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Thematic Time Period - Early Peoples, 10000 BCE - 1820 CE - Early Ceramic, 1 - 1000 CE

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3/4-Grooved Axe from 14AT444

3/4-Grooved Axe from 14AT444
Date: 1-1000 CE
This axe was collected from a possible Early Ceramic period site in Atchison County and donated in 2018 to the Kansas Historical Society. While 3/4-grooved axes are frequently recovered from late Archaic sites, their use is not restricted to that time period. They get their name from the hafting groove that encircles 3/4 of the body of the axe. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state.


3/4 Grooved Axe from 14WY308

3/4 Grooved Axe from 14WY308
Date: 1-1500 CE
This 3/4 grooved axe was collected from a multicomponent site in Wyandotte County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1973. While 3/4 grooved axes are frequently recovered from late Archaic sites, their use is not restricted to that time period. They get their name from the hafting groove that encircles 3/4 of the body of the axe. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state.


A Lithic Collection from 14CT312

A Lithic Collection from 14CT312
Date: 1-1000 CE
These three chipped stone tools were collected from an Early Ceramic period archeological site in Chautauqua County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1976. Shown from left to right is an alternately beveled knife, a scraper, and a large corner-notched dart point fragment. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. Scrapers, such as this one would have been hafted onto a handle and used to scrape hides. The scraper would have required periodic resharpening. The dart point and the alternately beveled knife were heat treated, a method to improve the knapping qualities of a chert which results in the pinkish color. Dart points would be mounted to the dart foreshaft, which would in turn be connected to the dart shaft. The assembled dart would then be thrown with an atlatl (spearthrower).


A Rockshelter Site in Montgomery County, 14MY378

A Rockshelter Site in Montgomery County, 14MY378
Date: 1975
Shown is a slide of a rockshelter in Montgomery County. The associated midden (refuse heap) revealed Early to Middle Ceramic period occupations.


Abraders from 14SA409

Abraders from 14SA409
Date: 1-1500 CE
These three abraders were recovered from the surface of a Saline County camp site and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. The site was occupied during the Upper Republican and Smoky Hill phases in the Early and Middle Ceramic periods. Archeologists call these groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. The sandstone abraders could be used as pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood shaft.


Abraders from the Kohr Site, 14SA414

Abraders from the Kohr Site, 14SA414
Date: 780-860 CE
These abraders were collected in the 1930s from Kohr House No. 1, a large village site in Saline County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1971. Archeologists call these groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. The sandstone abraders could be used as pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood shaft. All four artifacts were made of Dakota sandstone. The two on the bottom row are in the process of manufacture, enabling us to see how they were made. The Kohr site was occupied by Smoky Hill aspect people and had several rectangular houses. Radiocarbon dates on maize indicate it was occupied during the Early Ceramic period.


Abraders from the Wullscheleger Site, 14MH301

Abraders from the Wullscheleger Site, 14MH301
Date: 1-1800 CE
These three Dakota sandstone abraders were collected from the Wullscheleger Site in Marshall County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1961. Archeologists call abraders like these groundstone tools, as they are shaped by grinding. Some of the abraders could be used in pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood shaft. The village site was occupied periodically from the Early Ceramic to the Late Ceramic periods.


Adze or Axe from the Wullscheleger Site, 14MH301

Adze or Axe from the Wullscheleger Site, 14MH301
Date: 1-1800 CE
This chipped stone tool, made of Florence chert that outcrops in the Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma, may have been used as an adze or axe. Artifacts like this one were likely used for wood working. It was collected from the Wullscheleger site in Marshall County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1961. The site was occupied periodically throughout the Early, Middle and Late Ceramic periods.


Alternately Beveled Knife from 14AT448

Alternately Beveled Knife from 14AT448
Date: 1-1000 CE
This alternately beveled knife was collected from an Early Ceramic archeological site in Atchison County and donated in 2018 to the Kansas Historical Society. Repeated sharpening on alternate sides created the bevels. The knife was mostly likely hafted.


Alternately Beveled Knife from 14EK308

Alternately Beveled Knife from 14EK308
Date: 1-1000 CE
This alternately beveled knife was recovered from the surface of an Early Ceramic period archeological site in Elk County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1972. Archeologists believe that knives shaped like this would have been used for bison butchering. Repeated sharpening on alternate sides created bevels. Knives with the general diamond shape are also sometimes called Harahey knives.


Alternately Beveled Knife from the Across the Creek Site, 14JO406

Alternately Beveled Knife from the Across the Creek Site, 14JO406
Date: 1-1500 CE
This alternately beveled knife was collected from a multicomponent site in Johnson County with occupations in both the Early and Middle Ceramic periods. It was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. The knife was made of Winterset chert, which outcrops in eastern Kansas and Missouri. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels.


Alternately Beveled Knife from the Hays Lankard Site, 14AD353

Alternately Beveled Knife from the Hays Lankard Site, 14AD353
Date: 1-1800 CE
This knife was collected from the Hays Lankard site, an archeological site in Anderson County and donated in 1961 to the Kansas Historical Society. The knife gets its pinkish color as a result of the flintknapper heat treating the material to improve the chert's knapping qualities. Repeated sharpening on alternate sides created bevels. The two notches near the base indicate that the knife was mostly likely hafted. One side is nearly covered with the collector's notes.


Alternately Beveled Knives from 14EK318

Alternately Beveled Knives from 14EK318
Date: 1-1500 CE
These three alternately beveled knife fragments were recovered from an archeological site in Elk County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1974 and 1975. Knives with a general diamond shape, as is the white fragment, are sometimes called Harahey knives. Archeologists believe that a knife shaped like this would have been used for bison butchering. The other two knife fragments are alternately beveled on two sides. The pinkish color of one knife fragment is a result of the flintknapper heat treating the material to improve the Permian chert's knapping qualities. The remaining alternately beveled knife fragment was made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk.


Alternately Beveled Knives from 14MY316

Alternately Beveled Knives from 14MY316
Date: 800-1000 CE
These two alternately beveled knife fragments were recovered from an Early Ceramic village in Montgomery County. The site had at least one house and may represent a Pomona occupation. Radiocarbon dating on a burned post gave a date of 800-1000 CE. Archeologists believe that knives shaped like these would have been used for bison butchering. They can be alternately sharpened on all four sides or on two alternate sides. One knife has an exposed portion of a fossilized segmented worm, Spriggina floudersi. The other knife was made of a chert called Tahlequah, that outcrops in eastern Oklahoma.


Alternately Beveled Knives from 14MY316

Alternately Beveled Knives from 14MY316
Date: 700-1500 CE
These five alternately beveled knife fragments were recovered from an archeological site along the Elk River in Montgomery County. Repeated sharpening on the knives alternate sides created the bevels. The three on the bottom are made of Permian chert and the one on the bottom right has been heat-treated prior to knapping to improve the knapping qualities of the chert. The two on the top row are made of an unknown chert. The site had house remains and is considered to be part of the Pomona focus of the Early and Middle Ceramic period. Pomona focus sites are located in eastern Kansas and western Missouri.


Arrow Point from 14AT327

Arrow Point from 14AT327
Date: 1-1000 CE
This arrow point was collected from an Early Ceramic period site in Atchison County and donated in 2018 to the Kansas Historical Society. The side-notched point made of Permian chert, is nearly complete. The site had been heavily collected and highly disturbed in the past.


Arrow Point from 14DN308

Arrow Point from 14DN308
Date: 2000 BCE-500 CE
This arrow point fragment was recovered from an archeological site in a creek meander in Dickinson County. The point is made of Permian chert that has been heat-treated prior to finishing to improve its knapping qualities. The point has an expanding stem. The site was occupied during the late Archaic to Early Ceramic period.


Arrow Point from 14DN423

Arrow Point from 14DN423
Date: 1-1000 CE
This arrow point was recovered from an Early Ceramic period archeological site in Dickenson County. It is side-notched with serrated edges. The notches aided in hafting the point to the arrow shaft.


Arrow Point from 14DP315

Arrow Point from 14DP315
Date: 1-1000 CE
This arrow point was recovered from an Early Ceramic period archeology site in Doniphan County. The nearly triangular arrow point has very slight side notches. The notches aided in hafting the point to the arrow shaft.


Arrow Point from 14PA320

Arrow Point from 14PA320
Date: 500-1100 CE
This arrow point was recovered from a Keith phase Early Ceramic period archeological site in Pawnee County. Archeologists consider corner-notched points to be the earliest form of arrow points that are found in the Great Plains. The notches aided in hafting the arrow point to the arrow shaft.


Arrow Point from 14PH342

Arrow Point from 14PH342
Date: 500-1100 CE
This arrow point was recovered from a Keith phase archeological site in Phillips County. The arrow point has corner-notches to aid in hafting the point to the arrow shaft. The Keith phase site would have been occupied sometime between 500 and 1100 CE. The people who lived here were semi-sedentary hunters and gatherers.


Arrow Points from 14AT315

Arrow Points from 14AT315
Date: 1-1000 CE
These three arrow points were collected from an Early Ceramic period archeological site in Atchison County. They were donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2018. All three arrow points were made of Permian chert. Two are side-notched and one is corner-notched. The notches and the stem aided in hafting the arrow point to the arrow shaft.


Arrow Points from 14AT405

Arrow Points from 14AT405
Date: 1-1000 CE
These three arrow points were collected from an Early Ceramic period archeological site in Atchison County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1979. All three arrow points are side-notched. The notches and the stem aided in hafting the point to the arrow shaft.


Arrow Points from 14CF416

Arrow Points from 14CF416
Date: 1-1800 CE
This assortment of five arrow points was recovered from site 14CF416, in Coffey County, and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2015. The two corner notched points on the left date to the Early Ceramic Period (1-1000 CE). The two side notched points in the middle date to the Middle Ceramic Period (1000-1500 CE) and the Fresno point of the far right dates to the Late Ceramic Period (1500-1800 CE). The pinkish color of two of the points indicates they have been heat treated to improve their knapping qualities.


Arrow Points from 14CK306

Arrow Points from 14CK306
Date: 1-1000 CE
These arrow points were collected from a archeological site in Clark County. One arrow point has a corner-notched base, while the other is stemmed. Both would have been hafted to an arrow shaft and shot with a bow.


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