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1853 - Sac and Fox Agency

1853 - Sac and Fox Agency
Creator: Green, Charles R.
Date: September 1, 1853
This item lists tribes under the Superintendency of Indians Affairs in St. Louis headed by B.A. James and Colonel Alfred Cummings. In particular, the item lists the Ottawas, Chippewas of Swan Creek, and the Black River Sacs and Foxes.


A. T. Chamblin to Hiero T. Wilson

A. T. Chamblin to Hiero T. Wilson
Creator: Chamblin, A. T.
Date: July 7, 1853
A. T. Chamblin writes Hiero T. Wilson, a Fort Scott sutler, to inquire where H. Company is and if a George G. Newman is still part of the company. Mr. Chamblin was at that point located in St. Paul, Minnesota. This letter was contained in the Hiero T. Wilson Post Sutler's Day Book. In 1844, Hiero T. Wilson partnered with John A. Bugg as the post sutlers. Bugg had been named sutler in 1843 but sold his 1/2 interest to Wilson in 1849. A complete transcription is available by clicking "Text Version" below.


A Crooked Knife from Blue Earth Village, 14PO24

A Crooked Knife from Blue Earth Village, 14PO24
Date: 1790-1830 CE
This crooked knife was recovered from the Blue Earth village site and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1880. Blue Earth village was a Kansa Indian village in Pottawatomie County. Many lodge depressions were still visible on the surface in the 1880s. Archeologists think these "crooked knives" were traded to the Kansa already in their unique shape. They were likely used for woodworking, such as in the manufacturing of bowls or spoons. Three nail holes indicate that the crooked knife once had a handle.


Abraham Still

Abraham Still
Date: Between 1851 and 1854
Portrait of Dr. Abraham Still, physician, minister, and missionary at the Shawnee Methodist Indian Mission on the Wakarusa, 1851-1854. The mission was located in Section 8, T. 13, R. 21 E, a mile south of Eudora in northeastern Douglas County, Kansas.


Abstract of journals from the 1845 Kearny Expedition

Abstract of journals from the 1845 Kearny Expedition
Date: 1846
This excerpt from the congressional report of the Secretary of War includes the abstracts of two journals, one by Lieutenant William B. Franklin, a topographical engineer, and another by Lieutenant H.S. Turner of the 1st dragoons stationed at Fort Leavenworth. Under the command of Stephen Kearny, the 1st dragoons and their accompanying engineers left Fort Leavenworth on a military march, heading northwest on what would become the Oregon Trail, down along the Rocky Mountains to Mexican territory, and back up via the Santa Fe Trail. This march was intended as a display of the United States' military power to both native tribes and the British government (which at this time was exerting its authority over Oregon Territory). For the most part this abstract details their route, but it does include a transcription of a conversation between Kearny and a Sioux chief named Bull Tail.


Albert Gallitin Boone

Albert Gallitin Boone
Date: Between 1880 and 1884
A full portrait of Col. Albert Gallitin Boone, who was the U.S. Indian Agent for the Cheyenne, Arapahoe, Kiowa, Comanche, and Plains Apache Indian tribes in 1859, 1860, and 1861. He was born in Greenup, Kentucky, in 1802, and died in Denver, Colorado, in 1884. He was a resident of Westport, Missouri, for many years. He was a grandson of Daniel Boone,


Alfred Gray to George W. Patterson

Alfred Gray to George W. Patterson
Creator: Gray, Alfred, 1830-1880
Date: June 18, 1860
Gray wrote this draft of a letter to George W. Patterson concerning a treaty between the U. S. government and the Delaware Indians at the request of Rev. Pratt, a missionary to the tribe. Gray was concerned that the treaty was unfair to many of the Delaware and that the U.S. government was negotiating with four older chiefs, not some of the younger members of the tribe. He wrote that many of the Delaware were too intimidated to complain.


Annals of Kansas

Annals of Kansas
Creator: Wilder, Daniel W. (Daniel Webster), 1832-1911
Date: 1886
Daniel Webster Wilder compiled a chronological history of Kansas from the first European contact (1541) to 1885. The early portion has entries for specific years but beginning in 1854, the entries are for specific days, providing detail about many events. The volume also contains charts with crop production, livestock holdings, precipitation, etc. An detailed index begins on page 1171.


Annals of Shawnee Methodist Mission and Indian Manual Labor School

Annals of Shawnee Methodist Mission and Indian Manual Labor School
Creator: Caldwell, Martha B. (Martha Belle)
Date: 1939
These annals are a compilation of events concerning the Shawnee Methodist Mission year by year. The information was culled from a variety of sources. Most entries include a citation to the source. Thomas Johnson established the mission in 1830 near Turner in present Wyandotte County, Kansas. He also founded the Indian Manual Labor School, which operated in conjunction with the mission. It was moved to the Johnson County area in 1839 and the school operated until 1862. The Santa Fe and Oregon trails passed near the Johnson County location so travelers frequently stopped at the mission. The site housed the executive offices of the first territorial governor and the first territorial legislature met there. In addition to the Methodist mission, the Baptist and Quaker churches also operated missions for the Shawnee. These annals are the complete manuscript from which a condensed version was published by the Kansas State Historical Society in 1939.


Annie Marshall Grinter

Annie Marshall Grinter
Date: Between 1900 and 1905
Portrait of Annie Marshall Grinter, 1820-1905, member of the Delaware tribe and wife of Moses R. Grinter. She came to Wyandotte County, Kansas Territory with her parents in 1832.


Arapaho Pipe

Arapaho Pipe
Date: Unknown
The records indicate that this pipe was made by someone from the Arapaho tribe on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming. It was purchased by two different museums, before finally being purchased by the Kansas Historical Society in 1956. The soft, fine-grained material of the stone enabled the carver to shape and smooth the pipe and drill holes for the bowl and stem. It was likely never smoked as no traces of dottle (tobacco residue) remain within the bowl or on the rim.


A story of the Shawanoes (Shawnee)

A story of the Shawanoes (Shawnee)
Creator: Rayner, John Allen
Date: 1886
This reminiscence by George Bluejacket, a Shawnee (Shawanoe) Indian originally from Ohio, tells the creation story of the Shawnee people as well as the history of his own tribe. Although his story ends before the Shawnee were relocated to Kansas (then called Indian Territory), it appears that he relocated with the rest of his tribe. The reminiscence was recorded by John Allen Rayner, and the first page of the document is an explanatory letter written by Rayner.


Baby Moccasins

Baby Moccasins
Date: Unknown
This pair of small moccasins were donated to the Kansas Historical society in 1963. They were hand sewn and have one piece uppers with a high cuff edged with green, red & white beads. A band of red, white and blue beads borders the soles and the uppers are decorated with yellow, white, blue and red beads in geometric patterns. The cultural affiliation for these moccasins is unknown.


Beaded Pocket

Beaded Pocket
Date: Unknown
This beaded pocket was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1962. It is not known who made it or when it was made. The buckskin was cut into three shaped pieces and sewn together prior to beading. Bands of yellow and blue beads decorated the longer portion of the pocket, which is topped with 11 strings of blue, yellow and red beads. The pocket portion of the beadwork shows a blue, red and yellow beaded four pointed star surrounded by a circle of red and white beads mimicking a twisted pattern. The reverse of the pocket is decorated with a yellow and blue circle of beads. The entire piece has alternating red and white beads along the edge.


Bedpan from Fool Chief's Village Cache, 14SH305

Bedpan from Fool Chief's Village Cache, 14SH305
Date: 1830-1844 CE
This nearly complete bedpan was recovered from a cache pit at the Fool's Chief village excavations. Fool's Chief village was a Kansa village in Shawnee County occupied from 1830 to 1844. The cache pit was located inside a bark house. The cache pit contained this ceramic bedpan, in addition to a covered dish, knives, hoes, an ax, barrel bands, vermillion, mussel shell and a chain and hook that had been carefully stored for future use.


Belt Style Axe from Fool Chief's Village, 14SH305

Belt Style Axe from Fool Chief's Village, 14SH305
Date: 1830-1844 CE
This is a belt style axe recovered from a midden (refuse heap) in Fool Chief's Village. Fool Chief's Village, a Kansa village in Shawnee County, was the site of the 2012 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school, though excavations continued through 2012 and 2013. Belt style axes were common English and French fur trade items and were forged from a single band of iron folded in half and hammer welded together at the blade. An opening was left at the bend of the fold for the handle of the axe. As this axe shows evidence of battering on the top, it may have been used as an anvil.


Belt Style Axe from Hard Chief's Village, 14SH301

Belt Style Axe from Hard Chief's Village, 14SH301
Date: 1830-1847 CE
This axe was recovered at excavations at Hard Chief's Village during the 1987 Kansas Archeology Training Program. Hard Chief's village was occupied by the Kansa. Belt style axes were common English and French fur trade items and were forged from a single band of iron folded in half and hammer welded together at the blade. An opening was left at the bend of the fold for the handle of the axe. This axe was cleaned by electrolysis which passes an electrical current through a liquid solution to separate the rust from the artifact.


Bennett C. Riley

Bennett C. Riley
Date: 1880s
This photograph shows a portrait of Bennett Riley that was probably commissioned by his family in the 1880s. Riley died June 9, 1853. The portrait has resided at the U.S. Cavalry Museum at Fort Riley, Kansas, since about 1903. Bennett Riley, after whom Fort Riley was named, had a long and prestigious career in the U. S. military. Born in Virginia in 1787, he entered the army in 1813. In 1829 he commanded the first military escort on the Santa Fe Trail. In that same year, he succeeded Colonel Henry Leavenworth as commander of Fort Leavenworth. In 1847 he became a brigadier general. He also served during the Mexican War and, in 1848, he served as the last territorial governor of California, where he helped create their state constitution.


Biface from Shawnee County

Biface from Shawnee County
Date: Unknown
This large biface was found in Shawnee County along Vassar Creek and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1934. The biface may have been stored for future use (what Archeologists call a cache), meant for trade, or had some other significance we today do not know.


Biface from Wichita County

Biface from Wichita County
Date: Unknown
This quartzite biface was recovered as an isolated find in Wichita County, Kansas. Archeologists use the term "isolated find" when only one artifact is found at a location. A biface like this one could have been used as a cutting tool or, with more work, turned into a specific tool.


Bisque Doll Leg from the Iowa and Sac and Fox Mission, 14DP384

Bisque Doll Leg from the Iowa and Sac and Fox Mission, 14DP384
Date: 1845-1905
Shown is a bisque doll leg from the toes up to the knee. It was found during excavations at the Iowa Sac and Fox Mission in Doniphan County by Kansas Historical Society archeologists and Kansas Anthropological Association volunteers. The Presbyterian Mission was built in 1845 and closed in 1863. After that part of the building was razed, the rest was used as a residence until 1905. The State of Kansas acquired to property in 1941.


Black Hawk, Sauk Indian

Black Hawk, Sauk Indian
Creator: Catlin, George, 1796-1872
Date: 1832
This portrait, painted by the well-known artist George Catlin, depicts the fierce leader of the Sauk and Fox tribe after his arrest in 1832. Black Hawk and some of his tribe had resisted their removal to lands west of the Mississippi River, but the Black Hawk War, as it came to be known, ended in defeat. The original of this portrait is on exhibit at the National Portrait Gallery, which is part of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.


Blue Earth Village in Pottawatomie County, Kansas

Blue Earth Village in Pottawatomie County, Kansas
Date: Between 1900 and 1905
This map shows the Kansa Indian Blue Earth Village in Pottawatomie County, Kansas, active 1780-1830. The archeological site number is 14PO24.


Bone Tool from Fool Chief's Village, 14SH305

Bone Tool from Fool Chief's Village, 14SH305
Date: 1830-1844 CE
This unique bone tool was recovered during excavations at Fool Chief's Village, a Kansa village in Shawnee County. Fool Chief's Village was the site of the 2012 Kansas Archeology Training Program, though excavations continued into 2013. The two parts of the bone tool refit. The tool was made with a metal tool and a very sharp metal tool was used to incise the decorative pattern on both sides. The tip and sides are heavily worn by a soft material.


Bone Whistle

Bone Whistle
Date: Unknown
This bone whistle was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1990. It was made from the ulna of a large bird and has a thin, hand-plaited rope attached. At some point, the whistle was broken and later repaired with glue.


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