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Abstract of journals from the 1845 Kearny Expedition

Abstract of journals from the 1845 Kearny Expedition
Date: 1846
This excerpt from the congressional report of the Secretary of War includes the abstracts of two journals, one by Lieutenant William B. Franklin, a topographical engineer, and another by Lieutenant H.S. Turner of the 1st dragoons stationed at Fort Leavenworth. Under the command of Stephen Kearny, the 1st dragoons and their accompanying engineers left Fort Leavenworth on a military march, heading northwest on what would become the Oregon Trail, down along the Rocky Mountains to Mexican territory, and back up via the Santa Fe Trail. This march was intended as a display of the United States' military power to both native tribes and the British government (which at this time was exerting its authority over Oregon Territory). For the most part this abstract details their route, but it does include a transcription of a conversation between Kearny and a Sioux chief named Bull Tail.


An Appeal from Arickaree

An Appeal from Arickaree
Creator: Howes, Cecil, 1880-1950
Date: 1940-1950
This item, written by Kansas City Star editor Charles Cecil Howes, concerns the Battle of Arickaree that took place in Kansas in 1868. Howes does not address any of the controversy surrounding the event but he does provide a solid account of the accepted facts of the combat that took place between U.S. Army soldiers, led by General George A. Forsyth (a Colonel at the time), and Indian warriors led by Cheyenne War Chief Roman Nose. This item also includes some excerpts from General Forsyth's "Thrilling Days of Army Life," which had not yet been published at the time Howes' article was printed.


Archie Hawkins video interview on experiences in World War II (transcript)

Archie Hawkins video interview on experiences in World War II (transcript)
Creator: Hawkins, Archie
Date: August 14, 2006
Archie Hawkins was drafted into the Army (Air Corps) in 1942 and served until 1945 in the 83rd Squadron. Interviewed by Pattie Johnston on Aug 14, 2006, Hawkins talked about military experiences in the Second World War. He provides descriptions of his training and combat missions as a crew member on a B-25 bomber in the Army Air Corps. He was born April 24, 1919, in South Dakota. He was a Sioux Indian and he and both of his parents attended Haskell Institute in Lawrence, Kansas. The 2005 Kansas Legislature passed a bill funding the WWII Veterans Oral History grant program. This transcript is from one of the community institutions receiving grants. The transcript of the interview is presented here; the original video copy of the interview is available through the Watkins Community Museum of History (Lawrence) and through the Kansas State Historical Society.


Arickaree history collection

Arickaree history collection
Date: [Not given]
This collection contains originals and copies of correspondences, articles, notes and related materials regarding the Battle of Beechers Island, also known as the Battle of Arickaree Fork, on September 19, 1868.


Battle of Wounded Knee Creek, South Dakota

Battle of Wounded Knee Creek, South Dakota
Date: 1890
Postcard showing members of the Lakota Sioux tribe surrendering to the U.S. Seventh Cavalry after the Battle of Wounded Knee. The December 29, 1890, battle was considered the last major conflict between U.S. troops and Native Americans.


Battle of Wounded Knee and Pine Ridge, South Dakota

Battle of Wounded Knee and Pine Ridge, South Dakota
Creator: Northwestern Photographic Company
Date: 1890 and 1891
Twelve photographs showing scenes of the Sioux Indians at Pine Ridge Indian Agency and the Battle of Wounded Knee, South Dakota. During this time, the U. S. Army sought to curb the Sioux Ghost Dance. They killed Sitting Bull and pursued Big Foot. He led his people south to seek protection at the Pine Ridge Reservation. The army intercepted the band on December 28 and brought them to the edge of Wounded Knee Creek to camp. On December 29, 1890, the U.S. Army attacked Big Foot's camp killing him and approximately 300 Sioux. The Battle of Wounded Knee is considered the last major conflict between U.S. troops and Native Americans. A number of Chiefs in the photographs are identified on the specific image. The backs of several of the photographs have advertisements for the photographic company which was located in Chadron, Nebraska; for the Minne Pazuta Springs credited with curing epilepsy; and for E. F. King, the Black Hills Jeweler located in Deadwood, South Dakota.


Battle of Wounded Knee and Pine Ridge, South Dakota

Battle of Wounded Knee and Pine Ridge, South Dakota
Creator: American Viewing Company
Date: 1890
Nine photographs showing scenes of the Sioux Indians at Pine Ridge Indian Agency and the Battle of Wounded Knee, South Dakota. It was during this time, when the U. S. Army sought to curb the Sioux Ghost Dance. They killed Sitting Bull and pursued Big Foot. He led his people south to seek protection at the Pine Ridge Agency. The army intercepted the band on December 28 and brought them to the edge of Wounded Knee Creek to camp. On December 29, 1890, the U.S. Army attacked Big Foot's camp killing him and approximately 300 Sioux. The Battle of Wounded Knee is considered the last major conflict between U.S. troops and Native Americans.


Battle of Wounded Knee and Pine Ridge, South Dakota

Battle of Wounded Knee and Pine Ridge, South Dakota
Date: 1890 and 1891
Three photographs showing scenes of the Sioux Indians at Pine Ridge Indian Agency and the Battle of Wounded Knee, South Dakota. It was during this time, when the U. S. Army sought to curb the Sioux Ghost Dance. They killed Sitting Bull and pursued Big Foot. He led his people south to seek protection at the Pine Ridge Reservation. The army intercepted the band on December 28 and brought them to the edge of Wounded Knee Creek to camp. On December 29, 1890, the U.S. Army attacked Big Foot's camp killing him and approximately 300 Sioux. The Battle of Wounded Knee is considered the last major conflict between U.S. troops and Native Americans.


Beaded and Quill Worked Pipe Bag

Beaded and Quill Worked Pipe Bag
Date: 1880-1900
Though its origins are not know, this beaded pipe bag has a design similar to those favored by the Lakota Sioux. It was donated in 2006 to the Kansas Historical Society. The bag is made of leather with a leather fringe along the bottom. It is decorated with red, blue, yellow, green, white and gold beads, in addition to porcupine quills dyed red, white, purple, turquoise and yellow.


Brass Bracelet from the Village on Pawnee Fork, 14NS403

Brass Bracelet from the Village on Pawnee Fork, 14NS403
Date: 1867
This bracelet was fashioned out of a brass wire. The bracelet was recovered from the Village on the Pawnee Fork in Ness County during excavations in 1977. The site was home to several hundred Southern Cheyenne and Southern Teton Oglala. It was destroyed by order of Major General Winifred S. Hancock in 1867. The Village on Pawnee Fork is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Brigadier General Alfred Sully to Assistant Adjutant General Department Northwest, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Brigadier General Alfred Sully to Assistant Adjutant General Department Northwest, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Creator: Sully, Alfred
Date: December 30, 1864
This is a letter from Brigadier General Alfred Sully, Dubuque, Iowa, to Assistant Adjutant General Department Northwest, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, concerning Fanny Kelly who was a captive of the Huck-pa-pa Sioux. The letter contains details of her capture and negotiations for her release. Also, Brigadier General Sully requested reimbursement for clothing purchased for Mrs. Kelly and horses offered to the Sioux.


Buttons from the Village on Pawnee Fork, 14NS403

Buttons from the Village on Pawnee Fork, 14NS403
Date: 1867
These two buttons were recovered from the Village on the Pawnee Fork in Ness County during excavations in 1977. "Bullet" buttons, such as these, are generally considered for military use. They predate the 1867 destruction of the village and may have, by that time, been used by civilians. They all have a steel wire shank for attachment. This village, occupied by several hundred Southern Cheyenne and Southern Teton Oglala, was destroyed in 1867 by order of Major General Winifred S. Hancock. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Chief Red Cloud's home, Pine Ridge, South Dakota

Chief Red Cloud's home, Pine Ridge, South Dakota
Date: Between 1890 and 1891
A photograph of Chief Red Cloud's home at Pine Ridge, South Dakota. He was a leader of the Oglala Lakota Sioux.


Chief Red Wolf shooting a gun

Chief Red Wolf shooting a gun
Date: Between 1910 and 1915
This is a postcard showing Chief Red Wolf, a member of the Sioux tribe, shooting a gun from the back of a pony.


Chronology of the Iowa and Sac and Fox Indians in Doniphan County, Kansas

Chronology of the Iowa and Sac and Fox Indians in Doniphan County, Kansas
Date: 1882
This chronology details major events occurring between 1837-1855 among the Iowa and Sac and Fox Indians who had been relocated to Kansas after the Indian Removal Act of 1830. Topics mentioned within the chronology include warfare among relocated tribes, the arrival of white emigrants, disease, mission buildings, and treaties ceding land to the United States government.


Coffee Mill Hopper from the Village on Pawnee Fork, 14NS403

Coffee Mill Hopper from the Village on Pawnee Fork, 14NS403
Date: 1867
This coffee mill hopper fragment was recovered from the Village on the Pawnee Fork (also called Hancock's Village) in Ness County during excavations in 1977. Coffee mills are used to grind roasted coffee beans prior to brewing. This hopper fragment is made of cast iron and was part of a manual coffee grinder. The hopper fragment was cleaned by electrolysis, which passes an electrical current through a liquid solution to separate the rust from the artifact. The Village on Pawnee Fork, home to several hundred Southern Cheyenne and Southern Teton Oglala was destroyed by order of Major General Winifred S. Hancock in 1867. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Deposition of J.N.N. Schooler

Deposition of J.N.N. Schooler
Creator: Schooler, J.N.N.
Date: June 16, 1867
This item contains the deposition of J.N.N. Schooler following an attack by Indians. In his deposition, Schooler explains that he and his companions were on the "Smoky Hill Overland Route Sixteen or Seventeen miles east of Fort Wallace" when 200 or more Cheyenne and Sioux attacked them. According to Schooler, four men were killed immediately and three were taken prisoner. Other details include the monetary value of items lost during the attack.


Discovering the remains of Lieutenant Kidder and ten men of the Seventh United States Cavalry

Discovering the remains of Lieutenant Kidder and ten men of the Seventh United States Cavalry
Creator: Davis, Theodore R.
Date: August 17, 1867
An illustration showing General George Armstrong Custer arriving at the scene of the Kidder massacre which occurred around July 1, 1867 in Sherman County, Kansas. This illustration was published in Harper's Weekly on August 17, 1867. Funds for digitization provided by Mr. Steve Peckel in memory of William Chalfant.


E.C. Thayer to Dr. J.W. McIntosh correspondence

E.C. Thayer to Dr. J.W. McIntosh correspondence
Creator: Thayer, E.C.
Date: January 18, 1896
In this letter to Dr. J.W. McIntosh, E.C.Thayer discusses the character of James Murie, Pawnee breastworks, and tensions and conflicts betweeen the Pawnees, Omahas, and Sioux.


Eastman's map of Kansas and Nebraska territories showing the location of the Indian reserves according to the treaties of 1854

Eastman's map of Kansas and Nebraska territories showing the location of the Indian reserves according to the treaties of 1854
Date: Between 1854 and 1856
This map shows the locations of the new or reduced lands of Indian tribes according to the treaties of 1854. With the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, the former Indian Territory was opened to white settlement, and the government looked for ways to relocate the native tribes who had made their homes in Kansas. To create more land for white settlement, George Manypenny, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, negotiated treaties with Indian tribes that ceded much of the Indians' lands to the government. This land could then be sold to white emigrants. Naturally, these events helped to exacerbate existing tensions between settlers and Native Americans, contributing to the Indian Wars that occupied the U.S. Army during and after the American Civil War.


Experiments in domestication and breeding of buffaloes (1889)  by Ado Hunnius

Experiments in domestication and breeding of buffaloes (1889) by Ado Hunnius
Creator: Hunnius, Ado, 1842-1923
Date: 1889
Written by Carl Julius Adolph "Ado" Hunnius, a collection of his thoughts on the subject of buffalo that would likely have been supported by his experiences in the U.S. Army during the American Civil War, as well as the Indian Wars that followed. Hunnius served as an enlisted man in the ranks that Custer and Hancock commanded during the 1867 campaign to pacify Native Indian tribes on the Great Plains.


Firearm Main Springs from the Village on Pawnee Fork, 14NS403

Firearm Main Springs from the Village on Pawnee Fork, 14NS403
Date: 1867
These two firearm main springs were recovered from the Village on the Pawnee Fork in Ness County during excavations in 1977. The main spring on the left is from a Colt-style Model 1851 or Model 1860 revolver. The main spring on the right is from an undetermined firearm. Both were cleaned by electrolysis, which passes an electrical current through a liquid solution to separate the rust from the artifact. The Village on Pawnee Fork, home to several hundred Southern Cheyenne and Southern Teton Oglala was destroyed by order of Major General Winifred S. Hancock in 1867. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Firearm Parts from the Village on Pawnee Fork, 14NS403

Firearm Parts from the Village on Pawnee Fork, 14NS403
Date: 1867
These firearm parts were recovered from the Village on the Pawnee Fork in Ness County during excavations in 1977. The top row shows a steel bridle for a pistol or rifle main spring swivel, a tumbler, and a Remington revolver trigger or cylinder stop spring. The bottom shows a Remington revolver cylinder stop and a Remington revolver trigger. All of these parts were cleaned by electrolysis, which passes an electrical current through a liquid solution to separate the rust from the artifact. The Village on Pawnee Fork, home to several hundred Southern Cheyenne and Southern Teton Oglala was destroyed by order of Major General Winifred S. Hancock in 1867. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


General Custer finding the remains of the Kidder massacre

General Custer finding the remains of the Kidder massacre
Date: 1874
An illustration showing General George Armstrong Custer arriving at the scene of the Kidder massacre which occurred around July 1, 1867 in Sherman County, Kansas. This illustration is copied from Custer's book, My Life on the Plains, published in 1874. Funds for digitization provided by Mr. Steve Peckel in memory of William Chalfant.


General Service Button from the Village on Pawnee Fork, 14NS403

General Service Button from the Village on Pawnee Fork, 14NS403
Date: 1867
This General Service button was recovered from the Village on the Pawnee Fork (also called Hancock's Village) in Ness County during excavations in 1977. The button, manufactured by the Scoville Manufacturing Company of Waterbury, Connecticut, measures to 3/4" or ligne 30, which is the size for a military coat. It is decorated with an eagle and shield design with a branch in one eagle claw and arrows in the other. It has a loop shank attachment on the back. The button was cleaned by electrolysis, which passes an electrical current through a liquid solution to separate the rust from the artifact. The Village on Pawnee Fork, home to several hundred Southern Cheyenne and Southern Teton Oglala was destroyed by order of Major General Winifred S. Hancock in 1867. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


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