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14MP1, Paint Creek Site Effigy or Chipped Stone Tool?

14MP1, Paint Creek Site Effigy or Chipped Stone Tool?
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This artifact was found at the Paint Creek village in McPherson County. It was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1971. Archeologists sometimes ponder how to classify an artifact: is this an effigy or a chipped stone tool? The Paint Creek site is what archeologists call part of the Little River Focus of the Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Abrader from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1

Abrader from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This Sioux quartzite abrader was excavated at the Paint Creek village in McPherson County. Archeologists call abraders groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. This abrader has been used to sharpen another tool, such as a bone needle or awl. The Paint Creek site is what archeologists call part of the Little River Focus of the Great Bend Aspect (ancestral Wichita), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Abraders from the Killdeer Site, 14CO501

Abraders from the Killdeer Site, 14CO501
Date: 1500-1750 CE
These two abraders were among the many that were recovered during the 1994 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Killdeer site, since destroyed by construction. Archeologists call these groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. The sandstone abraders could sometimes be used as pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood arrow shaft. The Killdeer site was a Lower Walnut focus Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) site in Cowley County with numerous pits, basins and post molds.


Abraders from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Abraders from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
Shown are four abraders recovered from the excavations during the 2019 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. Archeologists call these abraders groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. The sandstone abraders could be used as pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood shaft or individually to sharpen or smooth other items. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. It is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Abraders from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Abraders from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
Shown are a few of the many abraders and shaft smoothers recovered from the excavations during the 1977 and 1978 Kansas Archeology Training Program field schools at the Tobias site in Rice County. Archeologists call these groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. The sandstone abraders could be used as pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood shaft or individually to sharpen or smooth items. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. It is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Adze or Axe from 14MN328

Adze or Axe from 14MN328
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This chipped stone tool, possibly either an adze or an axe, was most likely used for woodworking. A fossil embedded in the chert was not removed by the original flintknapper. It was excavated in 1986 by Kansas Historical Society archeologists from 14MN328, a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) site in Marion County.


Adze or Axe from the Country Club Site, 14CO3

Adze or Axe from the Country Club Site, 14CO3
Date: 1400-1725 CE
This chipped stone tool, either an adze or an axe, was most likely used for woodworking. It was excavated from a Great Bend aspect village site (ancestral Wichita) in Cowley County during Phase IV archeological investigations in 1995. The site had been much impacted by a water line, golf greens, roads, and highways. Excavations had been occurring at the site since 1916.


Alibates Core from 14PT420

Alibates Core from 14PT420
Date: 1300-1500 CE
Shown is a core, a stone from which flakes are removed to make chipped stone tools. The core was recovered in 1994 by Kansas Historical Society archeologists at a Middle Ceramic period Pratt complex village in Pratt County. The parent material for this core is Alibates agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. This suggests either trade with people further south or travel by Pratt complex people to the Texas panhandle.


Alibates Scrapers from the Saxman Site, 14RC301

Alibates Scrapers from the Saxman Site, 14RC301
Date: 1500-1650 CE
Shown are five scrapers that were collected from the Saxman site in Rice County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. Scrapers such as these would have been hafted on a handle and used to scrape hides. They would have required periodic resharpening. All five scrapers were made of Alibates flint, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. The Saxman site, a large Great Bend aspect village, was occupied by ancestral Wichita peoples.


Alibates Scrapers from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Alibates Scrapers from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
These seven scrapers were excavated during the 1977 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. Scrapers such as these would have been hafted on a handle and used to scrape hides. They would have required periodic resharpening. All seven scrapers were made of Alibates agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Alternately Beveled Knife from 14MO433

Alternately Beveled Knife from 14MO433
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This knife fragment was recovered from an archeological site in Morris County with occupations in the Archaic, Early Ceramic, and Late Ceramic periods. It was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. The Great Bend aspect style knife would have been hafted to a handle.


Alternately Beveled Knife from 14RC418

Alternately Beveled Knife from 14RC418
Date: 1350-1650 CE
This alternately beveled knife was recovered by Kansas Historical Society archeologists during a pipeline survey. It was discovered on the surface of 14RC418, a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) site in Rice County. The two notches near the base indicate that the knife was most likely hafted.


Alternately Beveled Knife from the Shrope Site, 14CO331

Alternately Beveled Knife from the Shrope Site, 14CO331
Date: 1400-1725 CE
This alternately beveled knife was recovered from the Shrope village site in Cowley County. The knife gets its pinkish color as a result of the material being carefully heated before manufacturing to improve the chert's knapping qualities. Repeated sharpening on alternate sides created bevels and the two notches near the base indicate that the knife was most likely hafted. The Shrope site, a large Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village, was excavated by Kansas Historical Society archeologists and crew in 1995. Forty-one archeological features, such as storage pits, hearths, and post molds, were uncovered at the site.


Alternately Beveled Knife from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Alternately Beveled Knife from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
This alternately beveled knife was recovered from excavations during the 1977 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. The knife is made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, a good quality knapping material that is exposed in linear beds in northwestern Kansas and western Nebraska. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Alternately Beveled Knife from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Alternately Beveled Knife from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
This alternately beveled knife was recovered from excavations during the 2019 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. The knife is made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, a good quality knapping material that is exposed in linear beds in northwestern Kansas and western Nebraska. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Alternately Beveled Knives from the Lewis Site, 14PA307

Alternately Beveled Knives from the Lewis Site, 14PA307
Date: 1000-1700 CE
These four alternately beveled knives were recovered from excavations in 1966 at the Lewis site in Pawnee County by Kansas Historical Society archeologists. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. Three of the knives are made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, a good quality knapping material that is exposed in linear beds in northwestern Kansas and western Nebraska. The fourth knife is made of Alibates agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. The Lewis site is multiple occupation habitation site with Pratt Complex (Middle Ceramic period), Smoky Hill aspect (Middle Ceramic period), and Great Bend aspect (Late Ceramic period) occupations.


Alternately Beveled Knives from the Majors Site, 14RC2

Alternately Beveled Knives from the Majors Site, 14RC2
Date: 1541-1720 CE
These alternately beveled knife fragments were recovered from the Majors site in Rice County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1982. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. The Majors site was a Great Bend aspect, Little River focus (ancestral Wichita) village that was occupied during the late 17th century based on southwestern pottery styles found at the site.


Alternately Beveled Knives from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1

Alternately Beveled Knives from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1
Date: 1500-1800 CE
These alternately beveled knives were collected from the Paint Creek village site in McPherson County, Kansas. Four were donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1971 and the other was excavated by Kansas Historical Society archeologists. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. Four of the knives were made Permian chert with the fifth knife of Alibates Agatized Dolomite. The Paint Creek site is what archeologists call part of the Little River Focus of the Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Alternately Beveled Knives from the Radio Lane Site, 14CO385

Alternately Beveled Knives from the Radio Lane Site, 14CO385
Date: 1400-1725 CE
These alternately beveled knives were recovered at the Radio Lane site, a large Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village in Cowley County. The knives are made of local Florence chert from the Flint Hills region. The knives get their pinkish color as a result of the material being carefully heated before manufacturing to improve the chert's knapping qualities. Repeated sharpening on alternate sides created bevels. The two notches near the base of two knives indicates that they were likely hafted. Kansas Historical Society archeologists and crew excavated at the site during 1995.


Alternately Beveled Knives from the Saxman Site, 14RC301

Alternately Beveled Knives from the Saxman Site, 14RC301
Date: 1500-1650 CE
Shown are four alternately beveled knives that were collected from the Saxman site in Rice County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. Three of the knives are made on Smoky Hill silicified chalk, which outcrops in western Kansas. The slight pinkish color of the fourth knife indicates that it had been heat treated, prior to knapping, to improve knapping quality of the chert. The Saxman site, a large Great Bend aspect village, was occupied by the ancestral Wichita peoples.


Antler Billet from the Saxman Site, 14RC301

Antler Billet from the Saxman Site, 14RC301
Date: 1500-1650 CE
This flintknapping tool, an antler billet, was recovered from the Saxman site in Rice County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2016. The billet was made from the base of an antler and was used to remove flakes from chert during flintknapping. The Saxman site, a large Great Bend aspect village, was occupied by the ancestral Wichita people.


Antler Billet from the Shrope Site, 14CO331

Antler Billet from the Shrope Site, 14CO331
Date: 1400-1725 CE
This flintknapping tool, an antler billet, was recovered from the Shrope village site in Cowley County. The billet was made from the base of an antler and was used like a hammer to remove flakes from chert during flintknapping. The Shrope site, a large Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village, was excavated by Kansas Historical Society archeologists and crew in 1995. Forty-ne archeological features, such as storage pits, hearths, and post molds, were uncovered at the site.


Arrow Points from the Malone Site, 14RC5

Arrow Points from the Malone Site, 14RC5
Date: 1432-1651 CE
These arrow points were collected from the Malone village site in Rice County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2001 and 2005. The two on the top row are triangular points made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, which outcrops in western Kansas and Nebraska. The three points on the bottom row are side-notched: the one on the left is made of Alibates flint, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle and the two on the right are made of local chert from the Flint Hills region. The Malone site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits.


Arrow Points from the Thompson Site, 14RC9

Arrow Points from the Thompson Site, 14RC9
Date: 1500-1800 CE
These arrow points were among the many collected and excavated from the Thompson site in Rice County. The site, listed in the National Register of Historic Places, was a Great Bend aspect village occupied by ancestral Wichita people. The arrow point on the top right was excavated during the 1986 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school. All others were donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1971. The arrow point on the left of the top row is side-notched. The others are triangular or Fresno arrow points. Archeologists identify Fresno arrow points as being unnotched with a triangular shape. Though small and thin, they would have been extremely effective on the hunt.


Arrow Points from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Arrow Points from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
These three Fresno arrow points were recovered from excavations at the 2019 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. Archeologists identify Fresno arrow points as being unnotched with a triangular shape. Though small and thin, they would have been extremely effective on the hunt. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that has dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


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