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People - American Indians - Prehistoric Cultures - Upper Republican

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Abraders from 14SA409

Abraders from 14SA409
Date: 1-1500 CE
These three abraders were recovered from the surface of a Saline County camp site and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. The site was occupied during the Upper Republican and Smoky Hill phases in the Early and Middle Ceramic periods. Archeologists call these groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. The sandstone abraders could be used as pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood shaft.


Arrow Point from the Ehmke Site, 14LA311

Arrow Point from the Ehmke Site, 14LA311
Date: 1000-1500 CE
This arrow point was recovered from a camp and kill site in Lane County during excavation by Kansas Historical Society Archeologists. The site seems to have had multiple occupations from the Paleoindian period through the Late Ceramic period. The feature this arrow point was recovered in was believed to be associated with an Upper Republican occupation. The side-notched point is possibly made of Alibates flint, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle.


Arrow Points from the Albert Bell Site, 14SD305

Arrow Points from the Albert Bell Site, 14SD305
Date: 1220-1400 CE
These seven arrow points were excavated at a Middle Ceramic period site in Sheridan County, during the 1990 and the 2002 Kansas Archeology Training Program field schools with Kansas Historical Society archeologists and volunteers. All of the arrow points are side notched. Five are made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, which outcrops near the site, and two are made of basalt. The Upper Republican earthlodge site had a single radiocarbon date of 1220 to 1400 CE.


Biface from 14HM311

Biface from 14HM311
Date: 1000-1500 CE
This biface was collected from an Early Ceramic site in Hamilton County that may be associated with an Upper Republican occupation. A biface, like this one, could have been used as a cutting tool or, with more work, turned into a specific tool. It was made of a dendritic chert.


Bone Fish Hook from the Albert Bell Site, 14SD305

Bone Fish Hook from the Albert Bell Site, 14SD305
Date: 1212-1400 CE
This bone fish hook was excavated at the Albert Bell site in Sheridan County during the 2002 Kansas Archeology Training Program. The site, an Upper Republic Phase Middle Ceramic house, had a single radiocarbon date of 710 +/- 60 BP (1212-1400). The J-shaped hook has a hafting area at the head.


Cedar Creek Site Rim Sherds from The Cedar Creek Site, 14DP1318

Cedar Creek Site Rim Sherds from The Cedar Creek Site, 14DP1318
Date: 2100 BCE-750 CE
Shown are three of many pottery sherds collected from the Cedar Creek site, in Doniphan County. They were donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1925. The Cedar Creek site was a multicomponent site, having both Kansas City Hopewell and Nebraska Aspect/Upper Republican occupations. The site had the remains of at least one house. The rim sherd on the far left is decorated with a cord wrapped stick impressed design with four bosses below. The rim sherd in the center has a crenellated rim and is like pottery of the Late Woodland or post-classic Kansas City Hopewell. The rim sherd on the right has a zoned area of cord marking. All the rim sherds are sand tempered.


Ceramic Pipe Bowl from 14SA409

Ceramic Pipe Bowl from 14SA409
Date: 1-1500 CE
This pipe bowl was recovered from the surface of a Saline County camp site and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. The site was occupied during the Upper Republican and Smoky Hill phases during the Early and Middle Ceramic periods. The pipe retains faint traces of dottle (tobacco residue) within the bowl. The rim of the bowl was molded so as to flare outward.


Ceramic Pot Sherds from the Collins Site, 14DP1306

Ceramic Pot Sherds from the Collins Site, 14DP1306
Date: 1000-1500 CE
These ceramic pot sherds from an archeological site in Doniphan County and were donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1925. The Collins site is a possible village, perhaps either occupied by people of the Upper Republican or Nebraska Aspect cultures. The sherds are sand tempered and decorated with crenellations below the lip. The body of the vessels are cord marked, a technique where a cord-wrapped paddle was used by the American Indians to make the roughened surface treatment.


Drills from the Albert Bell Site, 14SD305

Drills from the Albert Bell Site, 14SD305
Date: 1212-1400 CE
These drills were recovered from the Albert Bell site during an excavation in 1990 by Kansas Historical Society Archeologists and volunteers at the Kansas Archeological Training Program field school. Drills were used to bore holes in softer materials than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone. The site, in Sheridan County, is an Upper Republican phase Middle Ceramic period house site with a radiocarbon date of 710 +/- 60 years CE.


Excavations at 14DC315

Excavations at 14DC315
Date: 1994
Shown are four different views of excavations at 14DC315 in Decatur County. Kansas Historical Society archeologists are shown excavating and testing with a probe. Also shown is an artifact scatter in situ (in the position it was found). The site, a Middle Ceramic Period Upper Republican aspect camp site, was excavated in 1994. It would have been occupied sometime between 900 to 1400 CE.


Knife from 14SA409

Knife from 14SA409
Date: 1-1500 CE
This knife was recovered from the surface of a Saline County archeological site and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. The knife was made of Permian chert. The knife may have been used for other purposes such as scraping or as a perform for a future tool. The site was occupied during the Upper Republican and Smoky Hill phases of the Early and Middle Ceramic periods.


Mano and Nutting Stone from 14SA409

Mano and Nutting Stone from 14SA409
Date: 1 CE-1500 CE
This mano and nutting stone was recovered from the surface of a Saline County camp site and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. The site was occupied during the Upper Republican and Smoky Hill phases during the Early and Middle Ceramic periods. One side of this ground stone tool served as the topmost millstone for grinding foods by hand on a grinding stone. The other side of the tool served as a nutting stone, used for securing a nut while it was being cracked open. Groundstone tools like this one are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state.


Mano from 14RP315

Mano from 14RP315
Date: 1000 CE-1500 CE
This scarred and broken mano was recovered from an Upper Republican phase Middle Ceramic period site in Republic County. Manos were likely used as the upper hand-held millstone for grinding foods and pigments.


Miniature Vessel from the Albert Bell Site, 14SD305

Miniature Vessel from the Albert Bell Site, 14SD305
Date: 1220-1400 CE
This miniature ceramic vessel fragment was excavated at a Middle Ceramic period archeological site in Sheridan County during the 1990 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school. The small vessel fragment has a cordmarked surface treatment and a flaring rim. The Upper Republican earthlodge site had a single radiocarbon date of 1220 to 1400 CE.


Projectile Points from 14SA409

Projectile Points from 14SA409
Date: 1-1500 CE
These seven projectile points were recovered from the surface of a Saline County archeological site and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. The site was occupied during the Upper Republican and Smoky Hill phases in the Early and Middle Ceramic periods. They are, from left to right top row: side-notched arrow points; middle row: side-notched arrow points flanking a parallel stemmed dart point; bottom row: corner-notched arrow points. The dart point was mounted to the dart fore shaft, and then thrown with an atlatl. The dates for the different styles of arrow points range from the Early Ceramic Period (corner-notched points) to the Middle Ceramic Period (side-notched points). The notches aided in hafting the point to the arrow shaft.


Rim Sherds from 14RP307

Rim Sherds from 14RP307
Date: 1000-1500 CE
These rim sherds were recovered from a possible Upper Republican phase Middle Ceramic village in Republic County. All are collared rims with sand temper and vertical cord marking.


Rim Sherds from 14SA409

Rim Sherds from 14SA409
Date: 1000-1500 CE
These seven rim sherds were recovered from the surface of a Saline County archeological site and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. The rim sherds, from jars and bowls, all have sand temper and a cordmarking surface treatment. The site was occupied during the Upper Republican and Smoky Hill phases in the Early and Middle Ceramic periods.


Scrapers from 14SA409

Scrapers from 14SA409
Date: 1-1500 CE
These six scrapers were recovered from the surface of a Saline County archeological site and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. The pink colored scraper has been heat-treated prior to its completion in order to make a better knappable chert. The scrapers may have been hafted onto a handle and used to scrape hides. They would have required periodic resharpening. The site was occupied during the Upper Republican and Smoky Hill phases in the Early and Middle Ceramic periods.


Side-Notched Arrow Points from the Albert Bell Site, 14SD305

Side-Notched Arrow Points from the Albert Bell Site, 14SD305
Date: 1212-1400 CE
These seven side-notched arrow points, along with numerous similar points, were excavated at the Albert Bell site in Sheridan County during the 1990 and 2002 Kansas Archeology Training Program field schools. Side-notched points such as these are in general dated to the Middle Ceramic period. The site, an Upper Republic Phase Middle Ceramic house site, had a single radiocarbon date of 710 +/- 60 BP (1212-1400).


Upper Republican Phase Reconstructed Vessel from 14ML417

Upper Republican Phase Reconstructed Vessel from 14ML417
Date: 1000-1400 CE
The sherds from this vessel were recovered during excavations at a Middle Ceramic period village in Mitchell County. The cord marked pot has an outflaring rim with finger pinched nodes immediately below the lip. Those reconstructing the vessel used plaster to fill in the empty spaces.


Upper Republican Phase Reconstructed Vessel from 14ML417

Upper Republican Phase Reconstructed Vessel from 14ML417
Date: 1000-1400 CE
The sherds from this vessel were recovered during excavations at a Middle Ceramic period village in Mitchell County. The cord marked pot has an outflaring rim with finger pinched nodes immediately below the lip. Those reconstructing the vessel used plaster to fill in the empty spaces. The excavation at the site was conducted by archeologists from the Kansas Historical Society and volunteers from the Kansas Anthropological Association in 1980.


Upper Republican Phase Reconstructed Vessel from 14ML417

Upper Republican Phase Reconstructed Vessel from 14ML417
Date: 1000-1400 CE
The sherds from this vessel were recovered during excavations at a Middle Ceramic period village in Mitchell County. The cord marked pot has an outflaring rim with finger pinched nodes immediately below the lip. Those reconstructing the vessel used plaster to fill in the empty spaces. The excavation was conducted by archeologists from the Kansas Historical Society and volunteers from the Kansas Anthropological Association in 1980.


Upper Republican Phase Reconstructed Vessel from 14ML417

Upper Republican Phase Reconstructed Vessel from 14ML417
Date: 1000-1400 CE
The sherds from this vessel were recovered during excavations at a Middle Ceramic period village in Mitchell County. The cord marked pot has an outflaring rim with finger pinched nodes immediately below the lip. Those reconstructing the vessel used plaster to fill in the empty spaces. The excavation was conducted by archeologists from the Kansas Historical Society and volunteers from the Kansas Anthropological Association.


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