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Biface from Chase County

Biface from Chase County
Date: Unknown
This thick biface was recovered from Chase County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1904. A biface like this one could have been used as a chopping tool or, with more work, turned into a specific tool. The style is similar to a type of biface archeologists Munkers Creek bifaces. The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills from 4000 to 3800 BCE.


Bifaces from the William Young Site, 14MO304

Bifaces from the William Young Site, 14MO304
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
Munkers Creek bifaces, like these four recovered from the William Young site in Morris County, could have been used as cutting tools, or, with more work, turned into more specialized tools. The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that some archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they had to adapt by using many different types of animals and plants for food in a less productive environment.


Bifaces from the William Young Site, 14MO304

Bifaces from the William Young Site, 14MO304
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
These three bifaces were among the many that were recovered from the William Young site in Morris County by Kansas Historical Society Archeologists. The bifaces were created by people whose way of living and tool complex is called the Munkers Creek phase by archeologists. In addition to hunting, the Munkers Creek people were harvesting wild plants. Bifaces like these could have been for cutting grass.


Dart Point from the William Young Site, 14MO304

Dart Point from the William Young Site, 14MO304
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
This Munkers Creek phase dart point was collected from a feature at the William Young site in Morris County by Kansas Historical Society Archeologists. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that Archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they may have chosen their habitats carefully. Munkers Creek dart points, like this one, would be mounted to the dart foreshaft, which would in turn be connected to the dart shaft. The assembled dart would then be thrown with an atlatl (spearthrower).


Dart Points from the Grouse Creek Site, 14CO120

Dart Points from the Grouse Creek Site, 14CO120
Date: 4800-3800 BCE
These six dart points were among the many that were collected from an Archaic site in Cowley County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2013. The four pink colored cherts are made of Permian cherts that have been heat treated to create a better knappable chert. The smallest of these has been reworked. The tan colored point is made of Frisco chert and the darker point is made of Woodford chert, both from Oklahoma. The site was associated with both Calf Creek (a distinctive dart point style that is generally found in eastern Kansas and states to the east and south during the late Paleoindian Period) and Munkers Creek (a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills from 4000 to 3800 BCE).


Drills from the Elliot Site, 14GE303

Drills from the Elliot Site, 14GE303
Date: Unknown
These three drills were collected from a multicomponent (multiple occupations) archeological site in Geary County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1925. Drills were used to bore holes in materials softer than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone. These are made of Permian chert from the Flint Hills region.


Drills from the Grouse Creek Site, 14CO120

Drills from the Grouse Creek Site, 14CO120
Date: 4800-3800 BCE
These three drills were collected from an Archaic site in Cowley County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2013. All three of the drills were made of Permian chert. Two have been heat treated prior to knapping to create a better knappable chert. Drills were used to bore holes in materials softer than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone. The site was associated with both Calf Creek (a distinctive dart point style that is generally found in eastern Kansas and states to the east and south during the late Paleoindian Period) and Munkers Creek (a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills from 4000 to 3800 BCE).


"Eccentric" from the Grouse Creek Site, 14CO120

"Eccentric" from the Grouse Creek Site, 14CO120
Date: 4800-3800 BCE
This unusual chipped stone tool was collected from an Archaic site in Cowley County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2013. An artifact labeled "eccentric" has no known functional use and is often irregular in shape. The site was associated with both Calf Creek (a distinctive dart point that is generally found in eastern Kansas and states to the east and south during the late Paleoindian Period) and Munkers Creek (a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills from 4000 to 3800 BCE).


Excavations at the William Young Site, 14MO304

Excavations at the William Young Site, 14MO304
Date: 1962
Shown are photographs of four young men excavating at the William Young site in Morris County, a concentration of chert at the bottom of Feature 131, and the north wall of a test pit. The William Young site was a Munkers Creek phase habitation site excavated by Kansas Historical Society Archeologists. The site was occupied between 3550 and 3050 BCE. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that Archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they may have chosen their habitats carefully.


Excavations at the William Young Site, 14MO304

Excavations at the William Young Site, 14MO304
Date: 1962
Shown are three views taken in 1962 of the excavations at the William Young site in Morris County. One photograph shows three crew members removing the sod by hand. Another photograph shows the top soil being removed by a bulldozer. The final view is of the exposed pits and post molds after the soil had been removed. The William Young site was a Munkers Creek phase habitation site excavated by Kansas Historical Society archeologists. The site was occupied between 3550 and 3050 BCE. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that Archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they may have chosen their habitats carefully.


Key from the William Young Site, 14MO304

Key from the William Young Site, 14MO304
Date: 1850-1950
This key was recovered from the William Young site, a Munkers Creek phase Archaic period site in Morris County, by Kansas Historical Society Archeologists. The brass key, slightly bent, but otherwise in good condition, represents household activities occurring at the site long after the Munkers Creek people had left.


Munker's Creek phase Bifaces

Munker's Creek phase Bifaces
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
These three Munkers Creek phase Paleoarchaic bifaces were found in Wabaunsee County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1925. In addition to hunting, the Munkers Creek people were harvesting wild plants. Bifaces like these could have been for cutting grass.


Munkers Creek Artifacts from the Foltz Site, 14WB386

Munkers Creek Artifacts from the Foltz Site, 14WB386
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
These Munkers Creek Axes were collected from the Foltz site, an archeological site in Wabaunsee County with multiple occupations from the Archaic to the Middle Ceramic periods. They were donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2018. Munkers Creek axes were used for felling trees, woodworking and modifying bone. During this time in the Archaic period most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that some archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they had to adapt by using many different types of animals and plants for food in a less productive environment.


Munkers Creek Axe

Munkers Creek Axe
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
This Munkers Creek-like axe was collected from Wabaunsee County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2018. The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that Archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they may have chosen their habitats carefully. Munkers Creek axes, like this one, were used for felling trees and woodworking.


Munkers Creek Axe from 14CS1317

Munkers Creek Axe from 14CS1317
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
This chipped stone axe was recovered from a Munkers Creek phase archeological site in Chase County. This distinctive shaped axe, made of local Florence chert, was used for felling trees and woodworking. The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that some archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they had to adapt by using many different types of animals and plants for food in a less productive environment.


Munkers Creek Axe from 14MO433

Munkers Creek Axe from 14MO433
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
This Munkers Creek style axe was collected from a multicomponent camp site in Morris County with occupations in the Archaic and Early Ceramic periods. The axe, along with other artifacts, were donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. During the Archaic period, when this axe was likely made, most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that Archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they may have chosen their habitats carefully. Munkers Creek axes were used for felling trees and woodworking.


Munkers Creek Axes from the Elliot Site, 14GE303

Munkers Creek Axes from the Elliot Site, 14GE303
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
These seven Munkers Creek axes were collected from an archeological site in Geary County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1925. These distinctive shaped axes, made of local Florence chert, were used for felling trees and woodworking. The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that some archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they had to adapt by using many different types of animals and plants for food in a less productive environment.


Munkers Creek Axes from the Elliott Site, 14GE303

Munkers Creek Axes from the Elliott Site, 14GE303
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
These five Munkers Creek axes were collected from a multicomponent (multiple occupations) archeological site in Geary County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1925. These distinctive shaped axes, made of local Florence chert, were used for felling trees and woodworking. One of the occupations at the Elliott site was the Munkers Creek phase, which describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that some archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they had to adapt by using many different types of animals and plants for food in a less productive environment.


Munkers Creek Axes from the William Young Site, 14MO304

Munkers Creek Axes from the William Young Site, 14MO304
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that Archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they may have chosen their habitats carefully. Munkers Creek axes, like these from the William Young site in Morris County, were used for felling trees and woodworking.


Munkers Creek Bifaces from the Elliot Site, 14GE303

Munkers Creek Bifaces from the Elliot Site, 14GE303
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
These two Munkers Creek bifaces were recovered from a multicomponent (multiple occupations) archeological site in Geary County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1925. Munkers Creek bifaces (chipped stone tools worked on both sides) could have been used as cutting tools or turned into more specialized tools. These are made of local chert from the Flint Hills region. The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that some archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they had to adapt by using many different types of animals and plants for food in a less productive environment.


Munkers Creek Bifaces from the William Young Site, 14MO304

Munkers Creek Bifaces from the William Young Site, 14MO304
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that Archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they may have chosen their habitats carefully. Munkers Creek bifaces, like these from the William Young site in Morris County, could have been used as cutting tools, or, with more work, turned into specific tools.


Munkers Creek Ceramic Effigy from the William Young Site, 14MO304

Munkers Creek Ceramic Effigy from the William Young Site, 14MO304
Date: 3550 - 3050 BCE
This ceramic head is Kansas' oldest fired clay artifact. Archeologists discovered the fired clay head in the early 1960s during excavations at the William Young archeological site in Morris County, Kansas, near Council Grove. The head pictured here is on display in the main gallery of the Kansas Museum of History. The effigy was created by people whose way of living and tool complex is called the Munkers Creek phase by archeologists. The Munkers Creek phase lasted for about 500 years from 3550 to 3050 BCE.


Munkers Creek Dart Point from Morris County

Munkers Creek Dart Point from Morris County
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
This Munkers Creek type dart point was found near Wilsey in Morris County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society. The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that Archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they may have chosen their habitats carefully. Munkers Creek projectile points were launched using a spear thrower.


Munkers Creek Dart Points from the Elliott Site, 14GE303

Munkers Creek Dart Points from the Elliott Site, 14GE303
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
These six Munkers Creek dart points were collected from an archeological site in Geary County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1925. These are made of local Permian chert from the Flint Hills region. Dart points would be mounted to the dart foreshaft, which would in turn be connected to the dart shaft. The assembled dart would then be thrown with an atlatl (spearthrower). The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that some archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they had to adapt by using many different types of animals and plants for food in a less productive environment.


Munkers Creek Gouges from the William Young Site, 14MO304

Munkers Creek Gouges from the William Young Site, 14MO304
Date: 4250-3850 BCE
The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that Archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they may have chosen their habitats carefully. Munkers Creek gouges, like these from the William Young site in Morris County, likely were used to modify wood and bone.


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