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Abraders from the Killdeer Site, 14CO501

Abraders from the Killdeer Site, 14CO501
Date: 1500-1750 CE
These two abraders were among the many that were recovered during the 1994 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Killdeer site, since destroyed by construction. Archeologists call these groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. The sandstone abraders could sometimes be used as pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood arrow shaft. The Killdeer site was a Lower Walnut focus Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) site in Cowley County with numerous pits, basins and post molds.


Abraders from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Abraders from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
Shown are a few of the many abraders and shaft smoothers recovered from the excavations during the 1977 and 1978 Kansas Archeology Training Program field schools at the Tobias site in Rice County. Archeologists call these groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. The sandstone abraders could be used as pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood shaft or individually to sharpen or smooth items. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. It is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Alibates Core from 14PT420

Alibates Core from 14PT420
Date: 1300-1500 CE
Shown is a core, a stone from which flakes are removed to make chipped stone tools. The core was recovered in 1994 by Kansas Historical Society archeologists at a Middle Ceramic period Pratt complex village in Pratt County. The parent material for this core is Alibates agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. This suggests either trade with people further south or travel by Pratt complex people to the Texas panhandle.


Alibates Scrapers from the Saxman Site, 14RC301

Alibates Scrapers from the Saxman Site, 14RC301
Date: 1500-1650 CE
Shown are five scrapers that were collected from the Saxman site in Rice County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. Scrapers such as these would have been hafted on a handle and used to scrape hides. They would have required periodic resharpening. All five scrapers were made of Alibates flint, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. The Saxman site, a large Great Bend aspect village, was occupied by ancestral Wichita peoples.


Alibates Scrapers from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Alibates Scrapers from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
These seven scrapers were excavated during the 1977 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. Scrapers such as these would have been hafted on a handle and used to scrape hides. They would have required periodic resharpening. All seven scrapers were made of Alibates agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Alternately Beveled Knife from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Alternately Beveled Knife from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
This alternately beveled knife was recovered from excavations during the 2019 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. The knife is made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, a good quality knapping material that is exposed in linear beds in northwestern Kansas and western Nebraska. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Alternately Beveled Knives from the Saxman Site, 14RC301

Alternately Beveled Knives from the Saxman Site, 14RC301
Date: 1500-1650 CE
Shown are four alternately beveled knives that were collected from the Saxman site in Rice County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. Three of the knives are made on Smoky Hill silicified chalk, which outcrops in western Kansas. The slight pinkish color of the fourth knife indicates that it had been heat treated, prior to knapping, to improve knapping quality of the chert. The Saxman site, a large Great Bend aspect village, was occupied by the ancestral Wichita peoples.


Arrow Points from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Arrow Points from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
These three Fresno arrow points were recovered from excavations at the 2019 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. Archeologists identify Fresno arrow points as being unnotched with a triangular shape. Though small and thin, they would have been extremely effective on the hunt. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that has dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Arrow Shaft Wrench from the Thompson Site, 14RC9

Arrow Shaft Wrench from the Thompson Site, 14RC9
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This bone arrow shaft wrench was recovered from the Thompson site in Rice County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1963. Arrow shaft wrenches were used to straighten a warped arrow shaft. This wrench was made on the left tibia of a deer. The site, listed in the National Register of Historic Places, was a Great Bend aspect village occupied by ancestral Wichita people.


Awl from the Thompson Site, 14RC9

Awl from the Thompson Site, 14RC9
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This awl was recovered during excavations at the 1986 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Thompson site in Rice County. The right fibula of a raccoon was sharpened and polished to make the awl. Awls were used as a perforating tool in soft materials, like hides, and possibly in basket and pottery manufacture. The site, listed in the National Register of Historic Places, was a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village.


Beads from the Mem Site, 14MN328

Beads from the Mem Site, 14MN328
Date: 1500-1800 CE
These beads were excavated in 1986 during a highway salvage project undertaken by Kansas Historical Society archeologists and Kansas Anthropological Association volunteers at the Mem site. The black glass ovoid bead, of European manufacture, was recovered from the upper fill of a cache pit. The disc-shaped turquoise bead and the two ceramic beads were recovered from the same cache pit. The Mem site, in Marion County, is a Great Bend aspect, ancestral Wichita village.


Biface from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Biface from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
This biface was recovered from excavations during the 1978 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. The biface, or cutting tool, was made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, a type of chert that outcrops in western Kansas and north into Nebraska. With additional work it could have been made into other types of tools. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Bison Bone Rasp from the Crandall Site, 14RC420

Bison Bone Rasp from the Crandall Site, 14RC420
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This rasp was excavated from the Crandall site in Rice County during the 1983 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school. The rasp was made by cutting grooves into a bison rib. At some point, the rasp was broken into two pieces. Archeologists believe that artifacts like these could have been used as musical instruments by drawing a stick across the grooves. The Crandall site is a Little River focus Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) habitation site.


Bison Scapula Hoe Fragments from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Bison Scapula Hoe Fragments from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700
These bison scapula hoe fragments were recovered from excavations during the 2019 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. To make the hoe, the long spine that runs the length of the scapula (shoulder blade) was removed and the edges were beveled and sharpened. Then the hoe blade was hafted to a handle. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Bison Scapula Hoe Fragments from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Bison Scapula Hoe Fragments from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
These bison scapula hoe fragments were collected from the Tobias site in Rice County and donated in 1925 to the Kansas Historical Society. To make hoes such as these, the long spine that runs the length of the scapula (shoulder blade) was removed and the edges were beveled and sharpened. Then the hoe blade was hafted to a handle. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Bison Scapula Hoe from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Bison Scapula Hoe from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
This bison scapula hoe fragment was excavated during the 2019 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. The hoe's maker removed the long spine that runs the length of the scapula (shoulder blade), beveled and sharpened the edge, and hafted it to a handle. The beveled edge is still visible. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Bison Scapula Hoes from the Crandall Site, 14RC420

Bison Scapula Hoes from the Crandall Site, 14RC420
Date: 1500-1800 CE
These three hoes were recovered during excavations in 1983 at the Crandall site. The hoe's maker removed the long spine that runs the length of the scapula (shoulder blade), beveled and sharpened the edge, and hafted it to a handle. The Crandall site is a Late Ceramic period camp site in Rice County occupied by Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) peoples.


Bison Scapula Hoes from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Bison Scapula Hoes from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
These bison scapula hoes were recovered from excavations during the 1977 and 1978 Kansas Archeology Training Program field schools at the Tobias site in Rice County. The makers of the hoes removed the long spine that runs the length of the scapula (shoulder blade), beveled and sharpened the edge, and hafted it to a handle. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Bison Scapula with an Engraved Star from the Radio Lane Site, 14CO385

Bison Scapula with an Engraved Star from the Radio Lane Site, 14CO385
Date: 1400-1725 CE
This unique bison scapula was excavated at the Radio Lane site in Cowley County. The scapula shows some silica polish, indicating it may have been used as a hoe. It was recovered about 120 cm below the surface in a bell shaped pit. The incised star may be associated with a Pawnee ceremony to Evening Star and her sacred garden. The Radio Lane site was a large Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village. Kansas Historical Society archeologists and crew excavated there during a Phase IV salvage project in 1995.


Bone Awl from the Thompson Site, 14RC9

Bone Awl from the Thompson Site, 14RC9
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This awl was recovered during excavations at the 1986 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Thompson site in Rice County. Awls were used as a perforating tool in soft materials, like hides, and possibly in basket and pottery manufacture. The site, listed in the National Register of Historic Places, was a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village occupied during the Late Ceramic Period.


Bone Awl from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Bone Awl from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
This bone awl was recovered from excavations during the 1978 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. Awls were usually made from deer bone and used as a perforating tool in soft material, like hides, and possibly in basket and pottery manufacturing. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Bone Awls from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Bone Awls from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
These bone awls were excavated during the 2019 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. Awls are usually made from deer bone and used as a perforating tool in soft material, like hides, and possibly in basket and pottery manufacturing. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Bone Beads from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Bone Beads from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
These two bone beads were excavated during the 1977 and 1978 Kansas Archeology Training Program field schools at the Tobias site in Rice County. The beads were made from a section of bird bone, as bird bones are mostly hollow. They were scored, then cut or snapped, and finally had their edges smoothed, to form the tubular beads. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Bone Rasp from the Crandall Site, 14RC420

Bone Rasp from the Crandall Site, 14RC420
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This rasp was excavated from the Crandall site in Rice County during the 1983 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school. The rasp was made by cutting grooves into a bison rib. At some point, the rasp was broken into two pieces. Archeologists believe that artifacts like these could have been used as musical instruments by drawing a stick across the grooves. The Crandall site is a Little River focus Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) habitation site.


Bone Rasp from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Bone Rasp from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
This bone rasp was recovered from excavations during the 2019 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. The rasp was made by cutting grooves into a deer rib. Archeologists believe that artifacts like these could have been used as musical instruments by drawing a stick across the grooves. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. It is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


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