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Abraders from the Killdeer Site, 14CO501

Abraders from the Killdeer Site, 14CO501
Date: 1500-1750 CE
These two abraders were among the many that were recovered during the 1994 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Killdeer site, since destroyed by construction. Archeologists call these groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. The sandstone abraders could sometimes be used as pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood arrow shaft. The Killdeer site was a Lower Walnut focus Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) site in Cowley County with numerous pits, basins and post molds.


Abraders from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Abraders from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1600 CE
Shown are a few of the many abraders and shaft smoothers recovered from the excavations during the 1977 and 1978 Kansas Archeology Training Programs at the Tobias site in Rice County. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits (including chain mail brought to Kansas by sixteenth-century Spanish explorers), house remains and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. It is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Archeologists call these groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. The sandstone abraders could be used as pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood shaft or individually to sharpen or smooth items.


Alibates Scrapers from the Saxman Site, 14RC301

Alibates Scrapers from the Saxman Site, 14RC301
Date: 1500-1650 CE
Shown are five scrapers that were collected from the Saxman site in Rice County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. Scrapers such as these would have been hafted on a handle and used to scrape hides. They would have required periodic resharpening. All five scrapers were made of Alibates flint, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. The Saxman site, a large Great Bend aspect village, was occupied by ancestral Wichita peoples.


Alibates Scrapers from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Alibates Scrapers from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1600 CE
These seven scrapers were recovered from the excavations during the 1977 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. Scrapers such as these would have been hafted on a handle and used to scrape hides. They would have required periodic resharpening. All seven scrapers were made of Alibates flint, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits (including chain mail brought to Kansas by sixteenth-century Spanish explorers), house remains and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Alternately Beveled Knives from the Saxman Site, 14RC301

Alternately Beveled Knives from the Saxman Site, 14RC301
Date: 1500-1650 CE
Shown are four alternately beveled knives that were collected from the Saxman site in Rice County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. Three of the knives are made on Smoky Hill silicified chalk, which outcrops in western Kansas. The slight pinkish color of the fourth knife indicates that it had been heat treated, prior to knapping, to improve knapping quality of the chert. The Saxman site, a large Great Bend aspect village, was occupied by the ancestral Wichita peoples.


Arrow Shaft Wrench from the Thompson Site, 14RC9

Arrow Shaft Wrench from the Thompson Site, 14RC9
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This bone arrow shaft wrench was recovered from the Thompson site in Rice County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1963. Arrow shaft wrenches were used to straighten a warped arrow shaft. This wrench was made on the left tibia of a deer. The site, listed in the National Register of Historic Places, was a Great Bend aspect village occupied by ancestral Wichita people.


Awl from the Thompson Site, 14RC9

Awl from the Thompson Site, 14RC9
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This awl was recovered during excavations at the 1986 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Thompson site in Rice County. The right fibula of a raccoon was sharpened and polished to make the awl. Awls were used as a perforating tool in soft materials, like hides, and possibly in basket and pottery manufacture. The site, listed in the National Register of Historic Places, was a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village.


Beads from the Mem Site, 14MN328

Beads from the Mem Site, 14MN328
Date: 1500-1800 CE
These beads were excavated in 1986 during a highway salvage project undertaken by Kansas Historical Society archeologists and Kansas Anthropological Association volunteers at the Mem site. The black glass ovoid bead, of European manufacture, was recovered from the upper fill of a cache pit. The disc-shaped turquoise bead and the two ceramic beads were recovered from the same cache pit. The Mem site, in Marion County, is a Great Bend aspect, ancestral Wichita village.


Biface from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Biface from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1600 CE
This biface was recovered from excavations during the 1978 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. The biface, or cutting tool, was made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, a type of chert that outcrops in western Kansas and north into Nebraska. With additional work it could have been made into other types of tools. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Bison Bone Rasp from the Crandall Site, 14RC420

Bison Bone Rasp from the Crandall Site, 14RC420
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This rasp was excavated from the Crandall site in Rice County during the 1983 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school. The rasp was made by cutting grooves into a bison rib. At some point, the rasp was broken into two pieces. Archeologists believe that artifacts like these could have been used as musical instruments by drawing a stick across the grooves. The Crandall site is a Little River focus Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) habitation site.


Bison Scapula Hoes from the Crandall Site, 14RC420

Bison Scapula Hoes from the Crandall Site, 14RC420
Date: 1500-1800 CE
These three hoes were recovered during excavations in 1983 at the Crandall site. The hoe's maker removed the long spine that runs the length of the scapula (shoulder blade), beveled and sharpened the edge, and hafted it to a handle. The Crandall site is a Late Ceramic period camp site in Rice County occupied by Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) peoples.


Bison Scapula Hoes from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Bison Scapula Hoes from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1600 CE
These bison scapula hoes were recovered from excavations during the 1977 and 1978 Kansas Archeology Training Programs at the Tobias site in Rice County. The makers of the hoes removed the long spine that runs the length of the scapula (shoulder blade), beveled and sharpened the edge, and hafted it to a handle. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits (including chain mail), house remains and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Bison Scapula with an Engraved Star from the Radio Lane Site, 14CO385

Bison Scapula with an Engraved Star from the Radio Lane Site, 14CO385
Date: 1400-1725 CE
This unique bison scapula was excavated at the Radio Lane site in Cowley County. The scapula shows some silica polish, indicating it may have been used as a hoe. It was recovered about 120 cm below the surface in a bell shaped pit. The incised star may be associated with a Pawnee ceremony to Evening Star and her sacred garden. The Radio Lane site was a large Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village. Kansas Historical Society archeologists and crew excavated there during a Phase IV salvage project in 1995.


Bone Awl from the Thompson Site, 14RC9

Bone Awl from the Thompson Site, 14RC9
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This awl was recovered during excavations at the 1986 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Thompson site in Rice County. Awls were used as a perforating tool in soft materials, like hides, and possibly in basket and pottery manufacture. The site, listed in the National Register of Historic Places, was a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village occupied during the Late Ceramic Period.


Bone Awl from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Bone Awl from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1600 CE
This bone awl was recovered from excavations during the 1978 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. Awls were usually made from deer bone and used as a perforating tool in soft material, like hides, and possibly in basket and pottery manufacturing. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits (including chain mail brought to Kansas by sixteenth-century Spanish explorers), house remains and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Bone Rasp from the Crandall Site, 14RC420

Bone Rasp from the Crandall Site, 14RC420
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This rasp was excavated from the Crandall site in Rice County during the 1983 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school. The rasp was made by cutting grooves into a bison rib. At some point, the rasp was broken into two pieces. Archeologists believe that artifacts like these could have been used as musical instruments by drawing a stick across the grooves. The Crandall site is a Little River focus Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) habitation site.


Chipped Stone Tool Cache from the Mem Site, 14MN328

Chipped Stone Tool Cache from the Mem Site, 14MN328
Date: 1500-1800 CE
These three tools from a cache were excavated in 1986 during a highway salvage project at the Mem site. The three tools were recovered from a large bell-shaped storage pit. Shown here is a biface, which with more work could have been turned into a specific tool, a chipped stone axe, a cutting tool that has two indented areas on either side of the middle where the tool was hafted to a handle, and a large scraper. Archeologists theorize that large scrapers such as this one may have been used when intensive hide scraping activities were occurring. The Mem site, in Marion County, is a Great Bend aspect, ancestral Wichita village. The project was undertaken by Kansas Historical Society archeologists and Kansas Anthropological Association volunteers.


Cone Tinkler from the Sharps Creek Site, 14MP408

Cone Tinkler from the Sharps Creek Site, 14MP408
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This cone tinkler was recovered by Kansas Historical Society Archeologists and volunteers during the 1993 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Sharps Creek site. Tinklers were used to decorate hair, clothes and other objects. The Sharps Creek site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village in McPherson County occupied during the Middle Ceramic period.


Coyote Bone Awl from the Crandall Site, 14RC420

Coyote Bone Awl from the Crandall Site, 14RC420
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This bone awl, made from a coyote ulna, was recovered from the Crandall site in Rice County during the 1983 Kansas Archeology Training Program. The awl was used to make holes in soft materials, like hides, and possibly in basket and pottery manufacturing. The Crandall site is a Late Ceramic period site occupied by Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) peoples.


Decorated Vessel Handle from the Sharps Creek Site, 14MP408

Decorated Vessel Handle from the Sharps Creek Site, 14MP408
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This handle sherd was recovered from the Sharps Creek archeological site during the 1993 Kansas Archeological Training Program field school. This wide strap handle has four deeply incised lines as decoration. It was molded to the top of the vessel rim, but riveted to the vessel at its base. The Sharps Creek site was a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village in McPherson County that was occupied during the Late Ceramic period.


Digging Stick Weights from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Digging Stick Weights from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1500 CE
These two Dakota sandstone artifacts have a "Doughnut" or torus shape. Archeologists think artifacts like these were added as weights to digging sticks to increase the force behind the tool. They were recovered from excavations during the 1977 and 1978 Kansas Archeology Training Program field schools at the Tobias site in Rice County. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village site that had dense artifact deposits, house remains and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Diminutive Pipe from the Mem Site, 14MN328

Diminutive Pipe from the Mem Site, 14MN328
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This pipestone pipe, extremely small yet quite refined, was excavated in 1986 during a highway salvage project undertaken by Kansas Historical Society archeologists and Kansas Anthropological Association volunteers. The pipe is made of Kansas pipestone and was not well cleaned as it was hoped that the material inside the pipe might be analyzed in the future. The soft fine grained material of pipestone enabled the pipe's maker to carve it into its elbow-like shape. Pipes were used during trade negotiations and to mark special occasions. In Kansas, these pipes are generally made by American Indians between 1650 to 1850. The Mem site, in Marion County, is a Great Bend aspect, ancestral Wichita village.


Drills from the Saxman Site, 14RC301

Drills from the Saxman Site, 14RC301
Date: 1500-1650 CE
Shown are three drills that were collected from the Saxman site in Rice County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. These drills were modified from Great Bend aspect knives, notched to aid in hafting. Drills were used to bore holes in materials softer than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone. Two of the drills were heat treated to improve knapping quality of the chert. The Saxman site, a large Great Bend aspect village site, was occupied by the ancestral Wichita.


Drills from the Saxman Site, 14RC301

Drills from the Saxman Site, 14RC301
Date: 1500-1650 CE
Shown are six of the numerous drills that were collected from the Saxman site in Rice County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. Drills were used to bore holes in materials softer than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone. All of these drills have an expanding base. Those on each end of the top row were made on Permian chert. One the bottom row the two on the left are made on heat-treated Permian chert and the one on the right of Alibates flint from the Canadian River valley in Texas. The Saxman site, a large Great Bend aspect village site, was occupied by the ancestral Wichita.


Drills from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Drills from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1600 CE
These drills or perforators were recovered from excavations during the 1977 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. Drills were used to bore holes in materials softer than the drill itself, such as hides, shell, wood, or soft stone. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits (including chain mail brought to Kansas by sixteenth-century Spanish explorers), house remains and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


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