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Alternately Beveled Knives from the Lewis Site, 14PA307

Alternately Beveled Knives from the Lewis Site, 14PA307
Date: 1000-1700 CE
These four alternately beveled knives were recovered from excavations in 1966 at the Lewis site in Pawnee County by Kansas Historical Society archeologists. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. Three of the knives are made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, a good quality knapping material that is exposed in linear beds in northwestern Kansas and western Nebraska. The fourth knife is made of Alibates agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. The Lewis site is multiple occupation habitation site with Pratt Complex (Middle Ceramic period), Smoky Hill aspect (Middle Ceramic period), and Great Bend aspect (Late Ceramic period) occupations.


Alternately Beveled Knives from the Pratt/Wing Site, 14PT1

Alternately Beveled Knives from the Pratt/Wing Site, 14PT1
Date: 1300-1500 CE
These two alternately beveled knives were recovered from the Pratt/Wing site in Pratt County. The Pratt site is the type site of the Pratt Complex which occurred during the Middle Ceramic Period. Knives such as these gained their distinctive beveled appearance by repeated sharpening on alternate sides.


Arrow Points from 14PT420

Arrow Points from 14PT420
Date: 1300-1500 CE
Shown are two arrow points recovered y Kansas Historical Society archeologists at a Middle Ceramic period Pratt complex village in Pratt County. The complete side-notched arrow point is made of an unknown chert. The corner-notched obsidian fragment was sent for X-ray-florescence (XRF) testing, a chemical analysis that indicates the original source of the obsidian. The flake was found to be from a lava flow in the Jemez Mountains near Taos, New Mexico. This type of analysis helps archeologists learn about ancient trade patterns, suggesting either trade with people further southwest or travel by Pratt complex people to the Jemez Mountains.


Bison Tibia Digging Stick Tip from 14PT304

Bison Tibia Digging Stick Tip from 14PT304
Date: 1300-1500 CE
Digging tools, such as this digging stick tip, are evidence of practicing horticulture. The bison tibia digging stick tip was recovered from a Middle Ceramic period archeological site in Pratt County that was attributed to Pratt Complex people. The Pratt Complex is poorly understood. This makes diagnostic artifacts such as this digging stick tip important to our understanding of earlier life styles.


Chipped Stone Tools from the Pratt/Wing Site, 14PT1

Chipped Stone Tools from the Pratt/Wing Site, 14PT1
Date: 1300-1500 CE
Shown in this slide is some of the chipped stone tools that were recovered from the Pratt/Wing Archeological Site. The Pratt site was a Pratt Complex Middle Ceramic Period village in Pratt County. The slide shows an assortment of chipped stone tools including side notched arrow points, drills, scrapers, hafted knives, alternately beveled knives and Harahey knives.


Corner-Notched Arrow Points from the Forrest Site, 14PA303

Corner-Notched Arrow Points from the Forrest Site, 14PA303
Date: 1-1000 CE
These four corner-notched arrow points were recovered from a Keith phase Early Ceramic period archeological site in Pawnee County. The notches aided in hafting the point to the arrow shaft. The arrow point on the left is made of basalt, the two arrow points in the center are made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk which outcrops in western Kansas and Nebraska, and the arrow point on the right is made of Florence chert from the Flint Hills region.


Drill Fragment from 14PT420

Drill Fragment from 14PT420
Date: 1300-1500 CE
This drill fragment was recovered in 1994 by Kansas Historical Society archeologists at a Middle Ceramic period Pratt complex village in Pratt County. Drills were used to bore holes in softer material than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone. The drill is made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, a type of chert that outcrops in western Kansas and Nebraska.


Drills from the Lewis Site, 14PA307

Drills from the Lewis Site, 14PA307
Date: 1000-1700 CE
These six drills were recovered from excavations in 1966 at the Lewis site in Pawnee County by Kansas Historical Society archeologists. were used to bore holes in softer materials (hides, shell, or soft stone) than the drill material itself and were made on a variety of chert types. The Lewis site has Pratt Complex (Middle Ceramic period), Smoky Hill aspect (Middle Ceramic period), and Great Bend aspect (Late Ceramic period) occupations.


Obsidian Flakes from 14PT420

Obsidian Flakes from 14PT420
Date: 1300-1500 CE
Shown are two obsidian (volcanic glass) flakes excavated by Kansas Historical Society archeologists at a Middle Ceramic period Pratt complex village in Pratt County. The flakes were analyzed using X-ray florescence, a chemical analysis that indicates the original source of the obsidian. The flakes were found to be from two different lava flows on the same mountain peak in the Jemez Mountains near Taos, New Mexico. This type of analysis helps archeologists learn about ancient trade patterns, suggesting either trade with people further south or travel by Pratt complex people to the Texas panhandle.


Obsidian from the Lewis Site, 14PA307

Obsidian from the Lewis Site, 14PA307
Date: 1000-1700 CE
These seven obsidian flakes were excavated in 1966 at the Lewis site in Pawnee County by Kansas Historical Society archeologists. In 2005, they were analyzed using x-ray florescence (XRF) testing, an elemental analysis that matches the composition of the artifact to the composition of known sources. The obsidian at the Lewis site was determined to be from Valles Rhyolite from the Cerro del Medio member and the Cerro Toledo Rhyolite from the Obsidian Ridge member, both places found in the Jemez Mountains in New Mexico. Thus XRF studies help archeologists to learn about ancient trade patterns. The Lewis site has Pratt Complex (Middle Ceramic period), Smoky Hill aspect (Middle Ceramic period), and Great Bend aspect (Late Ceramic period) occupations.


Pottery from the Lewis Site, 14PA307

Pottery from the Lewis Site, 14PA307
Date: 1000-1700 CE
These pottery sherds were excavated in 1966 at the Lewis site in Pawnee County by Kansas Historical Society archeologists. Two of the sherds were reconstructed and all have sand temper. The Lewis site has Pratt Complex (Middle Ceramic period), Smoky Hill aspect (Middle Ceramic period), and Great Bend aspect (Late Ceramic period) occupations.


Pottery from the Lewis Site, 14PA307

Pottery from the Lewis Site, 14PA307
Date: 1300-1500 CE
These pottery sections were excavated in 1966 at the Lewis site in Pawnee County by Kansas Historical Society archeologists. The sherds were reconstructed and may come from the same vessel. The pottery has sand and bone temper, scalloped lips, out-flaring rims, and a cord marked surface treatment. The Lewis site has Pratt Complex (Middle Ceramic period), Smoky Hill aspect (Middle Ceramic period), and Great Bend aspect (Late Ceramic period) occupations. This pottery dates to the Middle Ceramic period.


Pottery with Limestone Temper from the Forrest Site, 14PA303

Pottery with Limestone Temper from the Forrest Site, 14PA303
Date: 1-1000 CE
This body sherd and two rim sherds were recovered from a Keith phase Early Ceramic period archeological site in Pawnee County. Crushed limestone that includes crystals of calcite was added to the clay when the pot was made to give it greater strength. The rough surface is made by rolling a cord-wrapped dowel over the surface of the pots with the clay is drying. Brush marks, made during pottery manufacture, are visible on the interior of the body sherd.


Pratt Complex Middle Ceramic Vessel

Pratt Complex Middle Ceramic Vessel
Date: 1300-1500 CE
The sherds of this reconstructed vessel were found at the Seuser site in Rush County in 1970. The vessel is from the Pratt Complex which occurred during the Middle Ceramic period. This pottery is typically cord marked, sometimes smoothed over cord marked, with sand tempering. The decorations around the rim were made by a pointed tool and by pinching the clay. Archeologists filled in the missing pieces of the vessel with plaster.


Pratt Complex Middle Ceramic Vessel

Pratt Complex Middle Ceramic Vessel
Date: 1300-1500 CE
The sherds of this reconstructed vessel were found at the Seuser site in Rush County in 1970. The vessel is from the Pratt Complex which occurred during the Middle Ceramic period. This pottery is typically cord marked, sometimes smoothed over cord marked, with sand tempering. The decorations around the rim were made by a pointed tool and by pinching the clay. Archeologists filled in the missing pieces of the vessel with plaster.


Scraper from 14PT420

Scraper from 14PT420
Date: 1300-1500 CE
This scraper is made of Alibates agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. Scrapers such as this would have been hafted on a handle and used to scrape hides. They would have required periodic resharpening. The scraper was recovered in 1994 by Kansas Historical Society archeologists at a Middle Ceramic period Pratt complex village in Pratt County. This scraper suggests either trade with people further south or travel by Pratt complex people to the Texas panhandle.


Scrapers from the Lewis Site, 14PA307

Scrapers from the Lewis Site, 14PA307
Date: 1000-1700 CE
These eight scrapers were recovered from excavations in 1966 at the Lewis site in Pawnee County by Kansas Historical Society archeologists. The scrapers are all made of Alibates agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. This suggests either trade with people further south or travel to the Texas panhandle. The scrapers would have likely been hafted on a handle and used to scrape hides. The tools would have required periodic resharpening. The Lewis site has Pratt Complex (Middle Ceramic period), Smoky Hill aspect (Middle Ceramic period), and Great Bend aspect (Late Ceramic period) occupations.


Scrapers from the Pratt/Wing Site, 14PT1

Scrapers from the Pratt/Wing Site, 14PT1
Date: 1300-1500 CE
These four scrapers were recovered from the Pratt/Wing site. The two scrapers on the left are made from Alibates chert from the Canadian River in the Texas panhandle. The small grey scraper is made from Florence chert from the Flint Hills region of Kansas. The larger scraper is also made of Florence chert, but this piece has been heat treated during an early stage of its manufacture to improve the chert's knapping qualities. Scrapers such as these were used to scrape hides and may have been hafted onto handles. The Pratt/Wing site was a Pratt Complex Middle Ceramic period village site in Pratt County.


Southwestern Pottery from the Pratt/Wing Site, 14PT1

Southwestern Pottery from the Pratt/Wing Site, 14PT1
Date: 1300-1500 CE
Shown are two pieces of southwestern pottery recovered from the Pratt/Wing site in Pratt County. The sherds are possibly decorated in the black-on-white style. The large sherd is decorated both on the exterior and interior. The Pratt site was a Pratt Complex Middle Ceramic Period village site.


Vessel from the Lewis Site, 14PA307

Vessel from the Lewis Site, 14PA307
Date: 1100-1700 CE
The sherds from this vessel were excavated in 1965 at the Lewis site, a Pratt Complex Middle Ceramic period village in Pawnee County. Later the sherds were reconstructed by archeologists who used plaster to fill in missing pieces. However, much of the jar remained and enabled archeologists to see that the vessel was cord marked on the body and had a row of punctates immediately below the out-flaring lip. In addition to the Pratt Complex occupation, the Pratt site Smoky Hill aspect component (Middle Ceramic period) and a Great Bend aspect component (Late Ceramic period).


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