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Abstract of journals from the 1845 Kearny Expedition

Abstract of journals from the 1845 Kearny Expedition
Date: 1846
This excerpt from the congressional report of the Secretary of War includes the abstracts of two journals, one by Lieutenant William B. Franklin, a topographical engineer, and another by Lieutenant H.S. Turner of the 1st dragoons stationed at Fort Leavenworth. Under the command of Stephen Kearny, the 1st dragoons and their accompanying engineers left Fort Leavenworth on a military march, heading northwest on what would become the Oregon Trail, down along the Rocky Mountains to Mexican territory, and back up via the Santa Fe Trail. This march was intended as a display of the United States' military power to both native tribes and the British government (which at this time was exerting its authority over Oregon Territory). For the most part this abstract details their route, but it does include a transcription of a conversation between Kearny and a Sioux chief named Bull Tail.


An Appeal from Arickaree

An Appeal from Arickaree
Creator: Howes, Cecil, 1880-1950
Date: 1940-1950
This item, written by Kansas City Star editor Charles Cecil Howes, concerns the Battle of Arickaree that took place in Kansas in 1868. Howes does not address any of the controversy surrounding the event but he does provide a solid account of the accepted facts of the combat that took place between U.S. Army soldiers, led by General George A. Forsyth (a Colonel at the time), and Indian warriors led by Cheyenne War Chief Roman Nose. This item also includes some excerpts from General Forsyth's "Thrilling Days of Army Life," which had not yet been published at the time Howes' article was printed.


Archie Hawkins video interview on experiences in World War II (transcript)

Archie Hawkins video interview on experiences in World War II (transcript)
Creator: Hawkins, Archie
Date: August 14, 2006
Archie Hawkins was drafted into the Army (Air Corps) in 1942 and served until 1945 in the 83rd Squadron. Interviewed by Pattie Johnston on Aug 14, 2006, Hawkins talked about military experiences in the Second World War. He provides descriptions of his training and combat missions as a crew member on a B-25 bomber in the Army Air Corps. He was born April 24, 1919, in South Dakota. He was a Sioux Indian and he and both of his parents attended Haskell Institute in Lawrence, Kansas. The 2005 Kansas Legislature passed a bill funding the WWII Veterans Oral History grant program. This transcript is from one of the community institutions receiving grants. The transcript of the interview is presented here; the original video copy of the interview is available through the Watkins Community Museum of History (Lawrence) and through the Kansas State Historical Society.


Arickaree history collection

Arickaree history collection
Date: [Not given]
This collection contains originals and copies of correspondences, articles, notes and related materials regarding the Battle of Beechers Island, also known as the Battle of Arickaree Fork, on September 19, 1868.


Battle of Wounded Knee Creek, South Dakota

Battle of Wounded Knee Creek, South Dakota
Date: 1890
Postcard showing members of the Lakota Sioux tribe surrendering to the U.S. Seventh Cavalry after the Battle of Wounded Knee. The December 29, 1890, battle was considered the last major conflict between U.S. troops and Native Americans.


Battle of Wounded Knee and Pine Ridge, South Dakota

Battle of Wounded Knee and Pine Ridge, South Dakota
Creator: Northwestern Photographic Company
Date: 1890 and 1891
Twelve photographs showing scenes of the Sioux Indians at Pine Ridge Indian Agency and the Battle of Wounded Knee, South Dakota. During this time, the U. S. Army sought to curb the Sioux Ghost Dance. They killed Sitting Bull and pursued Big Foot. He led his people south to seek protection at the Pine Ridge Reservation. The army intercepted the band on December 28 and brought them to the edge of Wounded Knee Creek to camp. On December 29, 1890, the U.S. Army attacked Big Foot's camp killing him and approximately 300 Sioux. The Battle of Wounded Knee is considered the last major conflict between U.S. troops and Native Americans. A number of Chiefs in the photographs are identified on the specific image. The backs of several of the photographs have advertisements for the photographic company which was located in Chadron, Nebraska; for the Minne Pazuta Springs credited with curing epilepsy; and for E. F. King, the Black Hills Jeweler located in Deadwood, South Dakota.


Battle of Wounded Knee and Pine Ridge, South Dakota

Battle of Wounded Knee and Pine Ridge, South Dakota
Creator: American Viewing Company
Date: 1890
Nine photographs showing scenes of the Sioux Indians at Pine Ridge Indian Agency and the Battle of Wounded Knee, South Dakota. It was during this time, when the U. S. Army sought to curb the Sioux Ghost Dance. They killed Sitting Bull and pursued Big Foot. He led his people south to seek protection at the Pine Ridge Agency. The army intercepted the band on December 28 and brought them to the edge of Wounded Knee Creek to camp. On December 29, 1890, the U.S. Army attacked Big Foot's camp killing him and approximately 300 Sioux. The Battle of Wounded Knee is considered the last major conflict between U.S. troops and Native Americans.


Battle of Wounded Knee and Pine Ridge, South Dakota

Battle of Wounded Knee and Pine Ridge, South Dakota
Date: 1890 and 1891
Three photographs showing scenes of the Sioux Indians at Pine Ridge Indian Agency and the Battle of Wounded Knee, South Dakota. It was during this time, when the U. S. Army sought to curb the Sioux Ghost Dance. They killed Sitting Bull and pursued Big Foot. He led his people south to seek protection at the Pine Ridge Reservation. The army intercepted the band on December 28 and brought them to the edge of Wounded Knee Creek to camp. On December 29, 1890, the U.S. Army attacked Big Foot's camp killing him and approximately 300 Sioux. The Battle of Wounded Knee is considered the last major conflict between U.S. troops and Native Americans.


Beaded and Quill Worked Pipe Bag

Beaded and Quill Worked Pipe Bag
Date: 1880-1900
Though its origins are not know, this beaded pipe bag has a design similar to those favored by the Lakota Sioux. It was donated in 2006 to the Kansas Historical Society. The bag is made of leather with a leather fringe along the bottom. It is decorated with red, blue, yellow, green, white and gold beads, in addition to porcupine quills dyed red, white, purple, turquoise and yellow.


Brigadier General Alfred Sully to Assistant Adjutant General Department Northwest, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Brigadier General Alfred Sully to Assistant Adjutant General Department Northwest, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Creator: Sully, Alfred
Date: December 30, 1864
This is a letter from Brigadier General Alfred Sully, Dubuque, Iowa, to Assistant Adjutant General Department Northwest, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, concerning Fanny Kelly who was a captive of the Huck-pa-pa Sioux. The letter contains details of her capture and negotiations for her release. Also, Brigadier General Sully requested reimbursement for clothing purchased for Mrs. Kelly and horses offered to the Sioux.


Buttons from the Village on Pawnee Fork, 14NS403

Buttons from the Village on Pawnee Fork, 14NS403
Date: 1867
These two buttons were recovered from the Village on the Pawnee Fork (also called Hancock's Village) in Ness County during excavations in 1977. It was there, in 1867, that a village of several hundred Southern Cheyenne and Southern Teton Oglala was destroyed by order of Major General Winifred S. Hancock. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. "Bullet" buttons, such as these, are generally considered for military use. They predate the 1867 destruction of the village and may have, by that time, been used by civilians. They all have a steel wire shank for attachment.


Chief Red Cloud's home, Pine Ridge, South Dakota

Chief Red Cloud's home, Pine Ridge, South Dakota
Date: Between 1890 and 1891
A photograph of Chief Red Cloud's home at Pine Ridge, South Dakota. He was a leader of the Oglala Lakota Sioux.


Chief Red Wolf shooting a gun

Chief Red Wolf shooting a gun
Date: Between 1910 and 1915
This is a postcard showing Chief Red Wolf, a member of the Sioux tribe, shooting a gun from the back of a pony.


Chronology of the Iowa and Sac and Fox Indians in Doniphan County, Kansas

Chronology of the Iowa and Sac and Fox Indians in Doniphan County, Kansas
Date: 1882
This chronology details major events occurring between 1837-1855 among the Iowa and Sac and Fox Indians who had been relocated to Kansas after the Indian Removal Act of 1830. Topics mentioned within the chronology include warfare among relocated tribes, the arrival of white emigrants, disease, mission buildings, and treaties ceding land to the United States government.


Deposition of J.N.N. Schooler

Deposition of J.N.N. Schooler
Creator: Schooler, J.N.N.
Date: June 16, 1867
This item contains the deposition of J.N.N. Schooler following an attack by Indians. In his deposition, Schooler explains that he and his companions were on the "Smoky Hill Overland Route Sixteen or Seventeen miles east of Fort Wallace" when 200 or more Cheyenne and Sioux attacked them. According to Schooler, four men were killed immediately and three were taken prisoner. Other details include the monetary value of items lost during the attack.


Discovering the remains of Lieutenant Kidder and ten men of the Seventh United States Cavalry

Discovering the remains of Lieutenant Kidder and ten men of the Seventh United States Cavalry
Creator: Davis, Theodore R.
Date: August 17, 1867
An illustration showing General George Armstrong Custer arriving at the scene of the Kidder massacre which occurred around July 1, 1867 in Sherman County, Kansas. This illustration was published in Harper's Weekly on August 17, 1867. Funds for digitization provided by Mr. Steve Peckel in memory of William Chalfant.


E.C. Thayer to Dr. J.W. McIntosh correspondence

E.C. Thayer to Dr. J.W. McIntosh correspondence
Creator: Thayer, E.C.
Date: January 18, 1896
In this letter to Dr. J.W. McIntosh, E.C.Thayer discusses the character of James Murie, Pawnee breastworks, and tensions and conflicts betweeen the Pawnees, Omahas, and Sioux.


Eastman's map of Kansas and Nebraska territories showing the location of the Indian reserves according to the treaties of 1854

Eastman's map of Kansas and Nebraska territories showing the location of the Indian reserves according to the treaties of 1854
Date: Between 1854 and 1856
This map shows the locations of the new or reduced lands of Indian tribes according to the treaties of 1854. With the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, the former Indian Territory was opened to white settlement, and the government looked for ways to relocate the native tribes who had made their homes in Kansas. To create more land for white settlement, George Manypenny, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, negotiated treaties with Indian tribes that ceded much of the Indians' lands to the government. This land could then be sold to white emigrants. Naturally, these events helped to exacerbate existing tensions between settlers and Native Americans, contributing to the Indian Wars that occupied the U.S. Army during and after the American Civil War.


Experiments in domestication and breeding of buffaloes (1889)  by Ado Hunnius

Experiments in domestication and breeding of buffaloes (1889) by Ado Hunnius
Creator: Hunnius, Ado, 1842-1923
Date: 1889
Written by Carl Julius Adolph "Ado" Hunnius, a collection of his thoughts on the subject of buffalo that would likely have been supported by his experiences in the U.S. Army during the American Civil War, as well as the Indian Wars that followed. Hunnius served as an enlisted man in the ranks that Custer and Hancock commanded during the 1867 campaign to pacify Native Indian tribes on the Great Plains.


General Custer finding the remains of the Kidder massacre

General Custer finding the remains of the Kidder massacre
Date: 1874
An illustration showing General George Armstrong Custer arriving at the scene of the Kidder massacre which occurred around July 1, 1867 in Sherman County, Kansas. This illustration is copied from Custer's book, My Life on the Plains, published in 1874. Funds for digitization provided by Mr. Steve Peckel in memory of William Chalfant.


General Service Button from the Village on Pawnee Fork, 14NS403

General Service Button from the Village on Pawnee Fork, 14NS403
Date: 1867
This General Service button was recovered from the Village on the Pawnee Fork (also called Hancock's Village) in Ness County during excavations in 1977. The button, manufactured by the Scoville Manufacturing Company of Waterbury, Connecticut, measures to 3/4" or ligne 30, which is the size for a military coat. It is decorated with an eagle and shield design with a branch in one eagle claw and arrows in the other. It has a loop shank attachment on the back. It was in 1867 that the village of several hundred Southern Cheyenne and Southern Teton Oglala was destroyed by order of Major General Winifred S. Hancock. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


George W. Baird to Kansas Adjutant General

George W. Baird to Kansas Adjutant General
Creator: Baird, George W., fl. 1874-1891
Date: July 29, 1875-August 24, 1876
Two letters written by First Lieutenant and Adjutant Fifth Infantry George W. Baird in Fort Leavenworth to the Kansas Adjutant General in Topeka. In one letter, he expresses the "great distrust of claim agents" felt by the heirs of deceased soldiers. In the other letter, he writes that he is now enlisting men, in his position as recruiting officer, for the regular cavalry regiments engaged in the Sioux Wars.


Governor Crawford Indian correspondence

Governor Crawford Indian correspondence
Date: 1867-1868
In response to Indian attacks on frontier settlers, Governor Samuel J. Crawford was authorized by Congress to recruit a battalion of men to handle the crisis. This series of correspondence in Governor Crawford's papers contains many documents from men requesting commissions in the new battalion and permission to recruit soldiers. There are also letters from settlers documenting atrocities, asking for protection from hostile Indians, requesting compensation for stolen goods and livestock, and needing aid merely to survive after losing their supplies to Indian raids. A searchable transcription is available by clicking "Text Version" below. Funds for digitization provided by Mr. Steve Peckel in memory of William Chalfant.


Group of Cheyenne or Sioux Indians on horses

Group of Cheyenne or Sioux Indians on horses
Date: 1879
This is a photograph of a group of Cheyenne Indians, or possibly Sioux sitting on horses. Left to right the Indians are identified as Good Lance, Big Talk, Kicking Bear, Two Strike, and Short Bull. These men are a part of Dull Knife's group. Funds for digitization provided by Mr. Steve Peckel in memory of William Chalfant.


H.W. Farnsworth to William D. Blackford

H.W. Farnsworth to William D. Blackford
Creator: Farnsworth, H.W.
Date: May 30, 1868
This item, from H.W. Farnsworth to William D. Blackford, concerns the Cheyenne raid in which J.N.N. Schooler lost a great deal of property. The list of items lost by Schooler include 9 mules, 1 horse, 1 Buffalo robe, and 2 Colt Army pistols.


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