior and a rounded interior (the bore) when it was broken. The site was excavated by the University of Nebraska and the collection was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1987.


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