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14MP1, Paint Creek Site Effigy or Chipped Stone Tool?

14MP1, Paint Creek Site Effigy or Chipped Stone Tool?
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This artifact was found at the Paint Creek village in McPherson County. It was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1971. Archeologists sometimes ponder how to classify an artifact: is this an effigy or a chipped stone tool? The Paint Creek site is what archeologists call part of the Little River Focus of the Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Abrader from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1

Abrader from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This Sioux quartzite abrader was excavated at the Paint Creek village in McPherson County. Archeologists call abraders groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. This abrader has been used to sharpen another tool, such as a bone needle or awl. The Paint Creek site is what archeologists call part of the Little River Focus of the Great Bend Aspect (ancestral Wichita), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Abraders from the Killdeer Site, 14CO501

Abraders from the Killdeer Site, 14CO501
Date: 1500-1750 CE
These two abraders were among the many that were recovered during the 1994 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Killdeer site, since destroyed by construction. Archeologists call these groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. The sandstone abraders could sometimes be used as pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood arrow shaft. The Killdeer site was a Lower Walnut focus Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) site in Cowley County with numerous pits, basins and post molds.


Abraders from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Abraders from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1600 CE
Shown are a few of the many abraders and shaft smoothers recovered from the excavations during the 1977 and 1978 Kansas Archeology Training Program field schools at the Tobias site in Rice County. Archeologists call these groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. The sandstone abraders could be used as pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood shaft or individually to sharpen or smooth items. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits (including chain mail brought to Kansas by sixteenth-century Spanish explorers), house remains and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. It is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Adze or Axe from 14MN328

Adze or Axe from 14MN328
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This chipped stone tool, possibly either an adze or an axe, was most likely used for woodworking. A fossil embedded in the chert was not removed by the original flintknapper. It was excavated in 1986 by Kansas Historical Society archeologists from 14MN328, a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) site in Marion County.


Adze or Axe from the Country Club Site, 14CO3

Adze or Axe from the Country Club Site, 14CO3
Date: 1400-1725 CE
This chipped stone tool, either an adze or an axe, was most likely used for woodworking. It was excavated from a Great Bend aspect village site (ancestral Wichita) in Cowley County during Phase IV archeological investigations in 1995. The site had been much impacted by a water line, golf greens, roads, and highways. Excavations had been occurring at the site since 1916.


Alibates Scrapers from the Saxman Site, 14RC301

Alibates Scrapers from the Saxman Site, 14RC301
Date: 1500-1650 CE
Shown are five scrapers that were collected from the Saxman site in Rice County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. Scrapers such as these would have been hafted on a handle and used to scrape hides. They would have required periodic resharpening. All five scrapers were made of Alibates flint, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. The Saxman site, a large Great Bend aspect village, was occupied by ancestral Wichita peoples.


Alibates Scrapers from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Alibates Scrapers from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1600 CE
These seven scrapers were excavated during the 1977 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. Scrapers such as these would have been hafted on a handle and used to scrape hides. They would have required periodic resharpening. All seven scrapers were made of Alibates agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Alternately Beveled Knife from 14MO433

Alternately Beveled Knife from 14MO433
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This knife fragment was recovered from an archeological site in Morris County with occupations in the Archaic, Early Ceramic, and Late Ceramic periods. It was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. The Great Bend aspect style knife would have been hafted to a handle.


Alternately Beveled Knife from 14RC418

Alternately Beveled Knife from 14RC418
Date: 1350-1650 CE
This alternately beveled knife was recovered by Kansas Historical Society archeologists during a pipeline survey. It was discovered on the surface of 14RC418, a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) site in Rice County. The two notches near the base indicate that the knife was most likely hafted.


Alternately Beveled Knife from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Alternately Beveled Knife from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1600 CE
This alternately beveled knife was recovered from excavations during the 1977 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. The knife is made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, a good quality knapping material that is exposed in linear beds in northwestern Kansas and southeastern Nebraska. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Alternately Beveled Knives from the Saxman Site, 14RC301

Alternately Beveled Knives from the Saxman Site, 14RC301
Date: 1500-1650 CE
Shown are four alternately beveled knives that were collected from the Saxman site in Rice County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. Three of the knives are made on Smoky Hill silicified chalk, which outcrops in western Kansas. The slight pinkish color of the fourth knife indicates that it had been heat treated, prior to knapping, to improve knapping quality of the chert. The Saxman site, a large Great Bend aspect village, was occupied by the ancestral Wichita peoples.


Antler Billet from the Saxman Site, 14RC301

Antler Billet from the Saxman Site, 14RC301
Date: 1500-1650 CE
This flintknapping tool, an antler billet, was recovered from the Saxman site in Rice County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2016. The billet was made from the base of an antler and was used to remove flakes from chert during flintknapping. The Saxman site, a large Great Bend aspect village, was occupied by the ancestral Wichita people.


Arrow Points from the Thompson Site, 14RC9

Arrow Points from the Thompson Site, 14RC9
Date: 1500-1800 CE
These arrow points were among the many collected and excavated from the Thompson site in Rice County. The site, listed in the National Register of Historic Places, was a Great Bend aspect village occupied by ancestral Wichita people. The arrow point on the top right was excavated during the 1986 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school. All others were donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1971. The arrow point on the left of the top row is side-notched. The others are triangular or Fresno arrow points. Archeologists identify Fresno arrow points as being unnotched with a triangular shape. Though small and thin, they would have been extremely effective on the hunt.


Arrow Shaft Wrenches from the Nulik Site, 14SR305

Arrow Shaft Wrenches from the Nulik Site, 14SR305
Date: 1000-1500 CE
These broken bone arrow shaft wrenches were recovered during excavations in 1969 by Kansas Historical Society archeologists at the Nulik site in Sumner County. Arrow shaft wrenches were used to straighten a warped arrow shaft. Two of these wrenches were made on deer tibias and one on a deer long bone. Two wrenches are decorated with incised zig zags and lines. The excavations at the site revealed a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) house and associated midden (refuse heap or mound).


Arrow Shaft Wrench from the Thompson Site, 14RC9

Arrow Shaft Wrench from the Thompson Site, 14RC9
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This bone arrow shaft wrench was recovered from the Thompson site in Rice County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1963. Arrow shaft wrenches were used to straighten a warped arrow shaft. This wrench was made on the left tibia of a deer. The site, listed in the National Register of Historic Places, was a Great Bend aspect village occupied by ancestral Wichita people.


Awl from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1

Awl from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This complete bone awl was found at the Paint Creek archeological site, a village in McPherson County, Kansas. Awls such as this one are usually made from deer bone. They were used to make holes in soft material, like hides, and possibly in basket and pottery manufacturing. The awl was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2012. The Paint Creek site is part of the Little River focus of the Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Awl from the Thompson Site, 14RC9

Awl from the Thompson Site, 14RC9
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This awl was recovered during excavations at the 1986 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Thompson site in Rice County. The right fibula of a raccoon was sharpened and polished to make the awl. Awls were used as a perforating tool in soft materials, like hides, and possibly in basket and pottery manufacture. The site, listed in the National Register of Historic Places, was a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village.


Awls from the Sharps Creek Site, 14MP408

Awls from the Sharps Creek Site, 14MP408
Date: 1500-1800 CE
These three awls were recovered from the Sharps Creek site in McPherson County, a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that was occupied during the Late Ceramic period. Awls were usually made from deer bone and used as a perforating tool in soft material, like hides, and possibly in basket and pottery manufacturing. The two awls on the left were recovered during excavation at the site in 1968 by Kansas Historical Society archeologists. The smaller awl on the right was recovered during excavations at the 1993 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school.


Awls from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Awls from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1350-1650 CE
Shown here are three of the many bone awls excavated at the Tobias site, a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) site in Rice County. The Tobias site was the location of the 1977 and 1978 Kansas Archeology Training Program field schools. The smallest awl was recovered in 1977 and the two larger awls were recovered in 1978. Awls were usually made from deer bone and used as a perforating tool in soft material, like hides, and possibly in basket and pottery manufacturing.


Basket Impressed Pottery from the County Club Site, 14CO3

Basket Impressed Pottery from the County Club Site, 14CO3
Date: 1400-1725 CE
This small pottery body sherd has an interesting story to tell. This sherd was impressed with basketry, either as a decorative technique or to serve as a basket liner. The sherd was excavated from a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village in Cowley County during Phase IV archeological investigations in 1995. The site had been much impacted by a water line, golf greens, roads, and highways. Excavations had been occurring at the site since 1916.


Beads from the Mem Site, 14MN328

Beads from the Mem Site, 14MN328
Date: 1500-1800 CE
These beads were excavated in 1986 during a highway salvage project undertaken by Kansas Historical Society archeologists and Kansas Anthropological Association volunteers at the Mem site. The black glass ovoid bead, of European manufacture, was recovered from the upper fill of a cache pit. The disc-shaped turquoise bead and the two ceramic beads were recovered from the same cache pit. The Mem site, in Marion County, is a Great Bend aspect, ancestral Wichita village.


Beads from the Radio Lane Site, 14CO385

Beads from the Radio Lane Site, 14CO385
Date: 1400-1899 CE
These three beads were among the many that were excavated at the Radio Lane site, a large Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village in Cowley County. The amber glass faceted bead was likely made in Bohemia and dates to the mid-to-late 19th century. The white glass trade bead has a light brown swirl within the glass. The turquoise bead was recovered from deep within a bell shaped pit feature. Kansas Historical Society archeologists and crew excavated there during a Phase IV archeological investigation in 1995.


Beads from the Shrope Site, 14CO331

Beads from the Shrope Site, 14CO331
Date: 1400-1725 CE
In 1995 a Phase IV highway salvage excavation was conduction by Kansas Historical Society archeologists and crew at the Shrope site, a large Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village in Cowley County. At the site, 41 archeological features were uncovered in three areas. The shell bead shown here, and numerous artifacts, were recovered from deep within a bell-shaped pit. The mussel shell is delicate and great care must have been taken to create the oval hole and shape the bead. The bone bead was found at shallower depths in a different pit. Both ends of a bird bone have been scored, snapped and smoothed to create the bead.


Biface from the Country Club Site, 14CO3

Biface from the Country Club Site, 14CO3
Date: 1400-1725 CE
This large chipped stone biface was excavated from a Great Bend aspect village site in Cowley County during Phase IV archeological investigations in 1995. The biface, made of Florence chert, may have been stored for future use (what Archeologists call a cache), been meant for trade, or had some other significance we today do not know. The site had been much impacted by a water line, golf greens, roads, and highways. Excavations had been occurring at the site since 1916.


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