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A Lithic Collection from the Elliott Site, 14GE303

A Lithic Collection from the Elliott Site, 14GE303
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
These eight lithic artifacts were collected from an archeological site in Geary County with a Munkers Creek component. They were donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1925. The artifacts shown here are eight large thick bifaces that may have been used as woodworking tools. The upper left artifact has silica gloss from use on plant materials. The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that some archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they had to adapt by using many different types of animals and plants for food in a less productive environment.


Biface from Chase County

Biface from Chase County
Date: Unknown
This thick biface was recovered from Chase County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1904. A biface like this one could have been used as a chopping tool or, with more work, turned into a specific tool. The style is similar to a type of biface archeologists call Munkers Creek bifaces. The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills from 4000 to 3800 BCE.


Biface from the Wullschleger Site, 14MH301

Biface from the Wullschleger Site, 14MH301
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
This biface was recovered from the Wullschleger site in Marshall County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1961. A biface like this one could have been used as a chopping tool or, with more work, turned into a specific tool. The style is similar to a type of biface archeologists call Munkers Creek bifaces. The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills from 4000 to 3800 BCE.


Biface from the Wullschleger Site, 14MH301

Biface from the Wullschleger Site, 14MH301
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
This biface was collected from the Wullschleger site in Marshall County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1961. It is made of local chert from the Flint Hills region. A biface like this one could have been used as a chopping tool or a core that with more work could be turned into a specific tool. The Wullschleger site is a multicomponent (multiple occupations) site with a Munkers Creek phase, which describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that some archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed. Munkers Creek sites often contain similar large, crude bifaces, but such artifacts are also found in other places and from other times.


Bifaces from Morris County

Bifaces from Morris County
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
These bifaces were collected from Morris County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1980. They are made of local chert from the Flint Hills region. Bifaces like these could have been used as a chopping tool or a blank intended to be turned into a specific tool at a later date. Munkers Creek sites often contain similar large, crude bifaces, but such artifacts are also found in other places and times. The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that some archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they had to adapt by using many different types of animals and plants for food in a less productive environment.


Bifaces from Morris County

Bifaces from Morris County
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
These two bifaces were collected from Morris County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1980 and 1986. They are made of local chert from the Flint Hills region. Bifaces like these could have been used as a chopping tool or a blank intended to be turned into a specific tool at a later date. Munkers Creek sites often contain similar large, crude bifaces, but such artifacts are also found in other places and times. The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that some archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they had to adapt by using many different types of animals and plants for food in a less productive environment.


Bifaces from the Elliott Site, 14GE303

Bifaces from the Elliott Site, 14GE303
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
These four Munkers Creek bifaces were recovered from a multicomponent (multiple occupations) archeological site in Geary County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1925. Munkers Creek bifaces (chipped stone tools worked on both sides) could have been used as cutting tools or turned into more specialized tools. These are made of local chert from the Flint Hills region. One biface gets its pinkish color as a result of the material being carefully heated before manufacturing to improve the chert's knapping qualities. The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that some archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they had to adapt by using many different types of animals and plants for food in a less productive environment.


Bifaces from the Elliott Site, 14GE303

Bifaces from the Elliott Site, 14GE303
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
These bifaces were collected from a multicomponent (multiple occupations) archeological site in Geary County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1925. Bifaces like these could have been used as cutting tools and are made of local chert from the Flint Hills region. The bifaces were created by people whose way of living and tool complex is called the Munkers Creek phase by archeologists. In addition to hunting, the Munkers Creek people were harvesting wild plants.


Bifaces from the Grouse Creek Site, 14CO120

Bifaces from the Grouse Creek Site, 14CO120
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
These three bifaces were collected from an Archaic site in Cowley County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2013. Bifaces like these could have been used as a chopping tool or, with more work, turned into a specific tool. All are made of local cherts from the Flint Hills and the material has been carefully heated before manufacturing to improve the chert's knapping qualities. The style is similar to a type of tool archeologists call Munkers Creek bifaces. The site was associated with both Calf Creek (a distinctive dart point style that is generally found in eastern Kansas and states to the east and south during the late Paleoindian Period) and Munkers Creek (a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills from 4250 to 2850 BCE).


Bifaces from the Hollenberg Pony Express Station, 14WH316

Bifaces from the Hollenberg Pony Express Station, 14WH316
Date: 4000 BCE-1000 CE
These bifaces were recovered during the 1991 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Hollenberg Pony Express Station in Washington County. The site was the location of a pony express station, a stop on the Oregon-California trail, a post office, a blacksmith shop, and a farm with barns and other out buildings. The bifaces shown here would have come from an earlier period than when the site operated as a station. Munkers Creek sites (a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills from 4000 to 3800 BCE) often contain similar large, crude bifaces, but such artifacts are also found in other places and from other times.


Bifaces from the William Young Site, 14MO304

Bifaces from the William Young Site, 14MO304
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
Munkers Creek bifaces, like these four recovered from the William Young site in Morris County, could have been used as cutting tools, or, with more work, turned into more specialized tools. The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that some archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they had to adapt by using many different types of animals and plants for food in a less productive environment.


Bifaces from the William Young Site, 14MO304

Bifaces from the William Young Site, 14MO304
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
These three bifaces were among the many that were recovered from the William Young site in Morris County by Kansas Historical Society Archeologists. The bifaces were created by people whose way of living and tool complex is called the Munkers Creek phase by archeologists. In addition to hunting, the Munkers Creek people were harvesting wild plants. Bifaces like these could have been for cutting grass.


Bifaces from the William Young Site, 14MO304

Bifaces from the William Young Site, 14MO304
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
These bifaces were recovered from the William Young site in Morris County. They are made of local chert from the Flint Hills region. Bifaces like these could have been used as a chopping tool or a blank intended to be turned into a specific tool at a later date. The William Young site has a Munkers Creek component which often contain similar large, crude bifaces. Such artifacts can also be found in other places and times. The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that some archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they had to adapt by using many different types of animals and plants for food in a less productive environment.


Chipped Stone Axe from the Grouse Creek Site, 14CO120

Chipped Stone Axe from the Grouse Creek Site, 14CO120
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
This axe, made of local Florence chert from the Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma, may have been used for wood working. The axe was collected from an Archaic site in Cowley County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2013. The site was associated with both Calf Creek (a distinctive dart point style that is generally found in eastern Kansas and states to the east and south during the late Paleoindian Period) and Munkers Creek (a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills from 4000 to 3800 BCE).


Chipped Stone Axe or Gouge from 14CS375

Chipped Stone Axe or Gouge from 14CS375
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
This chipped stone tool was collected from the surface of an archeological site in Chase County that may have had a Munkers Creek phase occupation. Like this possible axe or gouge, Munkers Creek artifacts can often have a chunky appearance with patches of crusty cortex present. The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that Archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they may have chosen their habitats carefully.


Chipped Stone Tools from the Grouse Creek Site, 14CO120

Chipped Stone Tools from the Grouse Creek Site, 14CO120
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
These chipped stone tools were collected from an Archaic site in Cowley County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2013. Both are made of local cherts from the Flint Hills and the material of the pink colored tool has been carefully heated before manufacturing to improve the chert's knapping qualities. The chipped stone tools may have been used as bifaces, as knives, or had some other purpose. The site was associated with both Calf Creek (a distinctive dart point style that is generally found in eastern Kansas and states to the east and south during the late Paleoindian Period) and Munkers Creek (a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills from 4250 to 2850 BCE).


Dart Point from the William Young Site, 14MO304

Dart Point from the William Young Site, 14MO304
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
This Munkers Creek phase dart point was collected from a feature at the William Young site in Morris County by Kansas Historical Society Archeologists. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that Archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they may have chosen their habitats carefully. Munkers Creek dart points, like this one, would be mounted to the dart foreshaft, which would in turn be connected to the dart shaft. The assembled dart would then be thrown with an atlatl (spearthrower).


Dart Points from 14MH145

Dart Points from 14MH145
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
These dart points, made of local Flint Hills region chert, were recovered from a Middle Archaic Munkers Creek phase site in Marshall County. Munkers Creek dart points were mounted to the dart foreshaft, which would in turn be connected to the dart shaft. The assembled dart would then be thrown with an atlatl (spearthrower). The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they may have chosen their habitats carefully.


Dart Points from the Grouse Creek Site, 14CO120

Dart Points from the Grouse Creek Site, 14CO120
Date: 4800-3800 BCE
These six dart points were among the many that were collected from an Archaic site in Cowley County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2013. Four dart points are made of Permian chert and get their pinkish color as a result of the material being carefully heated before manufacturing to improve the chert's knapping qualities. The smallest of these has been reworked. The tan colored point is made of Frisco chert and the darker point is made of Woodford chert, both from Oklahoma. The site was associated with both Calf Creek (a distinctive dart point style that is generally found in eastern Kansas and states to the east and south during the late Paleoindian Period) and Munkers Creek (a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills from 4000 to 3800 BCE).


Dart Points from the William Young Site, 14MO304

Dart Points from the William Young Site, 14MO304
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
These dart points were recovered from the William Young site in Morris County by Kansas Historical Society archeologists. Munkers Creek dart points, like these, were mounted to the dart foreshaft, which in turn were connected to the dart shaft. The assembled dart would then be thrown with an atlatl (spearthrower). The dart points are made of local chert from the Flint Hills and the pink color of the broken dart point is the result of the material being carefully heated before manufacturing to improve the chert's knapping qualities. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that some archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they may have chosen their habitats carefully.


Drills from the Elliot Site, 14GE303

Drills from the Elliot Site, 14GE303
Date: Unknown
These three drills were collected from a multicomponent (multiple occupations) archeological site in Geary County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1925. Drills were used to bore holes in softer materials than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone. These are made of Permian chert from the Flint Hills region.


Drills from the Grouse Creek Site, 14CO120

Drills from the Grouse Creek Site, 14CO120
Date: 4800-3800 BCE
These three drills were collected from an Archaic site in Cowley County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2013. All three of the drills were made of Permian chert. Two have been heat treated prior to knapping to make it easier to knap. Drills were used to bore holes in softer materials than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone. The site was associated with both Calf Creek (a distinctive dart point style that is generally found in eastern Kansas and states to the east and south during the late Paleoindian Period) and Munkers Creek (a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills from 4000 to 3800 BCE).


"Eccentric" from the Grouse Creek Site, 14CO120

"Eccentric" from the Grouse Creek Site, 14CO120
Date: 4800-3800 BCE
This unusual chipped stone tool was collected from an Archaic site in Cowley County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2013. An artifact labeled "eccentric" has no known functional use and is often irregular in shape. The site was associated with both Calf Creek (a distinctive dart point that is generally found in eastern Kansas and states to the east and south during the late Paleoindian Period) and Munkers Creek (a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills from 4000 to 3800 BCE).


Excavations at the William Young Site, 14MO304

Excavations at the William Young Site, 14MO304
Date: 1962
Shown are three views taken in 1962 of the excavations at the William Young site in Morris County. One photograph shows three crew members removing the sod by hand. Another photograph shows the top soil being removed by a bulldozer. The final view is of the exposed pits and post molds after the soil had been removed. The William Young site was a Munkers Creek phase habitation site excavated by Kansas Historical Society archeologists. The site was occupied between 3550 and 3050 BCE. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that Archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they may have chosen their habitats carefully.


Excavations at the William Young Site, 14MO304

Excavations at the William Young Site, 14MO304
Date: 1962
Shown are photographs of four young men excavating at the William Young site in Morris County, a concentration of chert at the bottom of Feature 131, and the north wall of a test pit. The William Young site was a Munkers Creek phase habitation site excavated by Kansas Historical Society Archeologists. The site was occupied between 3550 and 3050 BCE. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that Archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they may have chosen their habitats carefully.


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