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Thematic Time Period - Early Peoples, 10000 BCE - 1820 CE - Middle Ceramic, 1000 - 1500 CE

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3/4 Grooved Axe from 14WY308

3/4 Grooved Axe from 14WY308
Date: 1-1500 CE
This 3/4 grooved axe was collected from a multicomponent site in Wyandotte County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1973. While 3/4 grooved axes are frequently recovered from late Archaic sites, their use is not restricted to that time period. They get their name from the hafting groove that encircles 3/4 of the body of the axe. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state.


A Rockshelter Site in Montgomery County, 14MY378

A Rockshelter Site in Montgomery County, 14MY378
Date: 1975
Shown is a slide of a rockshelter in Montgomery County. The associated midden (refuse heap) revealed Early to Middle Ceramic period occupations.


Abraders from 14SA409

Abraders from 14SA409
Date: 1-1500 CE
These three abraders were recovered from the surface of a Saline County camp site and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. The site was occupied during the Upper Republican and Smoky Hill phases in the Early and Middle Ceramic periods. Archeologists call these groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. The sandstone abraders could be used as pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood shaft.


Abraders from the Lamar Site, 14OT304

Abraders from the Lamar Site, 14OT304
Date: 1000-1400 CE
These three abraders were excavated in 1935 from the Lamar site in Ottawa County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1971. The Smoky Hill phase occupation site had a single, almost square, house and four cache pits. Archeologists call these groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. The sandstone abraders could be used as pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood shaft.


Abraders from the Nulik Site, 14SR305

Abraders from the Nulik Site, 14SR305
Date: 1000-1500 CE
These four abrader fragments were recovered during excavations by Kansas Historical Society archeologists at the Nulik site in Sumner County. Archeologists call these groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. The sandstone abraders could be used as pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood shaft. The excavations revealed a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) house and associated midden (refuse heap or mound).


Abraders from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Abraders from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1600 CE
Shown are a few of the many abraders and shaft smoothers recovered from the excavations during the 1977 and 1978 Kansas Archeology Training Program field schools at the Tobias site in Rice County. Archeologists call these groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. The sandstone abraders could be used as pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood shaft or individually to sharpen or smooth items. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits (including chain mail brought to Kansas by sixteenth-century Spanish explorers), house remains and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. It is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Abraders from the Wullscheleger Site, 14MH301

Abraders from the Wullscheleger Site, 14MH301
Date: 1-1800 CE
These three Dakota sandstone abraders were collected from the Wullscheleger Site in Marshall County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1961. Archeologists call abraders like these groundstone tools, as they are shaped by grinding. Some of the abraders could be used in pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood shaft. The village site was occupied periodically from the Early Ceramic to the Late Ceramic periods.


Adze or Axe from the Wullscheleger Site, 14MH301

Adze or Axe from the Wullscheleger Site, 14MH301
Date: 1-1800 CE
This chipped stone tool, made of Florence chert that outcrops in the Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma, may have been used as an adze or axe. Artifacts like this one were likely used for wood working. It was collected from the Wullscheleger site in Marshall County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1961. The site was occupied periodically throughout the Early, Middle and Late Ceramic periods.


Alibates Scrapers from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Alibates Scrapers from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1600 CE
These seven scrapers were excavated during the 1977 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. Scrapers such as these would have been hafted on a handle and used to scrape hides. They would have required periodic resharpening. All seven scrapers were made of Alibates agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Alternately Beveled Knife from 14RC418

Alternately Beveled Knife from 14RC418
Date: 1350-1650 CE
This alternately beveled knife was recovered by Kansas Historical Society archeologists during a pipeline survey. It was discovered on the surface of 14RC418, a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) site in Rice County. The two notches near the base indicate that the knife was most likely hafted.


Alternately Beveled Knife from 14SA407

Alternately Beveled Knife from 14SA407
Date: 1000-1500 CE
This alternately beveled knife was found on the surface of a Middle Ceramic period Smoky Hill aspect camp site in Saline County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels.


Alternately Beveled Knife from the Across the Creek Site, 14JO406

Alternately Beveled Knife from the Across the Creek Site, 14JO406
Date: 1-1500 CE
This alternately beveled knife was collected from a multicomponent site in Johnson County with occupations in both the Early and Middle Ceramic periods. It was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. The knife was manufactured on Winterset chert, which outcrops in eastern Kansas and Missouri. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels.


Alternately Beveled Knife from the Hays Lankard Site, 14AD353

Alternately Beveled Knife from the Hays Lankard Site, 14AD353
Date: 1-1800 CE
This knife was collected from the Hays Lankard site, an archeological site in Anderson County and donated in 1961 to the Kansas Historical Society. The knife gets its pinkish color as a result of the flintknapper heat treating the material to improve the chert's knapping qualities. Repeated sharpening on alternate sides created bevels. The two notches near the base indicate that the knife was mostly likely hafted. One side is nearly covered with the collector's notes.


Alternately Beveled Knives from 14EK318

Alternately Beveled Knives from 14EK318
Date: 1-1500 CE
These three alternately beveled knife fragments were recovered from an archeological site in Elk County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1974 and 1975. Knives with a general diamond shape, as is the white fragment, are sometimes called Harahey knives. Archeologists believe that a knife shaped like this would have been used for bison butchering. The other two knife fragments are alternately beveled on two sides. The pinkish color of one knife fragment is a result of the flintknapper heat treating the material to improve the Permian chert's knapping qualities. The remaining alternately beveled knife fragment was manufactured on Smoky Hill silicified chalk.


Alternately Beveled Knives from the Griffing Site, 14RY21

Alternately Beveled Knives from the Griffing Site, 14RY21
Date: 1000-1500 CE
These two alternately beveled knives were recovered from the Griffing site and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1902. The Griffing site, in Riley County, had numerous lodges present and likely represents a scatter of farmsteads from the Central Plains tradition occupied during the Middle Ceramic period. Based on pottery recovered at the site it is likely that at least a portion of the site was occupied by Smoky Hill aspect peoples. Archeologists believe that knives shaped like these would have been used for bison butchering. Repeated sharpening on alternate sides created bevels. Knives with the general diamond shape are also sometimes called Harahey knives.


Alternately Beveled Knives from the Pratt/Wing Site, 14PT1

Alternately Beveled Knives from the Pratt/Wing Site, 14PT1
Date: 1300-1500 CE
These two alternately beveled knives were recovered from the Pratt/Wing site in Pratt County. The Pratt site is the type site of the Pratt Complex which occurred during the Middle Ceramic Period. Knives such as these gained their distinctive beveled appearance by repeated sharpening on alternate sides.


American Indian Site in Hodgeman County, 14HO306

American Indian Site in Hodgeman County, 14HO306
Date: 1985
Shown are two views from slides of an American Indian site located in a valley in Hodgeman County. The site, in the Pawnee River basin, had bison bone exposed from a later component at the site. Charcoal recovered from the site yielded two dates: an Archaic occupation dating to 3080 - 2400 BCE and a possible Keith variant occupation dating to 1300 - 1420 CE.


Arrow Point from 14MY302

Arrow Point from 14MY302
Date: 1000-1500 CE
This small side notched arrow point was recovered from the surface of 14MY302. The site was a multicomponent camp site in Montgomery County excavated in 1978 by Kansas Historical Society archeologists. Archeologists believe that side notched arrow points are typical of the Middle Ceramic period. The pinkish color of the projectile point indicates the arrow point was heat treated to improve the chert's knapping quality.


Arrow Point from the Ehmke Site, 14LA311

Arrow Point from the Ehmke Site, 14LA311
Date: 1000-1500 CE
This arrow point was recovered from a camp and kill site in Lane County during excavation by Kansas Historical Society Archeologists. The site seems to have had multiple occupations from the Paleoindian period through the Late Ceramic period. The feature this arrow point was recovered in was believed to be associated with an Upper Republican occupation. The side-notched point is possibly made of Alibates flint, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle.


Arrow Points from 14CF416

Arrow Points from 14CF416
Date: 1-1800 CE
This assortment of five arrow points was recovered from site 14CF416, in Coffey County, and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2015. The two corner notched points on the left date to the Early Ceramic Period (1-1000 CE). The two side notched points in the middle date to the Middle Ceramic Period (1000-1500 CE) and the Fresno point of the far right dates to the Late Ceramic Period (1500-1800 CE). The pinkish color of two of the points indicates they have been heat treated to improve their knapping qualities.


Arrow Points from 14MY349

Arrow Points from 14MY349
Date: 1000-1800 CE
These six arrow points were collected from a multicomponent site in Montgomery County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1972, 1973, and 1975. Shown are side-notched, corner-notched, and triangular arrow points.


Arrow Points from 14SA402

Arrow Points from 14SA402
Date: 1000-1500 CE
These four arrow points recovered in 1963 from the surface of a Saline County site and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. All are side notched arrow points, two of which are complete. Two are missing their tips and both have a concave base.


Arrow Points from 14SA416

Arrow Points from 14SA416
Date: 1000-1500 CE
These three arrow points recovered in 1971 from the surface of a Saline County site and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. The camp site was occupied during the Middle Ceramic period by Smoky Hill phase peoples. Shown are two side notched arrow points and a single triangular arrow point. One of the side notched points has multiple notches.


Arrow Points from 14SA424

Arrow Points from 14SA424
Date: 1-1500 CE
Shown are six arrow points collected from a multicomponent (multiple occupations) archeological site in Saline County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. Five of the arrow points are corner-notched, typically used during the Early Ceramic period. The last arrow point is side-notched, more typical of the Middle Ceramic period. The pink color of four of the arrow points is the result of having been heat-treated prior to their completion in order to make a better knappable chert.


Arrow Points from 14SA424

Arrow Points from 14SA424
Date: 1 CE-1500 CE
Shown are six of the many arrow points collected from a multicomponent (multiple occupations) camp site in Saline County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. Five of the arrow points are corner notched, typically used during the Early Ceramic period. The last arrow point is side notched, more typical of the Middle Ceramic period. The pink color of four of the arrow points is the result of having been heat-treated prior to their completion in order to make a better knappable chert.


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