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A.B. Campbell to Governor John Martin

A.B. Campbell to Governor John Martin
Creator: Campbell, A. B.
Date: April 4, 1886
The Kansas adjutant general at Parsons sends a telegram to Governor John Martin of Topeka asking the governor for permission to furnish the mayor of Parsons with one hundred guns to preserve peace in the city. A strike of railroad workers on the Missouri Pacific Railroad at Parsons led company and city officials to ask the governor to arm citizens and for call out the militia.


A.B. Campbell to Governor John Martin

A.B. Campbell to Governor John Martin
Creator: Campbell, A. B.
Date: April 9, 1886
Adjutant General Colonel A. B. Campbell of Parsons, Kansas, writes Kansas Governor John Martin of Topeka. He informs the governor that citizens are putting together a force of fifty special police to respond to striking railroad workers. Railroad employees at Parsons were striking and the governor granted permission to provide citizens with arms to keep the peace.


A.B. Campbell to Governor John Martin

A.B. Campbell to Governor John Martin
Creator: Campbell, A. B.
Date: April 1, 1886
A.B. Campbell, Kansas Adjutant General, of Parsons, telegrams Kansas Governor John Martin, of Topeka, stating that another railroad engine has been killed and that he is leaving to investigate. This is in response to the local authority's request for National Guard troops during the railroad strike in the three state area.


A. E. Gillett to Governor Henry J. Allen

A. E. Gillett to Governor Henry J. Allen
Creator: Gillett, A.E.
Date: December 19, 1919
In this letter, Mayor A. E. Gillett of Bartlett, Kansas, writes to Kansas Governor Henry J. Allen, of Topeka, asking his assistance in getting a car load of coal for the schools. Following a series of coal strikes in southeast Kansas, the Kansas Supreme Court ruled in favor of the state securing and operating the coal mines for a period of time. Coal operations were delayed following seizure of the minefields. Volunteers were called in to complete mine operations after miners refused to return to work. The court appointed "receivers" to oversee all coal deliveries and payments during this period.


A. M. Fury to Governor Henry J. Allen

A. M. Fury to Governor Henry J. Allen
Creator: Fury, A.M.
Date: December 18, 1919
A. M. Fury of the Robinson Grain Company in Palco, Kansas, writes to Governor Henry Allen, of Topeka, requesting a car of threshing coal. At the time of this writing, Kansas communities had already been without coal for a number of weeks following a series of coal strikes. In November, 1919, the Kansas Supreme Court gave the state control of the coal fields. Governor Allen set up office in Pittsburg during this period. Volunteers were called in from surrounding areas to begin coal mining operations when the striking mine workers refused to return to work following the takeover.


A.M. Meyers to Governor Henry Allen

A.M. Meyers to Governor Henry Allen
Creator: Meyers, A.M.
Date: December 31, 1919
In this letter, Meyers outlines ten items that he suggests would "fix" the proposed industrial court legislation. The legislation would have a tribunal decide on labor problems between employers and their employees.


A.O. Brown to Governor John Martin

A.O. Brown to Governor John Martin
Creator: Brown, A.O.
Date: March 30, 1886
A.O. Brown, mayor of Parsons, Kansas, telegrams Kansas Governor john Martin, of Topeka, requesting immediate help from the "troops" over a labor dispute. Strikers had driven a freight train off the tracks near Parsons. In February 1885, railroad shop workers walked off the job because of a cut in pay and reduced hours of work. Governor Martin was able to negotiate a settlement to the strike but problems continued throughout Kansas, Missouri, and Texas.


A.P.Barrett  to Governor Allen

A.P.Barrett to Governor Allen
Creator: Barrett, A.P.
Date: January 9, 1920
A.P.Barrett, of Pratt, Kansas, writes to Governor Henry Allen, of Topeka, congratulating him on the "good fight" and expressing gratitude for his work in developing the industrial court. The Kansas Court of Industrial Relations was created in 1920 to mediate between labor and industry. The court was abolished in 1925.


ACME mine volunteer personnel

ACME mine volunteer personnel
Date: December 5, 1919
In this document, the names of 31 volunteers assigned to the Acme Mine are listed. Included is the date they arrived for work in Pittsburg, Kansas, and the date they reported to the mine for work. These volunteers were recruited from surrounding areas to replace mine workers who refused to return to work following state takeover. In November 1919, the Kansas supreme court granted authority to the state of Kansas to operate the mines. This followed a series of strikes in the area. Court appointed receivers were put in place to operate the mines during this period. The state takeover lasted until mid- December when labor leaders in the area agreed to return mine workers to their jobs.


Alexander Howat

Alexander Howat
Creator: Literary Digest
Date: December 31, 1921
A photograph of Alexander Howat, "czar of the Kansas coal fields" copied from Literary Digest. Howat was chiefly responsible for the organization of a powerful and aggressive union for coal workers in southeast Kansas. In 1919, during a general coal strike, Howat and District 14 stood firm in spite of pressure from Governor Henry Allen. This is probably one of the big reasons why Allen introduced the Kansas Industrial Court Law. Howat was bitterly opposed to the law and immediately set out to discredit it. District 14 pledged full support to their president. When he called a strike in defiance of the law, he was sent to jail in Girard, then in Columbus, and finally in Ottawa. The officers of the International United Mine Workers of America ordered him to call off his strike. He refused and thus in 1921 was expelled from the Union.


Alexander Howat interview

Alexander Howat interview
Creator: Topeka Journal
Date: April 12 - 14, 1921
In this series of articles, Alexander Howat, president of the Kansas miners, pleads the cause of organized labor and denounces the newly created Kansas Court of Industrial Relations in an interview with Topeka Journal staff reporters. The reporters were Wm Huggins, Jr, son of the current Court of Industrial Relations judge, and Mildred Reed, daughter of a former judge.


Allen and Gompers debate letters

Allen and Gompers debate letters
Creator: Colliers Magazine
Date: November 27, 1920
In these letters submitted to the Colliers Magazine, Kansas Governor Henry Allen and Samuel Gompers, of the American Federation of Labor, continue the debate over the Kansas Court of Industrial Relations and workers' right to strike. The letters were written two months after the Allen-Gompers debate on the strike issue held in Carnegie Hall New York.


Amazon army, near Pittsburg, Kansas

Amazon army, near Pittsburg, Kansas
Creator: New York Times
Date: December 25, 1921
This newspaper clipping, from the New York Times, features a group of women gathered during a coal mine strike near Pittsburg, Kansas. Dubbed the "Amazon Army," the women marched through the coal fields carrying large American flags to show their support for better wages and improved working conditions for their family members who worked in the camps. The caption reads: "Women Raiders Invading a Mine. Near Pittsburg, Kan., forcing the workmen to drop their tools and kiss the American flag."


Amazon army, near Pittsburg, Kansas

Amazon army, near Pittsburg, Kansas
Creator: New York Times
Date: December 25, 1921
This newspaper clipping, from the New York Times, features a group of women marching in protest during a coal mine strike in southeast Kansas. Dubbed the" Amazon Army," the women marched through the coal fields carrying large American flags to show their support for better wages and improved working conditions for their family members who worked in the camps.


Amazon army, near Pittsburg, Kansas

Amazon army, near Pittsburg, Kansas
Creator: New York Times
Date: December 25, 1921
This newspaper clipping, from the New York Times, features a group of women marching in protest during a coal mine strike in southeast Kansas. Dubbed the "Amazon Army," the women marched through the coal fields carrying infants and or American flags to show their support for better wages and improved working conditions for their family members who worked in the camps. The caption reads: "Section of the Army Amazons. In the Kansas coal fields, captained by a woman with a three month-old baby in arms."


An address to the employees of the Missouri Pacific Railway Co.

An address to the employees of the Missouri Pacific Railway Co.
Creator: Hoxie, H.M.
Date: March 8, 1886
In this address, H.M. Hoxie, First Vice President of the Union Pacific Railway Co. of St. Louis, Missouri, informs the employees of events that have led up to the strike involving several railway systems throughout the country. On December 16, 1885, the United States Court took possession of the Texas and Pacific Railway making the employees of the railroad employees of the agents of the court. In March, 1886 these employees inaugurated a strike and the Knights of Labor notified superintendents of the railroads down the line that they would appoint and place their own watchmen to protect railroad property from loss and damage.


Art Welch to Governor Henry Allen

Art Welch to Governor Henry Allen
Creator: United Mine Workers of America
Date: January 4, 1920
Art Welch, secretary to Local Union 960, Mulberry, Kansas, writes to Governor Allen opposing the proposed Court of Industrial Relations. The legislation would have a tribunal decide on labor problems between employers and their employees. Unions throughout the state generally opposed the creation of an "industrial court" that opposed the right to strike. This proposed legislation, Senate bill 1, successfully passed both the house and senate and became law in January 1920.


B. S. Gaitskill and C. D. Sample to Clyde M. Reed

B. S. Gaitskill and C. D. Sample to Clyde M. Reed
Creator: Gaitskill, B.S.
Date: December 6, 1919
In this telegram, B. S. Gaitskill and C. D. Sample, court appointed receivers, tell Clyde Reed, secretary to Kansas Governor Henry J. Allen, of Topeka, of the following places where shipments of coal have gone. Coal mine operations in southeast Kansas stopped due to labor strikes and the state took control of the mines. Volunteers carried out the day-to-day work. During this period, court appointed receivers directed all activities.


Business men, property owners to Governor John Martin

Business men, property owners to Governor John Martin
Creator: Kansas Community Leaders
Date: March 26, 1886
In this telegram, business men and property owners from several Kansas communities plead with the governor to issue a proclamation to resume traffic on all rail lines operated by the Missouri Pacific Railway Company during the railroad strike of 1886.


C. B. Woodward to Governor John Martin

C. B. Woodward to Governor John Martin
Creator: Woodward, C.B.
Date: March 13, 1886
Labette County sheriff, C.B. Woodward, tells Kansas Governor John Martin of Topeka he is unable to control the strikers who have captured the train engines by force. He is requesting military support. In February 1885, railroad shop workers walked off the job because of a cut in pay and reduced hours of work. Governor Martin was able to negotiate a settlement to the strike but problems continued throughout Kansas, Missouri, and Texas.


C. D. Samples and B. S. Gaitskill to Clyde Reed

C. D. Samples and B. S. Gaitskill to Clyde Reed
Creator: Sample C.D.
Date: December 10, 1919
C. D. Sample and B. S. Gaitskill, court appointed receivers during the state takeover of the southeast Kansas coal fields, telegram Clyde Reed, secretary to Kansas Governor Henry J. Allen, of Topeka, requesting engineers to operate steam shovels. The state has called on volunteers to take the place of mine workers who refused to return to work after the state takeover of the mines. Many workers volunteering to help during this time were inexperienced. This caused delays in coal operations and deterioration in some of the mine fields.


C.E. Faulkner to Governor John Martin

C.E. Faulkner to Governor John Martin
Creator: Faulkner, C.E.
Date: March 30, 1886
C.E. Faulkner, of Parsons, Kansas, writes Kansas Governor John Martin, of Topeka, stating the strike is not over. The strike had been settled and workers returned to work when trouble disrupted in Texas. Employees who had participated in the strike were not allowed to return to their jobs. Railroad workers in Parsons were informed of this and refused to end the strike in that area.


Can't fix women's wages

Can't fix women's wages
Date: July 11, 1925
The Kansas Court of Industrial relations is not empowered to determine minimum wage for women and minors in industry reads an article in the Kansas City Star. The constitutional right of the Industrial Court to fix wages continued for several years following the creation of the Court by a special session of the Kansas Legislature in 1921. Challenged by the Topeka Packing Company and the Topeka Laundry Company in the United States Supreme Court, the court was declared unconstitutional in 1925.


Charles F. Morse to Governor George T. Anthony

Charles F. Morse to Governor George T. Anthony
Creator: Morse, Charles F. (Charles Fessenden), 1839-1926
Date: May 21, 1878
Charles Fessenden Morse, general superintendent of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Rail Road Company (AT&SF) of Topeka, Kansas, writes to Governor George Tobey Anthony, also of Topeka, concerning a strike of railroad employees occurring in the company's Eastern Division. The report describes the activities of the striking engineers and firemen and Morse's response during a five day period from April 3 through April 8, 1878. Organized strikes occurred on several AT&SF lines in Kansas east of Newton. Morse primarily discusses the actions of striking workers at Emporia and Topeka. The report further discusses the inadequate response by local law enforcement and the eventual use of the State Militia to restore law and order. This strike followed the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 which began in West Virginia but spread quickly across the country.


Clyde Reed to Cryus Dudley

Clyde Reed to Cryus Dudley
Creator: Reed, Clyde Martin, 1871-1949
Date: December 17, 1919
In this letter, Clyde Reed, secretary of Governor Arthur Capper, tells Cyrus Dudley, mayor of Preston, Kansas, that a shipment of coal has been delivered under emergency. "There is no way it can be changed after coal has been shipped." The state took over operations of the southeast Kansas coal fields following several labor disputes that resulted in a mine workers' strike. To remedy the problem during the winter of 1919, the Kansas State Supreme Court granted authority to operate the mines to the state of Kansas. Volunteers were called in to man the mines during this period. Frequent exchanges such as this occurred when coal deliveries to communities were delayed or unsatisfactory coal shipments were received. In this telegram, Mr. Reed tells the mayor to increase his stock of coal while there is opportunity.


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