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Abraders from 14SA409

Abraders from 14SA409
Date: 1-1500 CE
These three abraders were recovered from the surface of a Saline County camp site and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. The site was occupied during the Upper Republican and Smoky Hill phases in the Early and Middle Ceramic periods. Archeologists call these groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. The sandstone abraders could be used as pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood shaft.


Abraders from the Kohr Site, 14SA414

Abraders from the Kohr Site, 14SA414
Date: 780-860 CE
These abraders were collected in the 1930s from Kohr House No. 1, a large village site in Saline County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1971. Archeologists call these groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. The sandstone abraders could be used as pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood shaft. All four artifacts were made of Dakota sandstone. The two on the bottom row are in the process of manufacture, enabling us to see how they were made. The Kohr site was occupied by Smoky Hill aspect people and had several rectangular houses. Radiocarbon dates on maize indicate it was occupied during the Early Ceramic period.


Abraders from the Lamar Site, 14OT304

Abraders from the Lamar Site, 14OT304
Date: 1000-1400 CE
These three abraders were excavated in 1935 from the Lamar site in Ottawa County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1971. The Smoky Hill phase occupation site had a single, almost square, house and four cache pits. Archeologists call these groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. The sandstone abraders could be used as pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood shaft.


Alternately Beveled Knife from 14SA407

Alternately Beveled Knife from 14SA407
Date: 1000-1500 CE
This alternately beveled knife was found on the surface of a Middle Ceramic period Smoky Hill aspect camp site in Saline County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels.


Alternately Beveled Knives from the Griffing Site, 14RY21

Alternately Beveled Knives from the Griffing Site, 14RY21
Date: 1000-1500 CE
These two alternately beveled knives were recovered from the Griffing site and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1902. The Griffing site, in Riley County, had numerous lodges present and likely represents a scatter of farmsteads from the Central Plains tradition occupied during the Middle Ceramic period. Based on pottery recovered at the site it is likely that at least a portion of the site was occupied by Smoky Hill aspect peoples. Archeologists believe that knives shaped like these would have been used for bison butchering. Repeated sharpening on alternate sides created bevels. Knives with the general diamond shape are also sometimes called Harahey knives.


Arrow Points from 14SA416

Arrow Points from 14SA416
Date: 1000-1500 CE
These three arrow points recovered in 1971 from the surface of a Saline County site and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. The camp site was occupied during the Middle Ceramic period by Smoky Hill phase peoples. Shown are two side notched arrow points and a single triangular arrow point. One of the side notched points has multiple notches.


Artifact Collection from 14RY1627

Artifact Collection from 14RY1627
Date: Unknown
Shown is the complete collection of surface artifacts from 14RY1627 in Riley County. Other artifacts, not in the Kansas Historical Society's collection, indicate the site had multiple components or occupations including peoples of both the Kansas City Hopewell and Smoky Hill aspects. The spear point pictured here adds a late Paleolithic to early Archaic component. In addition to the projectile point fragment two bifaces and a mano (grinding stone) are shown.


Bison Scapula Hoe from the Aerhart Site, 14OT305

Bison Scapula Hoe from the Aerhart Site, 14OT305
Date: 1000-1400 CE
This remnant of a bison scapula hoe was collected from the Aerhart site in 1934 and donated in 1971 to the Kansas Historical Society. The Aerhart site, in Ottawa County, was a Smoky Hill phase site with one circular house with an entryway to the southeast. The hoe's maker removed the long spine that runs the length of the scapula (shoulder blade), beveled and sharpened the edge, and hafted it to a handle. This hoe has nearly been completely used and may have been repurposed into another tool.


Bison Scapula Hoe from the Minneaspolis Site, 14OT5

Bison Scapula Hoe from the Minneaspolis Site, 14OT5
Date: 1232-1409 CE
This bison scapula hoe was recovered from the Minneapolis archeological site in Ottawa County during excavation in 1934. It was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1987. The Minneapolis site represents a village of the Smoky Hill Aspect peoples during the Middle Ceramic time period. The hoe's maker removed the long spine that runs the length of the scapula (shoulder blade), beveled and sharpened the edge, and hafted it to a handle.


Bone Awl from the Aerhart Site, 14OT305

Bone Awl from the Aerhart Site, 14OT305
Date: 1000-1400 CE
This burned bone awl was collected from the Aerhart site in 1934 and donated in 1971 to the Kansas Historical Society. The Aerhart site, in Ottawa County, has a Smoky Hill phase occupation with one circular house with an entryway to the southeast. Awls were used as a perforating tool in soft materials, like hides, and possibly in basket and pottery manufacture.


Bone Awl from the Markley Site, 14OT308

Bone Awl from the Markley Site, 14OT308
Date: 1000-1500 CE
This complete bone awl was recovered from House 1 at the Markley site, a Smoky Hill Phase occupation site containing two or more houses. Awls such as this one are usually made from deer bone. They were used to make holes in soft material, like hides, and possibly in basket and pottery manufacturing.


Bone Beads from the Markley Site, 14OT308

Bone Beads from the Markley Site, 14OT308
Date: 1000-1500 CE
These two bone beads in slightly different styles were collected from House 1 at the Markley site, a Smoky Hill Phase occupation site containing two or more houses. The collection was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1971. Bone beads such as these are generally made of bird bone.


Bone Fish Hook from the Lamar Site, 14OT304

Bone Fish Hook from the Lamar Site, 14OT304
Date: 1000-1400 CE
This delicate bone fish hook was excavated in 1935 from the Lamar site in Ottawa County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1971. The Smoky Hill phase site had a single, almost square, house and four cache pits.


Bone Knife from the Minneapolis Site, 14OT5

Bone Knife from the Minneapolis Site, 14OT5
Date: 1232-1409 CE
This bone knife was recovered from the Minneapolis archeological site in Ottawa County during excavation in 1934 and was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1987. The Minneapolis site was a Smoky Hill Aspect village occupied during the Middle Ceramic time period. Bone knives like this one have been called squash knives, cleavers, or spatulas. They were crafted from a bison scapula (shoulder blade) and would have been used to slice soft plant materials.


Bone Pendant from the Markley Site, 14OT308

Bone Pendant from the Markley Site, 14OT308
Date: 1000-1500 CE
This bone pendant was recovered from House 1 at the Markley site, a Smoky Hill Phase occupation site containing two or more houses. The small bone has a drilled hole and one end and is tapered to a point at the other end.


Ceramic Pipe Bowl from 14SA409

Ceramic Pipe Bowl from 14SA409
Date: 1-1500 CE
This pipe bowl was recovered from the surface of a Saline County camp site and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. The site was occupied during the Upper Republican and Smoky Hill phases during the Early and Middle Ceramic periods. The pipe retains faint traces of dottle (tobacco residue) within the bowl. The rim of the bowl was molded so as to flare outward.


Ceramic Pipe Bowl from the Markley Site, 14OT308

Ceramic Pipe Bowl from the Markley Site, 14OT308
Date: 1000-1500 CE
This reconstructed ceramic pipe bowl fragment was recovered from House 1 at the Markley site, a Smoky Hill Phase occupation site containing two or more houses. The collection from the site was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1971. The pipe bowl was refit by the donor and has an incised line below the lip.


Ceramic Pipe from the Minneapolis Site, 14OT5

Ceramic Pipe from the Minneapolis Site, 14OT5
Date: 1232-1409 CE
This ceramic pipe was recovered from excavations during the 1973 Kansas Archeology Program at the Minneapolis site in Ottawa County. The Minneapolis site was a Smoky Hill aspect village site, with this pipe being recovered from one of the many house mounds. The plain pipe was fashioned from clay. Traces of dottle (tobacco residue) remain within the pipe bowl's interior. Pipes were used during trade negotiations and to mark special occasions.


Ceramic Pipe from the Woods Site, 14CY30

Ceramic Pipe from the Woods Site, 14CY30
Date: 989-1436 CE
Ceramic (clay) pipes, such as this one, were commonly made by Plains and Eastern Native Americans in North America. This pipe was recovered from the Woods site, a Smoky Hill phase village in Clay County, occupied during the Middle Ceramic period. This tubular pipe was used for smoking tobacco.


Ceramic Pot Sherd from the Minneapolis site, 14OT5

Ceramic Pot Sherd from the Minneapolis site, 14OT5
Date: 1232-1409 CE
These two reconstructed pot sherds were recovered from House 1 at the Minneapolis site in Ottawa County in 1934 by the University of Nebraska. They and others from the collection were donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1987. The Minneapolis site is a Smoky Hill phase occupation during the Middle Ceramic Period. In addition to cord marking, the sherds retain evidence of fire clouding, the blackened area that indicates uneven firing temperatures.


Clay Objects from the Aerhart Site, 14OT305

Clay Objects from the Aerhart Site, 14OT305
Date: 1000-1400 CE
These two unusual clay objects were collected from the Aerhart site in 1934 and donated in 1971 to the Kansas Historical Society. The Aerhart site, in Ottawa County, was a Smoky Hill phase occupation with one circular house with an entryway to the southeast. The function of the clay objects is uncertain. One object is boat-shaped with an incised groove. The other may have been an effigy and has a pinched center flanked by punctates.


Decorated Ceramic Pot Sherds from the Minneapolis Site, 14OT5

Decorated Ceramic Pot Sherds from the Minneapolis Site, 14OT5
Date: 1232-1409 CE
These partially reconstructed pot sherds were recovered from excavations in 1934 by the University of Nebraska and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1987. The Majors Diagonal Incised jar was decorated with alternating zones of oblique lines. This type of pottery is found at Central Plains tradition sites of the Late Prehistoric period. It was recovered from different features in House 8 of the Minneapolis site in Ottawa County, a Smoky Hill phase site occupied during the Middle Ceramic Period.


Decorated Ceramic Pot Sherds from the Minneapolis Site, 14OT5

Decorated Ceramic Pot Sherds from the Minneapolis Site, 14OT5
Date: 1232-1409 CE
These four sherds from the Minneapolis site in Ottawa County were excavated in 1934 by the University of Nebraska and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1987. They were excavated from House 8 and later refit into one rim, handle and body portion of a wide-mouthed jar. The Majors Diagonal Incised type pottery is decorated with four sets of opposed diagonals and is shell tempered. The Minneapolis site was a Smoky Hill phase site occupied during the Middle Ceramic Period.


Decorated Ceramic Rim Sherd from the Minneapolis Site, 14OT5

Decorated Ceramic Rim Sherd from the Minneapolis Site, 14OT5
Date: 1232-1409 CE
This ceramic rim sherd was one of many that was excavated at the Minneapolis Site by the University of Nebraska in 1934. The decorations below the lip were created when the potter pinched the still wet clay between their thumb and finger, creating a ridge and leaving a fingernail impression. The collection was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1987. The Minneapolis site is a Smoky Hill phase Middle Ceramic Period site that had several houses excavated. This rim sherd came from House 1.


Effigy from the Kohr Site, 14SA414

Effigy from the Kohr Site, 14SA414
Date: 780-860 CE
This fired clay effigy was collected in the 1930s from Kohr House No. 1 in Saline County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1971. It has been suggested that the effigy represents an owl, but it could equally represent some other animal or even a human. The Kohr village was occupied by Smoky Hill aspect people and had several rectangular houses. Radiocarbon dates on maize indicate it was occupied during the Early Ceramic period.


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